The Implementation Of A Token Based Protocols Computer Science Essay

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This simulation is designed to demonstrate the implementation of a token based MAC protocols. This simulation shows the performance of the token based MAC protocols under different scenarios.

A token ring network consists of a set of nodes connected in a ring. The ring is a single shared medium. The token ring technology involves a distributed algorithm that controls when each node is allowed to transmit. All nodes see all frames, and the node identified as the destination in the frame header saves a copy of the frame as it flows past. With a ring topology, any link or node failure would render the whole network useless. This problem can be solved by using a star topology where nodes are connected to a token ring hub. The hub acts as a relay, known as a multistation access unit (MSAU). MSAUs are almost always used because of the need for robustness and ease of node addition and removal.

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The "token," which is just a special sequence of bits, circulates around the network; each node receives and then forwards the token. When a node that has a frame to transmit sees the token, it takes the token off the ring and instead inserts its frame into the ring. When the frame makes its way back around to the sender, this node strips its frame off the ring and reinserts the token. The token holding time (THT) is the time a given node is allowed to hold the token. From its definition, the THT has an effect on the utilization and fairness of the network, where utilization is the measure of the bandwidth used versus that available on the given network.

In this simulation, we will set up a balanced, unbalanced token ring and token bus network with 18 nodes. The links you will use operate at a data rate of 4 Mbps. we will study how the utilization and delay of the network are affected by the network load as well as the THT.

Chapter 1

Network Topologies  - Explain in detail

Network topology is the layout pattern of interconnections of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer network. Network topologies may be physical or logical. Physical topology means the physical design of a network including the devices, location and cable installation. Logical topology refers to how data is actually transferred in a network as opposed to its physical design.

Topology can be considered as a virtual shape or structure of a network. This shape does not correspond to the actual physical design of the devices on the computer network. The computers on a home network can be arranged in a circle but it does not necessarily mean that it represents a ring topology.

Any particular network topology is determined only by the graphical mapping of the configuration of physical and/or logical connections between nodes. The study of network topology uses graph theory. Distances between nodes, physical interconnections, transmission rates, and/or signal types may differ in two networks and yet their topologies may be identical.

A local area network (LAN) is one example of a network that exhibits both a physical topology and a logical topology. Any given node in the LAN has one or more links to one or more nodes in the network and the mapping of these links and nodes in a graph results in a geometric shape that may be used to describe the physical topology of the network. Likewise, the mapping of the data flow between the nodes in the network determines the logical topology of the network. The physical and logical topologies may or may not be identical in any particular network.

Basic topology types

The study of network topology recognizes seven basic topologies:

Point-to-point topology

Bus (point-to-multipoint) topology

Star topology

Ring topology

Tree topology

Mesh topology

Hybrid topology

This classification is based on the interconnection between computers - be it physical or logical.

The physical topology of a network is determined by the capabilities of the network access devices and media, the level of control or fault tolerance desired, and the cost associated with cabling or telecommunications circuits.

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Networks can be classified according to their physical span as follows:

LANs (Local Area Networks)

Building or campus internetworks

Wide area internetworks

Token based protocols

Token ring

Token ring local area network (LAN) technology is a local area network protocol which resides at the data link layer (DLL) of the OSI model. It uses a special three-byte frame called a token that travels around the ring. Token-possession grants the possessor permission to transmit on the medium. Token ring frames travel completely around the loop.

Stations on a token ring LAN are logically organized in a ring topology with data being transmitted sequentially from one ring station to the next with a control token circulating around the ring controlling access. This token passing mechanism is shared by ARCNET, token bus, and FDDI, and has theoretical advantages over the stochastic CSMA/CD of Ethernet.

Physically, a token ring network is wired as a star, with 'hubs' and arms out to each station and the loop going out-and-back through each.

Token bus

Token bus is a network implementing the token ring protocol over a "virtual ring" on a coaxial cable. A token is passed around the network nodes and only the node possessing the token may transmit. If a node doesn't have anything to send, the token is passed on to the next node on the virtual ring. Each node must know the address of its neighbor in the ring, so a special protocol is needed to notify the other nodes of connections to, and disconnections from, the ring.

Token bus was standardized by IEEE standard 802.4. It is mainly used for industrial applications. Token bus was used by GM (General Motors) for their Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP) standardization effort. This is an application of the concepts used in token ring networks. The main difference is that the endpoints of the bus do not meet to form a physical ring. The IEEE 802.4 Working Group is disbanded. In order to guarantee the packet delay and transmission in Token bus protocol, a modified Token bus was proposed in Manufacturing Automation Systems and flexible manufacturing system (FMS).

Chapeter 2

OPNET Modeler simulation

OPNET Modeler® accelerates the R&D process for analyzing and designing communication networks, devices, protocols, and applications. Users can analyze simulated networks to compare the impact of different technology designs on end-to-end behavior. Modeler incorporates a broad suite of protocols and technologies, and includes a development environment to enable modeling of all network types and technologies including:

VoIP

TCP

OSPFv3

MPLS

IPv6

Others

Key Features

Fastest discrete event simulation engine among leading industry solutions

Hundreds of protocol and vendor device models with source code (complete OPNET Model Library)

Object-oriented modeling

Hierarchical modeling environment

Discrete Event, Hybrid, and optional Analytical simulation

32-bit and 64-bit fully parallel simulation kernel

Grid computing support for distributed simulation

Optional System-in-the-Loop to interface simulations with live systems

Open interface for integrating external object files, libraries, and other simulators

Integrated, GUI-based debugging and analysis

Scenario 1

Token RIng simulation

Scenario 2

Token BUs simulation

Comparison & analysis

chapter 3

Conclusion

Future work Or REcommendations