The MS DOS

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BOOTING

The process of switching on a computer is known as booting of a computer. It is also called as startup of the computer. The disk which is used for startup or booting is done is called bootable disk.

There are two types of booting. Cold and Hot booting.

  1. When the PC is switched on, it loads the Bootable DOS program from the disk to the memory the process is known as Cold Booting. This type of booting of the computer is a slow process. It can be done only from the power ON/OFF switch on the cabinet.
  2. If computer hangs or halts or crashes due to some reason, it is necessary to restart the computer. It is done through reset button on the cabinet or with the help or Control Alt Del button of the key board simultaneously this type of booting is known as hot booting it faster than cold booting.

Command is an instruction written in the computer acceptable language to perform a task. In DOS we write commands at the command prompt or DOS prompt. These commands are not case sensitive i.e. we can use upper as well as lower cases for these commands.

DOS commands are of two types

  • Internal Commands
  • External Commands

Internal Commands

These commands which are loaded in the memory (RAM) when the machine is switched on. Whenever the user issues a command CPU checks up the RAM, if it is an internal command the output is displayed on the monitor. These commands do not require any external files for its execution. Internal command is executed faster than External commands. DOS has 21 internal commands and are used for common task e.g. COPY CON, DIR, DATE, etc

External Commands

These are the commands which we have to load into the memory of the computer if we want to execute them. They are slower than internal commands.

What is Drive?

What is Directory?

Current dir, sub dir, parent and root dir

What is file?

What is Extension?

Naming convention used in DOS.

Wild Characters.

Internal Commands:

  1. Date:
  2. This command is used to see the current date and modify the date.

    Syntax C:\> Date

  3. Time:
  4. This command is used to see the current time and modify the time.

    Syntax C:\> Time

  5. Cls:
  6. This command is used to clear the screen

    Syntax C:\> Cls

  7. Ver:
  8. This command is used to check the current version of the operating system. Version means release of software after up gradation.

    Syntax C:\> ver

  9. Copy Con:
  10. This command is used to create a new file.

    Syntax C:\> copy con <filename>

    After giving this command the contents of the file is typed and file is saved by pressing F6 or ctrl z

  11. Type
  12. This command is used to display the contents of a particular file on the screen.

    Syntax C:\> Type <file name>

  13. Del
  14. This command is used to erase one or more files from the dir

    Syntax C:\> Del <file name>

    To del all files in a current directory

    Syntax C:\> Del . or

    Syntax C:\> Del *.*

  15. Dir
  16. To display all the files directories of a particular directory or drive.

    Syntax C:\> Dir

    1. 1. C:\> Dir /p
    2. This command displays files and subdirectories page wise. At

      The end of the screen a message is displayed. Press any key to

      Continue.

    3. C:\> Dir /s
    4. This command displays files in a specified directory and all the subdirectories.

    5. C:\> Dir /W
    6. This command displays files and subdirectories width wise. At

      The end of the screen a message is displayed. Press any key to

      Continue.

    7. C:\> Dir /b
    8. This command displays files and directories without format.

    9. C:\> Dir /l
    10. This command displays files and subdirectories in lower case.

    11. C:\> Dir /ad
    12. This command displays only directories.

    13. C:\> Dir /ah
    14. This command displays only hidden files.

    15. C:\> Dir /as
    16. This command displays only system files

    17. C:\> Dir /on
    18. This command displays all files and directories in ascending order alphabetically.

    19. C:\> Dir /o-n
    20. This command displays all files and directories in decending order alphabetically.

    21. C:\> Dir /os
    22. This command displays all files and directories in ascending order of size.

    23. C:\> Dir /o-s
    24. This command displays all files and directories in descending order of size.

    25. C:\> Dir /oe
    26. This command displays all files ascending order alphabetically.

    27. C:\> Dir /o-e
    28. This command displays all files descending order alphabetically.

    29. C:\> Dir /od
    30. This command displays all files ascending order according to date.

    31. C:\> Dir /o-d
    32. This command displays all files descending order according to date.

    33. C:\> Dir /og
    34. This command displays directories first then files.

    35. C:\> Dir /o-g
    36. This command displays files first then directories.

  17. Vol:
  18. This command is used to display the volume of the drive

    Syntax C:\> Vol c:

  19. MD
  20. This command is used to make a new directory

    Syntax C:\> md <dir name>

  21. CD
  22. This command is used to change current to any other directory

    Syntax C:\> cd <path dir name>

    To change from current directory to parent directory

    Syntax C:\> cd ..

    To change from current directory to root directory

    Syntax C:\> cd \

  23. RD
  24. This command is used to remove a directory, but before executing this command we must empty this directory.

    Syntax C:\> rd < Name of the Directory

  25. COPY
  26. This command copies files from one directory to other , it also copies files from one drive to another with same name or other name.

    Syntax C:\> copy <source file name> <Target file Name>

    Syntax C:\> copy <source drive:\ path\ file name> < target drive:\ path\ file name Name>

  27. REN :
  28. This command is used to rename a file

    Syntax C:\> Ren < file name>

  29. Prompt :
  30. This command is used to display the system prompt

    Syntax C:\> Prompt <Character String>

    C:\> Prompt $q            =

    C:\> Prompt $$            $

    C:\> Prompt $T            Current Time

    C:\> Prompt $D            Current Date

    C:\> Prompt $P            Current Drive and path

    C:\> Prompt $V            Current version of the windows

    C:\> Prompt $N            Current Drive

    C:\> Prompt $G            >

    C:\> Prompt $L            <

    C:\> Prompt $B            | ( Pipe)

  31. Path
  32. This command shows you the current path of your disk we can also change the path of our disk with the help of this command.

    Syntax C:\> Path

External Commands:

  1. Edit
  2. This command is a full screen editor. The purpose of this command is to create a new file or modify the contents of an existing file. Using this command we can display multiple lines and move within displayed text both vertically and horizantaly.

    Syntax C:\> Edit <file name. extension>

  3. Attrib:
  4. The purpose of this command is to set the attribute of a file i.e. we can use ATTRIB to make the file "read only" which Prevent the file from the change of contents. User can also hide or unhide a file.

    Syntax C:\> Attrib filename attribute

    ATTRIB - Attribute Meaning

    +R             To set the read only file attributes

    -R             To remove the read only file attributes

    +H             To hide a file

    -H             To unhide a file

    +A             To set the file archival.

    -A             To reset the file archival

    +S             To set for system file

    -S             To reset for system files.

    Example: C:\> Attrib filename + H +R

    This command will make the file read only and hidden

    C:\> Attrib filename -H - R

    This command will make the file unhidden and read and write form.

  5. Backup:
  6. The purpose of this command is to store the various important files from the fixed disk to floppy disks. We can not store a file with a size greater than the size of floppy with copy command.

    The file copied using Backup command can be copied back to hard disk using Restore command.

    Syntax C:\> Backup &tl;<Source path>> /option <<Target path>>

    Options   Meaning

    /s             To copy all sub directories to the target

    /m             To copy all files which are modified since last backup to the target

    /a             To copy files to target disk without erasing the target disk.

    /d             To copy files saved on or after the given date

    /t             To copy files saved on or after the given time

    /f             To format the target disk before copping the files

  7. Restore:
  8. The files copied using backup command cannot be retrieved using copy command , we can retrieve it with the help of restore command

    Syntax C:\> Restore <<Source path>> /option <<Target path>>

    Options    Meaning

    /s             To restore all sub directories to the target

    /p             To prompt before restoring files that are read only and which are changed since the last backup.

    /a             To restore files on or after the given date.

    /b             To restore files on or before the given date.

    /e             To restore files on or earlier than given time.

    /l             To restore files on or later than given time.

    /n             To restore files that does not exists on the destination disk,

    /d             To restore tha files which match given specification on the backup disk.

  9. Chkdsk
  10. This command will returns the configuration of the selected drive, i.e. volume serial number, total disk space, space in hidden files, space in directories, space in user files , total memory and free space.

    Syntax C:\> chkdsk<<drive name>>

  11. Diskcopy
  12. This diskcopy is used to make duplicate copy of disk. This command is not used for fixed disk.

    Syntax C:\> Diskcopy < source path> <destination path>

  13. Diskcomp
  14. This command is used to compare two disks to find whether they are identical or not. It is used after diskcopy command.

    Syntax C:\> Diskcomp < source disk path> <destination disk path>

  15. Deltree
  16. This command is used to delete files and directories and subdirectories of a directory. In case of RD command we have to empty entire directory first.

    Syntax C:\> Deltree < path>

  17. Doskey
  18. This command displays the history of DOS commands

    Syntax C:\> Doskey

  19. Format
  20. This command is used to make a disk usable for OS dividing the disk into magnetic tracks and sectors.

    Syntax C:\> Format <drive name> / switches

    Switches       Meaning

    /s                 To make the target disk bootable after transferring system files (Command.com, IO.sys, and MSDOS.Sys) to it

    /q                 To format the disk quickly.

  21. Fdisk:
  22. This command is used to make part ions on the hard disk

    Syntax C:\> Fdisk

  23. Find:
  24. This command is used to

  25. Label
  26. More
  27. Mode
  28. Move
  29. Print
  30. Scandisk
  31. Sort
  32. Sys
  33. Tree
  34. Undelete
  35. Unformat
  36. xcopy

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