The Role Of Memory In Computers Computer Science Essay

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Memory is one of the most important things that is incorporated into computers, be it laptop computers or PCs. There are various computer memory types installed, depending upon the actual need for functioning and specifications of the system. The computer memory relates to the many devices and components that are responsible for storing data and applications on a temporary or a permanent basis. It enables a person to retain the information that is stored on the computer. Without it, the processor would not be able to find a place which is needed to store the calculations and processes. There are different types of memory in a computer that are assigned a task of storing several kinds of data. Each has certain peculiarities and capacities. There various types of memory such as Random Access Memory(RAM), Read Only Memory(ROM), Cache Memory, Flash Memory and Computer Hard Drive.

Main Body

Random Access Memory (RAM) is a type of memory whose contents can be substituted for a computer parts and as a data repository that can be read or written and can be performed repeatedly with different data. This memory type is the type of volatile means easily evaporated, the stored data will be lost if the power supply is turned off. For this reason, the main program has not been stored in RAM. Random means the data stored in RAM can be accessed at random. RAM is divided into two types, namely types of static and dynamic types. Static RAM to keep a bit of information in a flip-flop. This type of RAM asynchronous and does not require clock signal. Static RAM is usually used for applications that do not require a large memory capacity of RAM. Dynamic RAM store one bit of information as payload data. Dynamic RAM uses the gate capacitance of a MOS transistor substrate as elementary memory cells. To keep the stored data remains intact dynamic RAM, the data must be refreshed by reading and rewriting data memory. Dynamic RAM is used for applications that require large RAM capacity, for example in a personal computer also known as PC. There four popular types of RAM that is DRAM, SDRAM, RDRAM and SRAM.

DRAM (Dynamic RAM) is a type of RAM must be refreshed periodically by the CPU for the data contained store is not lost. DRAM memory refreshed by reading the contents and writing them to immediately return to the DRAM.DRAM is a very large array of small capacitance. Each of these capacitors are slowly leaking energy and, if there is no DRAM refresh, the final one or more of the capacitors will leak enough energy the data, the data corruption will occur. DRAM loss when power is turned off to their content.

SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM) is a type of RAM which is a continuation of DRAM, but has synchronization. The system clock and has a higher speed of DRAM. Suitable for systems with a bus that has the speed to 100 MHz this synchronization in SDRAM read and write requests for the pipeline. Pipeline so that the acceptance of SDRAM at the same time, because it is processing other commands. There are three variants of the SDRAM which is Single Data Rate (SDR), Double Data Rate (DDR) and Double Data Rate 2 (DDR2).

RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic RAM) is a type of memory that is faster and more expensive than SDRAM. Memory can be used on systems that use the Pentium 4. RDRAM incorporates technical advantages such as packet based command protocol, command pipelining, data pipelining, and low voltage signaling and precise clocking. Manufacturers who wish to utilize RDRAM technology must pay royalties to Rambus Inc.

SRAM (Static RAM) is a type of memory that does not require the CPU to refresh the data contained in it remains guarded. This type of RAM has a speed higher than DRAM. An SDRAM. SRAM is static RAM.SRAM is used for a small amounts in computer. This SRAM must constantly be refreshed to maintain its contents. RAM types include asynchronous static RAM, synchronous Burst Static RAM and pipeline burst static RAM.

Read-only memory (ROM) is an integrated circuit memory chip that contains configuration data. ROM is called firmware because it is completely embedded in the program ROM chip. Thus, ROM is a hardware and software in one. Since the data is completely manufactured in the ROM chip is incorporated both the stored data is deleted or replaced. This means permanent and secure data storage. However, if the error is in the post production, a ROM chip becomes unavailable. ROM production of the most expensive stage, therefore, is to create a template. If a template is readily available, duplicating the ROM chip is very easy and affordable. A ROM chip is also less volatile, so the data stored is not lost when the power is turn off.

In the ROM chip manufacturing, the ROM chip has a matrix of rows and columns. Between the intersection of columns and rows is called a cell. Each unit will have 1 or 0. ROM chip manufacturers determine the subsequent value of each cell before produce it. After the program has been designed, the ROM chip can now be made. At each cell where the value should be 1, a diode is placed to connect column to row. At each cell where the value should be 0, no diode is placed. There are various type of ROM which is PROM, EPROM and EEPROM.

PROM (Programmable Read-Only-Memory) is the content is determined by the vendor ROM, PROM sold empty and can then be filled by the user program. When completed the program then contents of PROM can not be deleted. EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-Only-Memory) us the content can be deleted after the programmed. Elimination is done by using ultraviolet light.EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only0Memory)

EEPROM is store data permanently, but the contents can still be deleted electrically through the program. One type of EEPROM is Flash Memory. Flash memory used in digital cameras, video game consoles, and the BIOS chip.

Cache memory is limited-capacity memory, high-speed memory and more expensive than main memory. In between the main memory and processor registers, to function for processing indirect reference to the main memory but the cache memory access speed is higher, the method uses the cache memory will improve system performance. Cache memory is the fastest type of RAM, and is used by the CPU, hard drives, and several other components. As with RAM, more cache memory is better, but usually the cache on the CPU and hard drive can not be upgraded to more. As with RAM, in general, the data will be passed first to the cache memory prior to the component that will use it in CPU. In addition, the cache memory is also temporarily store data for quick access. Speed cache memory also becomes an important element.

Flash Memory is a memory, removable storage and to promote a set of data from one computer to another easy non-volatile kind. In its data can be deleted, and re-programmed in accordance with the requirements of users. It has only has specific number of erase and write cycles it can withstand, after which creates a tendency to lose the information stored in the specific number. Memory cards and USB flash drives are example of this memory storage. These are just the common and main computer memory types which facilitate memory and data storage. However, there are many subtypes which are sorted out according to the memory-related functionalities they perform and the requirements they serve.


Computer hard drive is an important data storage component that is installed in the CPU. It has Wide range memory; the user can select to store and access data memory. Hard drives having a memory capacity of 120 gigabytes to 500 gigabytes are normally used.� A hard disk drive(HDD) is a non-volatile, random access device for digital data. It features rotating rigid platters�[4]


The importance of computer memory can not be emphasized enough. Your computer memory is also known as Random Access Memory, or RAM for short, is one of the most important element of your computer. Without Random Access Memory (RAM) your computer system will not be able to remember and find the program on your computer. It is Random Access Memory (RAM) which items and catalog all the steps you do on your computer.