The Use Of Virtualization Computer Science Essay

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Virtualization is the latest technical innovations designed to increase the level of system abstraction and enable IT users to harness ever-increasing levels of computer performance. At its simplest level, virtualization allows virtually and cost-effectively, to have two or more computers and to run in two or more completely different environments, on one piece of Hardware. For example, with virtualization, both a Linux machine and a Windows machine can be used in one system. Alternatively, it enables to host a Windows 95 desktop and a Windows XP desktop on one workstation.

In slightly more technical terms, virtualization essentially decouples users and applications from the specific hardware characteristics of the systems they use to perform computational tasks. This technology promises the user in an entirely new wave of hardware and software innovation. For example, and among other benefits, virtualization is designed to simplify system upgrades (and in some cases may eliminate the need for such upgrades)by allowing users to capture the state of a virtual machine (VM) and then transport that state from an old to a new host system. Virtualization is also designed to enable a generation of more energy-efficient computing.\cite{Dummies}


\chapter{History of Virtualization}

Virtualization, idea came from the idea of "Time sharing" by Christoper strachey in 1959. Base on the idea of time sharing, in the mid 1960s the IBM Watson Research Center did the project called M33/44X. The architecture was base on the virtual machine. The main machine was an IBM 7044 and each virtual machine was an experimental image of the main machine. \newline

For the sake of obtain better hardware utilization in mainframe hardware the concept of virtualization development was started in late 1960s. Although modern day computers base on x86 if suffer same problem s of rigidity and underutilization that mainframes face in overcome the problem of underutilization and other issues VMware invented virtualization for the x86 platforms in the 1990s.\newline

Since then virtualization have change everything. Now for one machine can run a multitude of applications, each isolated into one virtual operating system, completely separated from the others. By surprising many IT experts in 2005 virtualization technology came in to mainstream awareness faster than anyone could ever imagined.

Recent times have seen the IT world look for different means of consolidating that would assist in running their systems more efficiently. Virtualization software from companies such as Platespin was just in time to initiate and capitalize on the momentum for this new technology, seeing nothing short of outstanding adoption rates and customer satisfaction. The latest estimates even show that nearly 75 percent of all companies with at least 500 employees are installing virtual servers, with nearly half of those who are already utilizing the technology stating that of all new servers purchased, close to half of them will be virtualized. \newline

Like Plastespin other companies like Microsoft, Xen have entered the virtualization market as well. Manly they are making virtualization software for ease the virtualization. Because of the revenue of the virtualization, Microsoft released a Windows-hosted virtualization program called Microsoft virtual PC 2004 in July 2006 as a free product. It was immediately followed by the release of virtual PC 2007 beta in October 2006.

Virtual machines are now implemented in most datacenters to function like a normal server but with significantly less maintenance and management cost. This technology has very huge potential and will play a very important role in the future of computing.



\section{How it works}

Virtualization is a combination of software and hardware engineering that creates virtual Machines (VMs). It allow run multiple operating systems in single piece of hardware at the same time. Typically this is use in the Server situations. When we won to increase number of racks that have in your sever. In that case we can reduce to one sever with runs multiple operating systems. \newline

Whit out VMs a single operating system owns all hardware resources.\cite{Thomas} \newline




\caption{ With out Virtual Machine}




Single operating system controls all the hardware in the machine. In virtualization this not the case, it is totally differ from this. Basically in virtualization they are two type of virtualization. \cite{Thomas} \newline




\caption{Virtual Machine type one }




In this architecture shown in Figure 3.2, bottom layer contain the hardware and the second layer contain operating system, above that it is normal applications. Apart from that they are some special software called Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) place on top of the operating system. On the top of the VMM another operating system is running. VMM controls the access of the hardware by second operating system.





\caption{Virtual Machine type two }




In this model right bow the hardware they are is VMM also call as Hypervisor. On the top of the VMM we can run different types of operating systems. This model is more titer one than the model shows in Figure 3.2.

\section{Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM)}

The Virtual Machine Monitor is the core of control system of the virtualization. The VMM challenge is the efficient controlling of physical platform resources; this includes memory translation and I/O mapping. Until recently the VMM used software methods of Binary Translation and Paravirtualization to achieve this. With the complex, time consuming operations involved creating and run them, virtual machines, until now, showed significant performance reductions compared to dedicated physical machines.


\chapter{Why Virtualization }

The tram of virtualization becomes so popular in modern day. Because of virtualization have many things that can be help to increase computing power and reduce cost. \newline

Recent past virtualization is limited to the server side, But now it available in desktop machines. For ease this process operating systems provide they are own software's. As an example let consider about Mac operating system, Mac has reputation on better performing in graphics. If someone needs to use Mac operating system whiles he using the windows. He can use it by using virtualization. Now broth operating systems are running in the same machine. \newline

\section{Limited use of Hardware}

By and large in modern day computers that are running in the data centers, runs at only 10 or 15 percent of they are total processing power. They are for 85 or 90 of the machine power are unused. Draws electricity and room will nearly the same whether machine use 15 percent of it processing power or it used 90 percent of it processing power. That means nearly 70 or 75 percent of the computer processing power will wasted by a single machine. When considering the whole world this power waist is very mach considerable number.\newline

Capabilities and storage of the hardware is increasing every year. Obviously, there ought to be a better way to match computing capacity with load. In that case virtualization enables a single piece of hardware to seamlessly support multiple systems. From that organization can obtain good hardware utilization. \newpage




\caption{ }



By doing the virtualization each machine can support approximately 100 virtual machines. That mean using that machine can run as many as 10 or more applications on a single piece of hardware.

\section{Limited Amount of Space }

The business world has undergone an enormous transformation over the past 20 years. As a result of that they are moving from paper to electrons. Because of the number of trisection has gone up. \newline

The internet effect of all this is that huge numbers of servers have been put into use over the past decade, which is causing a real estate problem for companies: They're running out of Space in their data centers. And, by the way, that explosion of data calls for new methods of data storage. These methods go by the common moniker of storage virtualization, which, as you may guess, means making it possible for storage to be handled independently of any particular piece of hardware. Because virtualization has ability to host multiple guest systems on a single physical server, allow organizations to better use of they are severs. From that they can avoid building out expenses more data center space. This is an enormous benefit of virtualization. \newline

\section{Better Energy Efficiency }

The cost of running computers, coupled with the fact that many of the machines filling up data centers are running at low utilization rates, means that virtualization's ability to reduce the total number of physical servers can significantly reduce the overall cost of energy for companies. \newpage

\section{Reduce cost of Administration}

Computers don't operate all on their owe. Every server needs some person to care and feeding. System administrator's task include monitoring hardware status, replacing defective hardware components, installing operating system and application software, monitoring critical server resources like memory and disk use and backing up sever data to other storage mediums for security and redundancy purposes.\newline

Those task have to be done for each and every machine in sever. If have more than one machine more administrators have work. That mean operation cost will increase. In virtualization it reduce number machine in the sever that mean it reduce number of system administrators. Reduce cost of administration. \newline

\section{Dynamic Load Balancing and Disaster Recovery}

Sever workload can be vary in each and every time. So, virtualization provides the ability for virtual machines that are over utilizing the resources to be moved to underutilized servers. By using virtualization can obtain dynamic load balancing that creates efficient utilization of sever resources. \newline

Disaster recovery is key thing in world of IT. If the data is destroy then it can be total disaster. For that virtualization provide better solution by enable a virtual image on a machine to be instantly re-imaged on another server if a machine failure occurs. \newline

\section{Improved System Reliability }

Memory corruption is the main fact that case for system reliability. In virtualization it helps to prevent memory corruption.


When considering any kind of systems security is major fact. Any system is useless without better security. In virtualization compartmentalized environments allow for better choice of guest operating system for each environment. As an example apache can run top of Linux and MS SQL on top of the Windows XP. \newpage

Answer for the why virtualization is, because virtualization has many good fetchers that are help full for computing. \newline


\item Server Consolidation



\item Application consolidation



\item Sandboxing



\item Multiple execution environments



\item Virtual hardware



\item Multiple simultaneous operating systems



\item Debugging



\item Software Migration



\item Appliances



\item Testing


By and large this are the things that can obtain form the virtualization.


By and large virtualization is not a new concept to the world. Recent fast it add some values to it. Those values are very much important to modern day computing. Those values are server consolidation, application consolidation, sandboxing, multiple execution averments, virtual hardware and testing.\newline

These facilities are very much important to increase computer power, reduce maintaining cost and gain better computer security. These advantages are very much same for both sever and desktop machines.\newline

By and large answer for why virtualization is simple, because it provide cost-efficient, better use of heard wear, that required for 21st centaury computing.


\bibitem {Dummies}Laura Davenport, Julianne Raedeke, Tina Shibue, Vijay Sarathay,

Henry Kennedy, Michael Nalls, Amy Ahlers, Lisa Clark, Mark Thacker, Cindy Gallie,

Allison Michlig, Frances Sun,Valeri Reeder, Steve Demski, Jeff Jones \textit{Virtualization For Dummies!, Sun and AMD Special Edition}, Wiley Publishing, Inc.

111 River Street

Hoboken, NJ 07030-5774

\bibitem {Daniel}Daniel A. Menasc�, Ph.D. \textit{Virtualization: Concepts,

Applications, and Performance Modeling}, The Volgenau School of Information Technology

and Engineering

Department of Computer Science

George Mason University ,

\bibitem {Suzanne}Suzanne Niles \textit{Virtualization: Optimized Power and Cooling to Maximize Benefits}, American Power Conversion,

\bibitem {Thomas}Thomas Burger,

\textit{The Advantages of Using Virtualization Technology in the Enterprise}, Intel Corporation

\bibitem {wiki},

\textit{Desktop virtualization}, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia,