In these few years, wireless positioning has become an important research area. It is because WAP is a potential application which can be expanded to be so numerous and location based services are expected to be available to Mobile Station (MS) users through the mobile network. The MS users' life style change after the WAP enables Internet browsing using the MS and the MS users can easily access Internet. This is sure to benefit all the MS users because new set of services being developed such as location based information browsing, navigation aid, tracking a MS user, and locating the emergency caller. Global Positioning System (GPS) is the most popular radio navigation aid and has overtaken virtually all other forms of radio navigation aids because of its high accuracy, worldwide availability, and low cost .
 Rappaport, T.S. Reed, J.H., Woerner, B.D., "Position Location Using Wireless Communications on Highways of the Future", IEEE Communication Magazine. Oct 1996, p33-39.
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As spatial information technology (GPS, GIS, RS, etc.) develops and popularizes rapidly, vehicle monitoring and intelligent dispatching system spring up quickly nowadays .
The system is applied to many industries such as banking, financing, underwriting, public security, fire fighting, medical treatment and so on. It relieves the urban transportation pressure, and improves the efficiency of vehicle dispatching and insures the transportation ~more safety.
As spatial information technology being combined with agricultural production in 1990s, precision agriculture was created to promote sustainable agriculture [2-5].
No spatial information technology, no precise agriculture. Accordingly, precision agriculture is an important application area for spatial information technology. China has entered WTO; its agriculture faces double market competition from domestic and overseas. Many large farms in China, especially in northern China, adopt precision agriculture technology to improve productive efficiency, quality of grains and decrease productive and processing cost. For example, there is a forage & livestock husbandry company in Shandong Province which owns 13,000 hm2 lands and lies in two regions. The farm consists of 7 sub-farms. It invested more than one hundred million RMB to purchase the most advanced agricultural mechanism in the world. Due to the large area, the farm is difficult to manage and dispatch so many employees (more than 300) and vehicles (more than 200 vehicles, including tractors, cars and trucks). So, the paper designs and develops the Farm Vehicle Monitoring and Intelligent Dispatching System (FVMIDS) for the company by using spatial information technology, to realize monitoring the vehicles in real tune and to dispatch the vehicles with high efficiency.
 Deren Li, and Qingquan Li, "The Technique Integration of the Spatial Information and
Communication", Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University, Vol 26, No. 1, pp. 1-7, Feb. 2001.
 National Research Council, "Precision Agriculture in the Plst Century, Geospatial and Information Technologies in Crop Management", National Academic Press, Washington, D. C., 1997.
 Maobua Wang, "Development of - Precision Agriculture and Innovation of Engineering
Technologies", Transactions of the CSAE, Vol 15, No. 1, pp. 1-8, Mar. 1999.
 Xixi Wang, "Integrated spatial decision support system for precision agriculture", Ph.D dissertation, Iowa State University, 2001.
 B. M. Whelan, and A. B. Mcbratney, "The 'Null Hypothesis' of precision agriculture Management", Precision Agriculture, Vol2, pp. 265-279.2000.
The system architecture for GSM/DCS based mobile positioning using WAP. The technology to perform mobile positioning (MP) under WAP can be exploited to develop a variety of value added services through a WAP mobile phone or Mobile Station (MS). A cell-shape based MP methodology using WAP is also proposed, which can apply to the existing GSM/DCS networks without doing any modification to the GSM/DCS standard. Based on our simulation, the proposed MP method can locate the MS within about 300m. With more cells information, more accuracy can be achieved. To equip the MS with the MP functionality, only software upgrade is required, by introducing new WAP APIs to the MS to tap necessary signals from the existing GSM layer protocols.
The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) is a system designed to format and filter internet content for use in mobile devices. By linking the two 'hot-topics' in communication - the internet and mobile technology - WAP provides a very valuable service. Motorola, Nokia, Ericsson and Phone.com set up the WAP Forum in mid 1997 with a view to establishing this standard, which has been widely accepted by over 200 members of the Forum.
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As a scalable standard, WAP is designed to work with any mobile handset network type. It will function with GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication), CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) and PDC (Personal Digital Cellular). It will also be compatible with any data transmission service e.g. SMS (Short Message Service) or GPRS (General Packet Radio Service). Later versions of the standard have evolved to make use of the more advanced technologies available.
WAP incorporates a simple micro browser, designed to work on the limited platforms of mobile handsets, with a central WAP gateway that performs the more processor-heavy operations. It defines a standard for data transmission to the handset, WDP (WAP datagram protocol), which is a variation of the internet standard transmission protocol, HTTP (Hypertext Transport Protocol), but redesigned for wireless network characteristics. WDP mostly differs from HTTP by stripping out much of the text information, replacing it with more efficient binary information for the low-bandwidth connection. The WAP data can be sent over any available network, be it the circuit-switched connection of TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) IS-136 or packet-switched GPRS.
Added to this core transmission protocol are several scalable layers that can develop independently. The wireless transport layer security (WTLS) layer adds optional encryption facilities that enable secure transactions. WTP (WAP transaction protocol) adds transaction support, adding to the datagram service of WPD, while WSP (WAP session protocol) allows efficient data exchange between applications.
WAP also defines an application environment (WAE) that enables third-party developers to develop more advanced services and applications, along with the micro browser used to access web pages on the handset itself.
To access internet content, the user's handset sends a request to the WAP gateway, which retrieves the information in either HTML (Hypertext Mark-up Language) or WML (Wireless Mark-up Language) from the host server. WML is a variation of HTML, designed specifically to enable viewing on the limited mobile terminal platform. If the information retrieved is in HTML, a filter in the gateway will attempt to convert it to WML. The information will then be transmitted to the handset over whatever network is available, using the transmission protocols described above.
In some cases, where HTML data is generated using a style sheet to convert XML data using an XSL processor, a WML style sheet can be added to the system to generate seamless information in the correct format for wireless viewing.
FUTURE OF WAP
Because WAP is a protocol designed to work over any mobile network, its use will continue to increase as more sophisticated data transmission technologies are introduced (e.g. GPRS, EDGE (Extended Data for Global Evolution) and W-CDMA (Wideband-CDMA)). As the bandwidth available to mobile terminals and the quality of displays improve, WAP can be enhanced to provide as effective an internet viewing experience as is possible on fixed terminals.
A Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) phone is a mobile phone capable of Internet connectivity. A WAP phone can be used to check email, send messages, track stocks, access news and sports headlines, or download music. While a WAP phone cannot deliver the same visually pleasing Internet experience as a desktop or laptop computer, it opens the door to mobile Internet access and on-the-go productivity.
WAP is an international Internet standard specifically developed for mobile devices, including WAP phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs) and other hand-held.
A cell phone screen is extremely limited, some as small as 150x150 pixels. Most Web content is designed to display on monitors with a minimal resolution of 640x480 pixels. A cell phone must also rely on scrolling keys versus a keyboard and mouse; and the typical mobile device has a transfer rate of only 14.4 Kbit/s. Dial-up is a lightning fast 56Kbp/s comparatively, to say nothing of digital subscriber line (DSL) or cable speeds.
WAP addresses these challenges by providing mobile-specific language protocols and scripts. Graphics, which would take forever to load, are virtually eliminated. WAP phone content is text-based and simply arranged for easy navigation with scrolling menus. Hence, a Web page will appear quite different on your WAP phone, than it appears on your desktop. Mobile Internet emphasizes functionality over form, utilizing the smallest data footprint possible to compensate for slower data transfer speeds.
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While the micro-browser of the WAP phone might appear to be lacking compared to a desktop, a WAP phone has the advantage of fitting in a pocket or purse. It is extremely convenient to have online access from the car, campus, airport, taxi, parking lot, or wherever you happen to be at the time. Get weather reports, find a nearby restaurant, look up a phone number, and check a game score, book tickets or shop. A WAP phone also provides a great way to pass the time when waiting for a service or appointment.
WAP is in continual development and major websites are making more WAP content available for mobile browsing. Fees for accessing the Internet through a WAP phone will differ according to the chosen cell phone plan and carrier. If you will be using your WAP phone frequently for online access and you do not currently have a cell phone, shop for the best carrier first. Contract plans will include a phone. If you currently own a cell phone and would like to upgrade to a WAP phone, be sure to choose a phone compatible with your carrier.