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In the IM and KM literature there would appear to be confusion as to the meaning, purpose and longevity of terms and practices such as 'knowledge management', 'information management', 'knowledge transfer'. To evaluate the contribution of the different approaches to practising IM/KM currently in use as to their potential to assist in strategic and competitive advantage of business organisations, the next section will cover the critical review of the approaches.Knowledge management (km) and competitive advantage
The aspect of information management is based on specialization, the collection of skills and resources of libraries, technology, documents and records and archives. (Davenport & Prusak, 2000).
Knowledge management can be known as all the personal sense experience and training and problem solving, it's also intended to have all the techniques and ideas of individuals, tools, expertise and human resources, and ideas used in the investment of knowledge within an organization as documented in the company and linked to the process for adopting and decision making.
Drucker (1988) has classified the knowledge management in to two grounds: Tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge is the skills that are within the employee or the individual, this information is difficult to transfer to others, or converted, and may be in the form of technical skills acquired for the individual.
Explicit knowledge related to the information and data stored in the archives and databases, for example (manuals, documents, and procedures) this information can access and transfer and use among staff, Staff to get this information from the meetings. Explicit Knowledge consists of multiple elements including: Data set of facts unknown and non-threaded and is provided without controls and provisions of the initial precedent, and information which is data after analysis. The information can be used in decision making, also it has many forms including "Capacity" which is the ability to convert data to information or the ability to make information from data and can be used and utilized. Also the "Trends" Considered one of the main trends of knowledge management for individuals paid tribute to the analysis and good behaviour. (deTienne & Jackson, 2001).
The knowledge management objectives can be emphasising by giving new opportunities in the market at the domestic level and global, also by speeding the time to market with more products and services. Also these objectives can be linked to good relations between customers and the establishment of information and new products to increase revenue and reduce costs.
The Knowledge transfer is the transfer of knowledge and exchange new ideas, and results of studies and research, skills and expertise between universities and companies and institutions that produce other research and the work is based on trade and the public sector and the people in order to get the wider new product developed from an exchange between institutions. Also transfer can contain a variety of methods, for example, seminars and creating a dialogue between the researcher and the beneficiary of the research and the results of research and practice. (Davenport & Prusak, 2000).
The importance of knowledge transfer pertains to its role in innovation and it is therefore necessary to provide a brief review of this subject. Hjalager (2002) has argued that research on innovations within tourism has been limited and failed to engage with extensive and dynamic debates in the wider social science and management literatures (see also Shaw&Williams, 2004a; Hall&Williams, 2008). Innovation is of course constituted of far more than knowledge transfer, although this can be a key component.Schlumberger oil.
Application of knowledge management in the oil and gas company Schlumberger oil challenges, in the oil and gas industry has been used to manage the different types of knowledge developments, which lasted for more than ten years, rapid advances in technology a result of the efficient ,use of knowledge, management the right way. Transformation and low labour force, and prevent the loss of a great part of corporate memory.
In addition, many of the corporate mergers and acquisitions, has seen a major shift in the industry as well as to factor in the profit and loss. Engineer group private petroleum company, said the estimates of the number of people who work in the oil and gas industry has fallen from 700,000 to 300,000 between 1980 to 1998, and this is lost to ditch the industry in the next ten years we are heading, retirement of many of the workforce, will have an alternative in 2010 and have experience of the oil and gas skills and experience. Found that the best way to retain knowledge (APQC) approach is to enhance the knowledge and best practices of the company or group of companies through a number of interviews with staff, experts and the presentation of projects and discussions with senior management, meetings with engineers. (paig leavitg,2002)Analyses used by the company (Schlumberger) for Knowledge Management.
- Using Knowledge sharing &distribution. Is the process of reducing the time wasted for the company and this most important reason for the company, and this cornerstone in the management of knowledge, better and sharing best practices and lessons learned on the best ways. Collaboration between (Schlumberger) and a group of companies (Chevron and Texaco), exchange of issues and the sharing of manuals and reports between the engineers and any personnel between companies. Through the use of an administrative nature and knowledge sharing culture , but these companies have large amounts of data and this name is content regulation, and the case is the size of The content of the data has increased and also the time.
- The other point library management and reports to create a content management system which, reduces the time period between a problem and finding a solution an effective approach.
- Used (Schlumberger) content management context of processes, people, and processing of information technology for staff and engineers in other, words end users to increase the knowledge.
- And knowledge creation in providing conditions for staff and organization approach (select, collect, classify) by using the corresponding company classification and you use tools and include databases and presentations and audio in either company or outside the company and also email you can access the employee data.
Management initiatives Schlumberger Knowledge Centre and axis is to use the intranet and Internet portal and the world of information and projects that give staff and engineers and customers obtain information confirmed. The primary objective of Schlumberger focuses on online sites and provides data to customers.
- warehouses and stores of knowledge
- management and collaboration spaces,
- Office of expertise and assistance, to provide support to customers and employees, engineers (internal and external) to multiple discussions and cooperation in technology areas.
- Strategic features are of the view that provides to (employee or client) all information stored in one place and customize information portal for each client. .
Knowledge management real news -based on each news portal, companies in a short time is updated every hour with current industries development news and new online business, for all employees and clients this provides Schlumberger employees direct contact in a timely manner and real, and Schlumberger employees can return to the home for information.(the in touch knowledge Hub)
Facilitate communication between Schlumberger and other companies using a single interface and the electronic exchange of information among staff about the products and export and import. When an application (in touch), the field has the ability to exchange information between engineers and technology experts and verification of information and knowledge repositories
During the implementation of knowledge management system and ensure that participate in all over the world connect geographically diffuse companies, skilled resources and programming engineers. Schlumberger also address (cultural issues) issues to create knowledge management and issue is changing working environment for employees. (paig leavitg,2002).
Company (Schlumberger), using best practices in the study, which consists of the Internet, skills and experience of some engineers, and projects using the database and are the best practices and use of tools and instruments include cooperation between personnel and organizational learning, and consultation by displaying questions on the Internet and to answer them, serving customers and employees in the sharing of knowledge.
After using different kinds of knowledge management technology and operations staff and best group in the domain oil refining and laboratories, and occupational safety and create station include energy efficiency and study plans in the 1990s (paig leavitg,2002).Summary analysis of Schlumberger using past successes
- New create competitive advantage to use knowledge management infrastructure and new challenges and success, so many levels.
- Workforce knowledge management benefits directly and collection support easier, and can be knowledge management policy and education on the basis of the first lessons.
- Create a centralized system in touch between Schlumberger knowledge and other companies, have easy access to information, Achieving Schlumberger 150 million per year, and cost reduction by 95 percent, also with 75 percent in time until the complete engineering amendment.
- Safety staff increases still Continue to continuous improvement. (paig leavitg,2002).
Study and analysis of the situation of the company Taylor Woodrow study and fears of housing and property, boot sector internationally, construction and maintenance, and choose manage project. Construction projects and carrying very large risks, these must enter knowledge management to reduce losses and promote best practices. Knowledge-sharing through a set of relationships, there are two types of knowledge are knowledge imported (knowledge imported from abroad) between the company and partners and suppliers and customers, internal knowledge (existing knowledge within the Organization) between managers and staff (construction sites and headquarters) (geraud servin,2005).
Question: how knowledge compiled and distributed, in order to achieve mutual benefits to all owners of the company?Background information
Building and construction industry in the United Kingdom is contributing 10% of (GDP). And employs 1.4 million in the period 2001-2002 There is constant pressure from customers, best innovation, where the (DTI, the Government the responsible in the UK) for 16.5 million pounds in (2002) on innovation and construction programme and disseminating information and knowledge (DTI, 2002).Taylor Woodrow: General Company
Taylor Woodrow: The international construction company then 7000 people, spread all over the world as the main activity of house construction, and maintenance. Also other middle order is the largest company in the United Kingdom, providing services in North America, Spain each year in some other countries, a strong brand in the United Kingdom. The Office of Taylor Woodrow: take over facilities management, consultancy and construction, the individual skills of the company be a package of housing and property and expertise in the construction.
Containing the experience of the company on building a specially equipped for complex developments on the network web (brownfield), obtained Company Taylor The company has a large proportion of income in (2003 ) by 70% of the United Kingdom, and other income of Spain and North America by 30% .The company's Web site contains detailed and complete information.
- The Culture
- Goals that depend on the company's
- The responsibility of customers and officials
- Health and environment
- Community and political activities
- Competition between projects
Started Knowledge management to Taylor Woodrow in 2000 and focuses on the use of technology used by the team or group in the Technology Centre in Leyton, United Kingdom.
Focused Taylor Woodrow on knowledge management, on Create knowledge of (groupwide)
The main reason for that improving, the distribution of best practices and technical knowledge and Create knowledge base contains a good database, and lessons learned, reduce costs and also reduce the risk of technical projects. Knowledge management in this company was the sharing of technical development approach, and demonstrates value added, learning about the successful projects for each new staff and current and reduce the technical risks of projects, which helped to maintain the customer relationship, and encouraged, further work in the period (2001-2002). (geraud servin,2005).Describe the situation
Knowledge management, according to Taylor Woodrow need to the Director of how to act and the success of this initiative, must convince the senior management, because it shapes greatly on the results of the project construction and reduce risks in the process of quickly building. Improve processes and knowledge sharing, skills development and exchange of best practices for some participants. Better practices on construction projects and arrested, publication and dissemination. (geraud servin,2005).Using (Tayweb)
Knowledge Manager has a strong relationship with the company Taylor Woodrow, when you use the information structure can information technology (Tayweb). To distribute organizational knowledge, there are many areas as follows:-
- Online news.
- Human resources, rehabilitation and training.
- The company's operations.
- Sharing knowledge with other companies.
- Central services.
- Regional offices and Office Zone.
An example of using company system (Tayweb) in subway under the Taylor Woodrow, and operating continuously, and supporting projects and strategy work. In the company's technology Process, like computer programs running constantly, and knowledge management system (tayweb), which gives the user multiple choices in knowledge, excellent technology for e-news, technical innovations, and summarize the best legislation and practices, (tayweb).I want to clarify (knowledge currently existing within organization) and (knowledge imported from outside the organization).
Tranquilized gives internal opportunities between staff and technical assistance, and construction standards in Britain, and give correct information on Internet safety, also provides external opportunities and connect with other Internet sites for information on weather and good industry on best practices on the Internet, e-mail in time for professional staff (Kolind, 1996).Using (Thd)
Also been using (THD) is another type of knowledge(expert system), and technical assistance office provides technical expertise, inquiries and technical principles and guiding tips and all possible lessons. Also give lessons and workshops and seminars for training purposes and tranquilized required is very important for engineers and surveyors religion They are members of Institute construction, and must be progress and existing competencies and professional development and maintain qualifications. There is another part of the bidding process, project and risk assessment includes linked to knowledge management system, and is documented source of old and new data, and distribute laptops and data are available between Director and necessary for housing construction projects. This new Web site provides data from other Web sites, for example (local authority police services and firemen), and gives Web site data and procedures required for the project (O'Dell, Greyson, & Essaides, 1998). 3.6 Summary about (Tayweb) and knowledge management benefits usedKnowledge sharing and distribution
(Tayweb) for the exchange of knowledge between all individuals, and offering and provide for the entire workforce, information and library in Taylor Woodrow, and provide a range of online services, for example construction data and information, health information and data integrity.
The revenue that can obtained from investments in knowledge management is primarily from using best practices to improve quality and reduce defects and costs, in the construction industry and projects, the project client relationships, thus knowledge management in this company strengthens and supports quality management. Measures is to measure the income from investment of Taylor Woodrow and value-added account and proven in knowledge management and monetary value. And the benefits of some qualitative resultsXerox BACKGROUND
A company or organization using the company's knowledge management through scientific expertise to work(Knowledge generated by learning from existing knowledge) The Learning Organization Perspective
Some companies are looking for the distinction between actual and potential capacity capabilities and expected results, and you try to debug errors that lead to mistakes, even improved their work through knowledge management, and gain knowledge and understanding. You can adapt the regulatory climate (Hashim & Othman, 2003). Brainstorming collective company is another challenge for learning organizations (Seng, 1990). The challenge is in knowledge management practices and benefit from the knowledge within the Organization and give a chance for new ideas out and implement these ideas. (Brown & Duguid, 2000). Wave is defined type focus on data organization, and use data and the independence of data from the system each time, business needs and reduces your risk of data.Consolidate Knowledge Resources Using ERP
At this stage all departments are combined in all regions, ERP combines all departments in the computer system (Koch, 2002), combines all the software and combines enterprise resource system, and manage to get their software, and is an integrated programmed for all programmers, programmers linked with each other, this gives a competitive advantage for the exchange of information between management and discuss views, and communication between departments easily.
Why ERP application, access to data and information in one system, companies can exchange information easily and inventory control and this system offering customers greater access to information, by using one system instead of multiple software deployed between systems, a company track command and coordination of manufacturing and this so-called enterprise resource planning system display and distribution and system information to staff, this method provides staff allows customers get all their applications more quickly and accurately, and in less time and with a less than errors.Knowledge life cycle in Xerox
You can exchange and distribution and sharing knowledge across the company be decisive, utilizing information technology and data storage and data repositories, and telecom companies and corporate transactions support, knowledge management in the company include (capturing data) coding and organizing, storing, filter, and dissemination of information that are organizational values, and knowledge can be monitored and distribution company, to collect and coding knowledge in factual knowledge company. Generating knowledge, and the truth value of work is the experience and expertise, this method can integrate organizational knowledge, and access to knowledge of experts (Hoffman and others. 1995).
The company owns and operates 17 billion dollars, and 79.000 a. curare (printers and printing presses digital, digital copier and other devices) and sell the company equipment and software, and support for products.
Why use knowledge management in to company problems inability to Exchange and disseminate experiences between staff and technicians repair machines within the company, and this knowledge management introduced.
Knowledge management in the process of addressing the problem by using technology and tools to create database and create conditions for creating knowledge among professionals and promoting culture and knowledge of where is sharing knowledge freely. (Brown & Duguid, 2000).
Xerox have old most scarce and unused, and seldom used by, Professional staff, creating strong database of Eureka and its controls on and identify ideas within the database, in the framework of this knowledge or practice and evaluation tips provide experts and engineers for evaluation and supply tips, the database can take tips from home and also from abroad that could be added. And best practices that will publish and distribute companywide (Brown & Duguid, 2000).
Until the end of 2000, still continuing to encourage employees to use the system Eureka database held nearly 30,000 data used approximately 15,000 professionals who answered all ideas and proposals, and the sharing of knowledge, the company has provided nearly $ 11 million in 2000 Clients also provided money and less cost and less time and effort. The database has treated Eureka all information and split, and reused and network software solutions, and this allows each technicians and employees of on to the system at any time. Confidence in Eureka gives professionals because it works for all problems quickly, and increased production and increased efficiency Database Eureka is the best example of knowledge sharing, which is the outcome of knowledge, and ideas that are working level, sharing of knowledge value (Stewart, 2000).Advantages and disadvantages of using database Eureka
Data consolidation of the company, practice allowed company ignore unnecessary functions and equipment, this saves money for the company, and
Disadvantages Saluting difficulties and deficiencies in difficulties interface ideas and tips and publication and dissemination of increasingly difficult when transferring data from one city to another city named "space memory loss."When the failure to transfer the lessons learned from one place to elsewhere, another technical answers is defective in some areas had already been resolved.
And destination Xerox knowledge through implementation of database Eureka to exchange ideas, knowledge and tips between professionals and staff time and place.Recommendation Recommendations for all companies
- The company's should an incident (study) all necessary steps, to create knowledge management, and must provide the financial and human resources, depending on the size of the company.
- must on Companies or organizations that deal with all staff and engineers flexibly, and deal with all that knowledge capital, attention, and increase its capacity and to maintain the expertise and give opportunities to learn and communications, and coherence to success ... etc.
- Must maintain staff (individuals) who have the know-how, who have experience and talented, and maintain cognitive capital and benefit their company and changing tacit knowledge, to learn the phenomenon that helps them in their daily work.
- You must remove all the problems and obstacles that prevent without access knowledge to employees, and also production units, and give employees the freedom to use personal knowledge, and understanding of the importance of information, and knowledge.
- Plans should be prepared for managers of courses used in knowledge management techniques (for example, advanced technology, networks, and artificial intelligence systems) and take advantage of the Organization, according to needs, quickly respond to the evolving changes.
- Should on Schlumberger company oil services, adjustments in the system of communication between the company and other companies, to ensure staff memory, and engineers to undertake field visits to obtain knowledge between companies, and give it the possibility of visits and identify the necessary steps.
- Companies (Taylor Woodrow) to care managers need to continue learning submission of actions in the development, construction services and market, and strategy and adjust control systems, and development services, and activate contacts between officials, managers, and knowledge sharing, removes all the obstacles, and motivates staff.
- Must on company (Taylor Woodrow) develop and design strategic plans to develop a solution to problems fast and immediate cancellation of organizational structures and use deployment all administrative levels and network and data requirements and provide other rules and protection programmers for successful knowledge within the company and create relationships between engineers and surveyors everywhere company sites. In the United Kingdom and North America and Spain.
- The company should develop within the new strategy, innovation and invention of new services, characterized by competitors from production companies, Union efforts managers and engineers and experts and professionals in many fields and production to market after production excellence.
- The company must know that innovation is an important role in revitalizing knowledge management, the objective of this route knowledge management to making the right decision and regulation, to direct knowledge management to choose new technological means, for knowledge management, to compete with other companies.
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