The Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol Computer Science Essay

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Wireless Network is any type of network that is not connected by cables. Wireless network is separate into two fundamental, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and radio waves.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) governs the flows across the Internet, radio wave is a type of electromagnetic radiation with wave length, it usually carries useful information.

Today, wireless network have separate into many kinds of them, including WLAN and WPAN, GSM, GPRS, UMTS, 3G, WiMAX, 4G and future generation of Internet (FGI).

Chapter 2: Architectures

WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network)

It is a technique of designing and arrangement of different components in Wireless local area networking device in a specific way. Combination of transmitter and receiver called as transceiver which is an essential part for standard Wireless LAN architecture that is known as Access points.

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication)

In GSM system the mobile handset is called Mobile Station (MS).

A cell is formed by the coverage area of a Base Transceiver Station (BTS) which serves the Mobile Station (MS) in its coverage area.

Several Base Transceiver Station (BTS) together are controlled by one Base Station Controller (BSC).

The Base Transceiver Station (BTS) and Base Station Controller (BSC) together form Base Station Subsystem (BSS).

The combined traffic of the mobile stations in their respective cells is routed through a switch called Mobile Switching Center (MSC).

Connection originating or terminating from external telephone (PSTN) are handled by a dedicated Gateway Mobile Switching Center (GMSC).

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)

GPRS reuse the GSM network elements as much as possible, to effectively build a packet-based mobile cellular network, some similar network elements, interfaces, and protocols for handling packet traffic are required. Those elements are Mobile Station (MS), Base Transceiver Station (BTS), Base Station Controller (BSC), GPRS Support Nodes (GSNs), Databases (HLR, VLR, etc)

UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System )

UMTS architecture consists of three major parts:

Wireless interface is the radio interface from the mobile terminals to the radio access network.

Radio Access Network (RAN) that provides the radio access (i.e. CDMA or WCDMA) and Radio Resource Management functionalities to mobile stations for a cellular system.

Core network (CN) that is similar to any other backbone network and provides the connection to transit networks, Internet or PSTN/ISDN networks. Core network may be either packet based (GPRS) or circuit-switched (GSM).

WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access)

WiMAX architecture supporting fixed, nomadic, and mobile deployments and is based on an IP service model.

The overall network may be logically divided into three parts:

Mobile Stations (MS) used by the end user to access the network.

The Access Service Network (ASN), which comprises one or more base stations and one or more Access Service Network (ASN) gateways that form the radio access network at the edge.

Connectivity Service Network (CSN), which provides IP connectivity and all the IP core network functions.

Chapter 3: Applications



Doctors and nurses equipped with laptops or PDAs have faster access to patient data. Furthermore, in an emergency situation they can communicate with other departments within the hospital by using WLAN in order to provide quick diagnostics. This is an area where WLAN is already relatively widely used. As in a majority of cases, WLAN is used to enhance an already existing wired network.

Conducting everyday business

In business, people can work productively with customers or suppliers in meeting rooms - there is no need to leave the room to check if important emails have arrived or print big files. Instead you can send them from one laptop to another. Senior executives in meetings can make quicker decisions because they have access to real-time information.

Network managers in older buildings

Network managers in older buildings, such as schools, hospitals, and warehouses, find WLANs to be a most cost-effective infrastructure solution. When building a new network or expanding the old in-house network, few if any cables need be drawn thru the walls and ceilings.

Network managers in dynamic environments

Network managers in dynamic environments minimize the cost of moves, network extensions, and other changes by eliminating the cost of cabling and installation. The mobile nature of WLAN allows the building and testing of a new network before moving to mission-critical surroundings.


In the office

Cordless connection to peripherals:

Notebook, printer, PDA, desktop computer, fax machine, mouse, keyboard - all can be instantly connected via Bluetooth technology.

Instant conferencing: Bluetooth transforms meetings and conferences:

For example, share your presentation notes or other data with all or selected participants. Or send private messages or memos to other PCs within range.

Automatic data synchronization:

Stay completely up-to-date, all the time. Imagine entering the office and your notebook, PDA and desktop address books and calendars will automatically updated to agree with one another. Or, imagine watching your sales coordinator extract the latest sales data from each member of a sales force as they arrive after a trip.

On the move

Cordless connection to mobile peripherals:

Use Bluetooth technology for instant connection between a notebook PC and mobile printer. No need to carry cables around with you. Or, send an email without even taking your mobile phone out of your pocket.

Surf the Internet:

With Bluetooth technology on board, it's easy to surf the Internet, Extranet or Intranet - wherever you travel - via mobile phone, modem or wire-bound access point.

Wireless image transfer:

Soon you'll be able to wirelessly connect your digital camera to a portable PC or mobile phone and send video clips or photos from any location.

Catch up on emails in flight:

Compose emails on a portable PC; as soon as you land, switch on your phone - your messages are automatically sent.

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication)

Remote control switching of remote irrigation systems, water well pumps and pumping stations

Control irrigation systems, water well pumps and pumping stations, switch on for a pre-set length of time or on and off as required by sending an sms text message from anywhere in the world.

Central heating remote control

If you have a holiday home switch on the heating and hot water before you arrive, periodically switch on the central heating to prevent damp, if freezing weather conditions are forecast at your holiday home location switch on the heating to prevent water freezing and pipes bursting.

Automated gate remote control

Open automatic gates using a cell phone, control user access by programming authorized users telephone numbers into the GSM-AUTO, open the gates from anywhere in the world to allow access for deliveries.

Remote control lighting

Retro fit to existing street or security lighting enabling remote control without having to install expensive cabling

Resetting, Rebooting and Power Cycle of remote servers, routers, computers and communications systems

Reset, reboot and power cycle a remote server, router, computer and communication control system without having to travel to the site.

Air conditioner

Switch on your air conditioner before arriving home.

Security systems

Arm and disarm security systems from anywhere in the world.



E-mail, fax, unified messaging and intranet/Internet access etc.

Value-added services

Information services and games etc.


Retail, ticket purchasing, banking and financial trading etc.

Location-based applications

Navigation, traffic conditions, airline/rail schedules and location finder etc.

Vertical applications

Freight delivery, fleet management and sales-force automation.


Advertising may be location sensitive. For example, a user entering a mall can receive advertisements specific to the stores in that mall.

Product and Services

WLAN Product

Customer buys access points, controllers and a management appliance, deploys them and runs them until the next generation of WLAN technology emerges (i.e. 802.11n), at which point all the products are fork-lifted and replaced with new products.

GSM Product

Alarm Kit

We have gained expertise in delivering a quality range of Alarm kit. This range includes 100 wireless zones, 8 wired zones, 6 alarm telephone and LCD text and diagram display. The offered range possesses a 10 seconds voice record and a inserted digital speaker. Also, this range consists of silent alarm for siren and voice alarm to pre-set telephone along with wireless & wired siren.

Features & specifications:

Multiple arm & disarm mode

Auto-studying code

45 alarm event buffered

Backup battery

Can connect to CID alarm system


We are instrumental in offering a wide range of GSM Kit. The offered range comprises 7 wired guard areas and 99 wireless guard areas. Along with this, these products consist of LCD screen with time clock display and voice prompt for all operations. These GSM kits are designed using ultra modern machines and sophisticated technology, handled by our dexterous engineers.

Features & specifications:

6 voice phones and 3 message phones.

Three-frequency 900, 1800 & 1900 MHz

Telephone (mobile phone) remote control programming.

Backup battery.

Remote Controller

With the help of our experienced engineers, we are able to design and develop a flawless range of Remote Controller. These products are known for their superior performance and high reliability. Due to this, these are widely used in showrooms, hospitals, offices and residential areas for handling light, cooler or fans. The offered products are ideal for usage in place of ordinary switches.

Frequency range:

433 MHz or 315 MHz

Wireless Magnetic Switch

We have established ourselves as a renowned manufacturer and supplier of Wireless Magnetic Switch. These wireless magnetic switches are available in different code modes like fixed code and roll code in accordance with the specifications detailed by the patrons. Known for their easy installation, low-power mode, low-voltage alarm and anti-false alarm, these products are applicable in commercial shop, wholesale shop, maintenance shop, warehouse and park area.

Technical specifications:

Operating voltage: DC 12 V

Standby current: ≤ 5 ua

Transmitting current: ≤ 15 ma

Battery life: 1 to 2 years

Transmitting freq.: 315 M & 433 M

Sending distance: 200 m (in the open area)

Wireless Passive Infrared Detector

We have emerged as a prominent manufacturer and supplier of Wireless Passive Infrared Detector. This range is known for its longer service life, excellent results, dimensional accuracy, reliability and high performance. This range is widely used in villas, factories, markets complexes, warehouses, office buildings and allied places.

Mentioned below is the technical specifications of this range:

Power: 6F 22 battery 9 V, low power indication, adjustable time for alarm delay detecting distance adjustable, automatic temperature compensation, anti-RFI & anti-EMI

Battery life: 1-2 year

Detecting distance: 12 m

Detecting angle: 110 degrees

Sending frequency: 433 M & 315 MHz

Sending distance: 200 m in open area

Wireless Dual Element Infrared Detector

Backed by rich industry experience, we are presenting a vast range of Wireless Dual Element Infrared Detector. This range is manufactured using high-grade components, which are procured from trusted vendors. Also, this range is highly appreciated for its features like excellent results, dimensional accuracy and longer service life.

Technical Specifications:

Power: AA alkalescence battery 2*1.5 V, low power indication, adjustable time for alarm delay, detecting distance adjustable automatically temperature compensation, anti-RFI & anti-EMI

Battery life: 1 year

Detecting distance: 12 m

Detecting angle: 110 degrees

Sending frequency: 433 M or 315 MHz

Sending distance: 200m in open area

Wireless Photoelectric Smoke Detector

Innovation is our forte and we strive to design and develop a precision engineered range of Wireless Photoelectric Smoke Detector. These smoke detectors are easily installed in the offices, buildings, schools and other areas so as to detect in case a fire starts. As soon as smoke is detected, an alarm is buzzed around and a RF signal is emitted in order to activate the incorporated alarm systems.

Technical specifications:

9 V battery

Radii: 315 m & 433 m

Radio distance: More than 100 m(open area)

Alarm volume: More than 85 dB/m

Wireless CO Detector

We hold expertise in offering a superior quality range of Wireless CO Detector. The offered range of wireless CO detector is appreciated among the customers for its dimensional accuracy, durability and reliable operations. Also, this range is known for its rugged construction, weather-resistant attribute and portable monitor.

Technical specifications:

Operating voltage: 85 - 265 V AC

Wall mounted

Alarm output: Sound & flash alarm

Wireless transmission

Alarm level: 150 ppm

Drivable accessories: Electromagnetic valve

High reliability sensor

MCU processing adopted, SMT adopted and good stability

Malfunction auto-check indicator

Dimension: 115 * 72 * 41 mm

Execute criterion: GB 15322, EN 50291, UL2034

Wireless Gas Leakage Detector

We bring forth for our clients a wide array of Wireless Gas Leakage Detector. This range is designed using modern machines by our proficient personnel, who possess commendable knowledge and rich experience in compliance with the highest quality standards. Also, this range is offered to esteemed customers at market competitive prices.

Technical specifications:

Operating voltage: 85-265 V AC

Wall mounted

Alarm output: Sound & flash alarm

Wireless transmission

Sending frequency: 433 MHz & 315 MHz

Alarm level: 10% ± 5% LEL

Drivable accessories: Electromagnetic valve or manipulator

High reliability sensor

MCU processing adopted, SMT adopted and good stability

Malfunction auto-check indicator

Dimension: 115 * 72 * 41 mm

Execute criterion: GB15322, EN50194 and UL1484

GPRS Product

Amoisonic Electronics

A leading manufacturer and supplier of GSM / GPRS mobile phones in China.


Finnish telecom & GPRS software company


WAP, Bluetooth, EPOC, SMS, GPRS and Mobile Positioning

First Hop

GPRS Accelerator- optimises wireless data communication significantly


GPRS Test Equipment Supplier

GPRS Infrastructure Suppliers

Home Securer 1.00 is a compact product of new generation for home monitoring and control of attached systems, profiting from the GSM technology for improving the reliability of existing security systems. Despite its name, Home Securer 1.00 is designated also for industrial and business sites and offices, which require remote control and management.The integrated in Home Securer 1.00 GSM module is tri-banded: 900/1800/1900. Home Securer software could be remotely configured or report the status using SMS, Data connection or GPRS. Furthermore via a Data connection or GPRS could be received a log with registered by the Home Securer 1.00 events and performed actions.


Nokia GPRS Site 

WAP over GPRS - Realizing the potential of mobile services

WAP over GPRS White Paper (PDF, 825 KB)

Nortel Networks


BABT Product Service

Offer a comprehensive suite of compliance services for the Communications industry including product testing, approvals management, consultancy, certification, quality assurance, billing system assessment and training available through our worldwide network of offices.

Rohde & Schwarz

GPRS Test equipment.

Visualtron Software

Visualtron Software Corporation builds and markets the software infrastructure for deploying and managing wireless Internet, GPRS and SMS applications on mobile devices.

WebTech Wireless

Connector i1000, the first ruggedized wireless modem for the GSM/GPRS network. The WebTech Connector i1000 for GSM/GPRS provides high-speed wireless connectivity for laptops, PDAs, peripheral devices (printers, barcode readers etc) and dispatch systems.

Wireless Futures

GSM/GPRS Field Trials, GSM/GPRS Mobile Data testing.

WiMax Product

Uni-Band and Tri-Band USB Dongle

Portable WiMAX WiFi Router

WiMAX MID / Tablet

Devices or Equipment

The entire wireless network device is using the same equipment to connect to the network.

Wireless Network Adapter: this is often a slim, credit-card sized pcmcia device. There are wireless network adapter PCI cards for desktop computer systems as well as adapter cards that allow desktop computers to use the PCMCIA cards. Another option for wireless network adapters is USB which simply plug into an available USB port to provide wireless connectivity.

Wireless Router: Acts similar to a wired router to connect networked devices to other networks or to the Internet. Common features of a wireless router include DNS, DHCP, firewall and encryption.

Wireless Access Point: A wireless access point is more like a hub for wireless networks. It does not implement a different IP address range or provide the other features of a wireless router. It simply relays network traffic to the wireless devices within its broadcast range.

Wireless Antenna: In some cases a wireless antenna may be required to either extend the broadcast range of a router or access point or to increase the range from which a wireless network adapter can receive a signal.


There are two key devices that allow WLANs to work:

Access Point

Wireless Bridge

A wireless access point (AP) allows wireless devices to communicate and are commonly connected to cabled networks to allow wireless users access to the network.

Wireless bridges can be used to connect networks together and also extend the range of the network. A WLAN bridge can be used to connect networks up to three miles apart with a Long-Range Wireless Bridge allowing communication to take place up to 25 miles apart.

Environment concerns