The IT governance

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IT governance involves the structures and processes that are put in place in order for an organization IT to sustain itself and by doing this extend the strategies and objectives of the organization. It also involves how the current and future system of ICT is directed and controlled. By doing this, then plans for ICT use to support an organization is evaluated, directed and controlled in order to achieve the set organization goals. Besides, IT governance involves a series of drivers and frameworks. The emergence of these drivers and frameworks results from either high profile sandals or as a result of pursuance of efficiency. For any organization to succeed, effective IT governance is a prerequisite. The main aim of IT governance is to ensure that IT infrastructure generates monetary value to a business as well as mitigating the risks that are usually associated with IT -for instance cyber attacks and related ethics. IT governance concerns are evident both in the private and public sectors. Below is the annotated bibliography from some of the journals featuring IT governance.

Annotated Bibliography

  • Ali, S & Green, P 2007, 'IT governance mechanisms in public sector organizations: An Australian context', Journal of Global Information Management, vol. 15, no. 4, pp 41-63.

Ali is a professor of Information management at the Universitas Gadjah Mada while Green is a lecturer at the University of Queensland, Australia. In this paper, the authors start by talking about the roles that information technology plays in an organization. The authors have therefore stressed on the importance of IT governance in an organization in order for the organization to achieve its goals and objectives. He has also stressed on the importance of putting IT resources in place and organizes these resources effectively. I find the work of the author relevant in that he has conducted a study and empirically examined individual mechanisms which affect the implementation, efficiency and effectiveness of IT governance. The author has conducted his research in Australia. From the study, the author has concluded that sound IT governance requires effective IT strategy and corporate communication systems.

  • Ayogu, M & Bayat, F 2009, 'ICT governance', Journal of Computational Science. vol. no. 1.

The authors are tutors at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. The authors agrees that although formal structures IT governance exist, there is a bone of contention between the regulator of the same and the government. Consequently, they go on to stress on the importance of incorporating IT policies which involve the government and the organization in order for the IT governance to be effective. This work is relevant in that the authors have explored the roles of all the stakeholders in IT governance aimed at achieving and/or improving effectiveness and efficiency.

  • Bart, C & Turel, O, 'The role of the board in IT governance: Current and desired oversight practices', International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics 2009 - vol. 4, no.4, pp.316 - 329.

Chris Bart is a professor of Strategic Market Leadership at McMaster University. In this article, he conducted a study to investigate the main questions that directors and top management of an organization ask in regard to fulfilling governance responsibilities of their organizations' IT operations. The authors used 27 IT governance questions to investigate deployment and perception of IT by the then board of directors in Canada. The questions that the author used were proposed by the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants. From this study, the authors concluded that not all questions regarding IT governance can be considered equal. Also the author found out that there was no perfect relationship between the frequency with which the questions were asked and their perceived importance. I find his work relevant because the author has speculated on the possible reasons for these findings and also proposes on the best ways that the board of directors of organizations can take in order to achieve effective IT governance. The author has also proposed additional avenues that can be taken in order to improve the research on IT governance and improve its effectiveness.

  • Cater-steel, A 2009, 'Introduction to special issue on ICT governance, strategic alignment and service management', Information Systems Management Journal, vol. 26, no. 2, March, pp. 96 - 97.

The author is a lecturer on ICT management at the University of Southern Queensland. In this paper, the author has expounded on the issues (both positive and negative) that face IT governance as well as current challenges hampering IT implementation. The work is relevant in that that the author has gone on to discuss about solutions for problems facing IT governance. She has also talked on the strategies that an organization can take in order to achieve effective IT governance. Some of these include effective service management and utilization of IT resources.

  • De Haes, S & Grembergen, W 2009, 'An exploratory study into it governance implementations and its impact on business/it alignment', Information Systems Management journal, vol. 26, no. 2, March, pp. 123 - 137.

De Haes has an authority on IT governance as he has a PHD on the same and he is responsible for executive programs and research on Information Systems Management at the University of Antwerp Management School (UAMS). He also performs research and assignments on project management for the IT governance Institute (ITGI). Grembergen teaches on information systems at all academic levels and he also researches on IT governance, IT strategy and its performance. These two authors are competent on the area of IT governance and in this article they exhaustively discuss IT governance. Besides, they have also explored deeply on governance issues, its implication, its implementation and its impact on business, and other organizations. The authors have also talked about ways aimed at achieving effective IT governance and management.

  • Palanisamy, R 2004, 'Issues and challenges in e-governance planning', Electronic Government, an International Journal, vol. 1, no. 3, pp.253 - 272.

The author is a consultant in IT management issues and in this paper, he talks about the challenges facing electronic governance. The author has also reviewed a lot of literature to come up with issues and challenges facing electronic governance. I find his work relevant in that the author has talked challenges and current issues in IT governance that include the trends, the evolution, the usage, the technology and the participation of the citizens. The author has also identified trust building, governance, ICT management, privacy and security as the major challenges.

  • Pietra, R 1997, 'IT governance', Journal of management and governance.

This journal talks exhaustively about issues related to corporate governance both within and throughout firms either held privately, publicly, or government controlled. It has therefore explored the links that exists between management and governance by discussing on both the theoretical and empirical approaches. The journal has stressed the importance of these two approaches as they are helpful in improving one's understanding of the structure of an organization, rules of organization, and codes of conduct, processes, principles and mechanism that affect the way an organization is managed, controlled and administered from an IT point of view.

  • Pye, G & Warren, M 2006, 'Striking a balance between ethics and ICT governance', Australasian Journal of Information Systems,vol. 13, no. 2.

The authors have stressed on the importance of ethics in the effective governance of Information Communication Technology. They have gone on to ponder on whether or not practical application of ethics and ICT can present an ethical ambiguity in an organization. The reason why the authors contemplate this is that the codes of ethics give guidelines on individual IT professionals while IT governance provides ICT guidelines and governance advice for businesses. I find the work relevant because they have conducted a research study on various viewpoints related to IT governance.

  • Sharma, D, Stone, M & Ekinci, Y 2009, 'IT governance and project management: A qualitative study', Journal of Database Marketing & Customer Strategy Management, vol. 16, pp. 29-50.

Sharma is a consultant who helps clients in improving their efficiency and effectiveness in using IT systems. Stone is an author and advisor on implementation and management of CRM program. Therefore these authors have an authority when they talk on matters of IT governance. On this paper, the authors conducted a qualitative study on IT involving project management and governance. The authors carried interviews on 10 senior managers in various organizations who are actively involved in IT projects. From the study, the authors concluded that an organization may have a good project management but have bad governance at the same time. Their work is relevant in that they have identified the fact that both project and IT governance may be weakened the management. They go on to state that IT governance requires commitment, governance skills and the articulation of the governance culture. The authors have concluded by supporting the notion that good IT governance leads to efficiency and does not lead to accidental success.

  • Zimmermann, P, Finger, M & Mueller, P 2008, 'Moving beyond the technological neutrality myth: ICTs and power in public administration', Int. J. of Electronic Governance, vol. 1, no.2, pp.215 - 230.

In this journal, the authors start by talking about the main reasons why Information and communication technologies are introduced in an organization. He goes on to say that the main reasons for introducing IT in any organization is to increase operation efficiency, quality of the goods and services produced, and transparency in the operations. Subsequently, they have also gone ahead to stress the importance of IT governance in that it has a substantial impact on the power relationships of an organization. The work is relevant in that the authors have properly assessed the impact of IT governance. Their main reason is that they consider assessment of IT governance is not researched adequately in the literature available. They have used a multi level governance approach to assess the impact of ICT on perceived power relationships in public administration and to other stakeholders.

Conclusion

These journals have expounded on the issue of IT governance exhaustively. There is need for IT governance to be shaken up and improved in various organizations. IT governance should also aim at addressing the alignment of IT strategy to achieve a significant return on investment within a reasonable time besides formulating and implementing policies that can mitigate current trends in ICT for instance IT-security matters -cyber attacks. For IT governance to be effective, experienced and well trained personnel should be employed in the field of IT besides the organization having a well established structure and methodology for implementing IT projects.

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