The Uniform Resource Locator Computer Science Essay

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Domain Name means the name of the website. It comes after the name of the website or webpage in the web address. In general terms, it is the name of the type of organization or agency or corporation by which the respective website is launched. Domains names are .com, .org, .gov.in, .in etc.

For eg: for google, the address is www.google.com, and the domain name is 'com' which means commercial.

Ans 2: DNS means Domain Name Server. It converts the URL of a webpage to its respective IP address i.e. the address that is in the form of numbers separated by dot. The importance of an IP address is that it is the address the computer which acts as the server understands because a computer only understands the language of 0s and 1s. Example of an IP address is 172.19.2.250. For this very purpose of conversion of an URL, DNS(Domain Name Server) is used.

Web Hosting means creating, formatting and hosting a website on the internet or www(World Wide Web) for the purpose of sharing information and providing services to the user. A user runs the web browser and surfs the web. The surfing function is facilitated by web hosting.

Web Hosting is the complete process of creating webpages with the help of markup languages like HTML, XML, XHTML, CSS, Javascript and hosting the webpages of the websites on a system or on a server.

Ans 3: HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. It is the basic framework of a web page. HTML is used to create, edit and format web pages. For creating a web page HTML(markup) codes are written in text editor and then saved with .htm or .html extension.

CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets. It defines how to display HTML elements in a webpage. There are three types of CSS documents, Inline Style sheets, Embedded or Internal Style Sheets and External Style Sheets. It is the most common way to style web pages written in HTML, XHTML and XML. External Style Sheet is the most preferred form of style sheet.

Javascript is a prototype scripting language that is dynamic and has first class controls. It has object-oriented, imperative and functional programming styles. JavaScript was formalized in the ECMAScript language standard and is primarily used in the form of client-side JavaScript, implemented as part of a Web browser in order to give enhanced user interfaces and dynamic websites. This enables programmatic access to computational objects within a host environment. JavaScript's use in applications outside Web pages-for example in PDF documents, site-specific browsers, and desktop widgets-is also significant. Newer and faster JavaScript VMs and frameworks built upon them, notably Node '.js' have also increased the popularity of JavaScript for server-side web applications. JavaScript uses syntax influenced by that of C. JavaScript copies many names and naming conventions from Java, but the two languages are otherwise unrelated and have very different semantics. The key design principles within JavaScript are taken from the Self and Scheme programming languages.

Javascript is a client side scripting language.

Ans 4: There are four layers of web. They are:

Browser code

Server Side code

Front End code

Database code

Browser code: It is the code that performs the formatting of web pages. It specifies about how a web page would look on a web browser. Browser code is responsible for the formatting and editing of a web page.

Server Side Code: It is a form of coding in web site design which involves embedded scripts in HTML source code which results in a user's(client) request to the server being handled by a script running server side code before the server responds to the client's request.

Front End Code: It is anything dynamic that is performed on the screen of the window is Front end Code. It is also called the Client Side Code. It performs the small functions which do not require server's function. It saves a lot of time since if the function was to be performed by the server it would have taken more time.

Database layer: It is responsible for collecting, sorting, organizing and storing the data of a website in a dedicated database server or within any other server. It stores the data in the form of records in tables i.e. in rows and columns. One of the common software used for this purpose is MySQL.

Ans 5: Difference between Browser Code, Server Side Code and Front End code is:

Front End Code: It is anything dynamic that is performed on the screen of the window is Front end Code. It is also called the Client Side Code. It performs the small functions which do not require server's function. It saves a lot of time since if the function was to be performed by the server it would have taken more time.

For eg: In a text field of the 'login' page of Yahoo mail, if we enter the email id in a wrong format, like if we do not use the '@' , then there instantly comes an error message. This error message is shown by the Front End Code

Browser code: It is the code that performs the formatting of web pages. It specifies about how a web page would look on a web browser. Browser code is responsible for the formatting and editing of a web page.

For eg: The font size, font face, background and different effects on a web page like marquee, emphasize etc.

Server Side Code: It is a form of coding in web site design which involves embedded scripts in HTML source code which results in a user's(client) request to the server being handled by a script running server side code before the server responds to the client's request.

For eg: A client's request to a server to download a file from a FTP server.

Ans 6: There are three types of CSS styles:

Inline Style Sheet

Inline styles are styles that are written directly in the tag on the document. Inline styles affect only the tag they are applied to.

For eg: <a href="" style="text-decoration: none;">

Embedded or Internal Style Sheet

Embedded styles are styles that are embedded in the head of the document. Embedded styles affect only the tags on the page they are embedded in.

For eg:

<style type="text/css">

p { color: #00f; }

</style>

External Style Sheet

External styles are styles that are written in a separate document and then attached to various Web documents. External style sheets can affect any document they are attached to.

For eg: <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="styles.css" />

The most used and preferred style sheet is External Style Sheet because we get the most benefit of the  cascade  and  inheritance.

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