The Types Of Technology Transfer Computer Science Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Technology transfer is a crucial and dynamic factor in social and economic development. Technology has been transferred intentionally or unintentionally. Sometimes, a generator of technology has acquired a competitive advantage by undertaking the dissemination of products, processes and maintenance systems

The difficulty in finding a proper and comprehensively definition of technology transfer. This article is based on a thorough review of the literature concerning technology transfer.

Purpose

The aim of this review is to establish a comprehensive view of what determine technology transfer and identify the dependent issues. 

Technology transfer types

The four types of technology transfer can be distinguished from each other as follows:

• In cooperative R&D, the technology transferees are active in working with one or more external organization to develop a new patentable, commercializable technology.

• In technology licensing or sale, transferees typically purchase an already patented, commercializable technology from another source.

• In technical assistance, transferees seek help on relatively narrow technical questions that, if answered, can lead to a commercializable technology.

• Through nonproprietary information exchanges, transferees aim to expand the knowledge base on which they can draw as they carry out R&D that, one hopes, will lead to a commercializable technology.

The technology transfer process

Technology is the application of engineering to science, the use of our understanding of nature to develop a technical method for achieving a practical purpose. The process of technology development occurs in three stages:

1- The development of new science

2- The conversion of science to technology

3- The conversion of technology to products.

The transfer of technology is fundamentally a matter of the flow of human knowledge from one to another. This can be through the academic literature, education or direct contact.

Technology Transfer Process

Develop a technology transfer project plan

Follow the technology transfer project plan

Understand the change process

Define the technology Goals

Choose the appropriate technology

Institutionalize the technology

Assess organizational predisposition to change

Predict the impact of the technology

Regarding define the technology goals we must clearly define objective, quantified goals( measures- of- success) from the very start and make sure that the goals are attainable.

The goals should be accompanied by a business case justification.

For choose the appropriate technology we must survey the available technologies, assess the choices in light of the defined goals and then choose the most appropriate technology.

About understand the change process; we have two theories, Theory X and Y. In Theory X people hate work and they have to be pushed to get them to work toward organizational objectives.

Versus Theory X, we have Theory Y that people don't hate work and they don't have to be forced. If they commit themselves to mutual objectives, they will drive themselves more effectively.

For predict the impact of the technology we must answer questions such as: How big of a change is it to the organization? How much of organization will be affected? How long do you have to fully implement the change? How motivated are the people to implement the change? Does it change the political landscape?.

When you can find answer for questions such as: How much change have they dealt with recently? Or, Are they satisfied or dissatisfied with the current situation? You can assess organizational predisposition to change.

Regarding controlling impact and disposition, many of the factors affecting impact and predisposition to change are probably beyond your control. However some may be under your control.

For develop a "Technology Transfer Project Plan" have four stages:

Secure the organizational commitment

Develop the infrastructure

Deploy the technology

Support the deployment

In next step we must follow the technology transfer project plan. Listen to the experts, but also listen to those affected by the technology.

Institutionalize the technology is the last step in technology transfer process. Once the technology transfer project is finished, don't allow the effort to be undone. Continue to advertise the benefits of the technology and show how previous problems have been reduced.

Technology transfer is a process for shifting information and refers to numerous complex processes from innovation and international marketing of technology.

Technology transfer seems to convey different meanings to different people and different organizations.

In order to build the right incentive systems for encouraging greater transfer and mastery of foreign technology, policy makers need to have an understanding of the determinants of the incentives governing foreign firms' willingness to transfer technology and domestic firms' investment in technology mastery. Two factors that are widely cited as important in affecting the incentives for technology transfer are the ease of knowledge diffusion/imitation and the level of absorptive capacity in the recipient country, both of which can be influenced to some extent by policies. Protection of intellectual property rights, labor market regulations, location of industries etc. will affect the ease of knowledge diffusion while absorptive capacity can be increased by education, subsidy for R&D, labor training etc. While there is unanimous agreement in the literature on appropriate policy as regard to absorptive capacity, policies with regard to knowledge diffusion are more controversial and deserve further study.

Technology can itself be considered an additional resource. While requiring other inputs to be effective, technology can also be used so as to substitute for resources in short supply. Viewed from this angle, the challenge is to carry out transfer of technologies that will utilize existing factor endowments in the most effective way. In order to do this, a variety of technologies are needed.

Technology transfer will have profound long term impacts on economic and political future. Some sectors such as consumer electronics will benefit considerably because the industry has a head start or because the technology is more easily assimilated. Past experiences suggest that others will find foreign technology to have little effect because the industry is unprepared. Dissemination of the management concepts of quality, efficiency, and timeliness may be the most important result of technology transfer.

Global Innovation Index

Global Innovation Index being one of several international studies of the innovation performance of countries that rank the countries. In GII study both Innovation input and Innovation output. Innovation Outputs included patents, technology transfer, and other RHYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R&D"&HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R&D"D results. "The top countries in the overall 2009-2010 GII ranking include:

1. Iceland

2. Sweden

3. Hong Kong, China

4. Switzerland

5. Denmark

6. Finland

7. Singapore"

Source: INSEAD Official Website

The Global Innovation Index is measuring the level of innovation of a country, prepare by The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) with cooperate by some institutes. The latest index was published by INSEAD, as one of the world's leading and largest graduate business schools.

Europe

Country

Innovation input index

Innovation output index

GII score

Regional rank

Iceland

5.28

4.43

4.86

1

Sweden

5.54

4.16

4.85

2

Switzerland

5.36

4.29

4.82

3

Denmark

5.46

3.99

4.72

4

Finland

5.42

3.90

4.66

5

Netherland

5.14

4.10

4.62

6

Norway

5.25

3.93

4.59

7

Asia and Middle East

Country

Innovation input index

Innovation output index

GII score

Regional rank

Hong Kong, China

5.12

4.54

4.83

1

Singapore

5.43

3.88

4.65

2

New Zealand

5.11

4.08

4.60

3

Japan

5.01

3.98

4.50

4

Korea, Rep.

5.04

3.52

4.28

5

Australia

4.73

3.74

4.24

6

United Arab Emirates

4.64

3.31

4.11

7

Business Sophistication

Variable

Source

Year(s)

Definition

Innovation environment in firms

Company spending on R&D

Executive option survey, World Economic Forum

2009

To what extent do companies in your country spend on R&D? 1=Do not spend on R&D, 7= Spend heavily on R&D

FDI and Technology transfer

Executive option survey, World Economic Forum

2009

To what extent does foreign direct investment (FDI) bring new technology into your country? 1= Not at all, 7= FDI is a key source of new technology

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Technology Transfer

Country/Economy

FDI &Technology Transfer

Rank

Ireland

6.26

1

Singapore

6.23

2

Luxembourg

5.86

3

Slovak Republic

5.85

4

Qatar

5.75

5

United Arab Emirates

5.69

6

Cost Rica

5.61

7

Malaysia

5.55

8

Canada

5.44

9

Malta

5.43

10

Australia

5.43

11

Panama

5.43

12

Saudi Arabia

5.43

13

.

.

.

.

.

.

United States

5.12

31

.

.

.

.

Sweden

5.08

37

.

.

.

.

.

Japan

4.95

56

.

.

.

.

.

Korea, Rep.

4.81

72

.

.

.

.

China

4.70

76

Norway

4.67

77

.

Germany

4.66

79

Conclusion

The difficulty in finding a proper and comprehensively definition of technology transfer.

Technology transfer will have profound long term impacts on economic and political future.

First, we must define the technology goals; clearly define objective, quantified goals from the very start. Then make sure that the goals are attainable. The goals should be accompanied by a business case justification. Then we must choose the appropriate technology.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.