The Impact Of Dos Attack Computer Science Essay

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To compare the performance of Proactive (OLSR) and Reactive(AODV) protocol in Mobile Ad hoc Networks under the influence of node isolation attack which results in Denial of service attack and analyse the packet delivery ratio, end to end delay, routing overhead ,throughput of the network, OPNET 14.5 simulator is used for the simulation.

Identify the performance metrics under both protocols such as the packet delivery ratio, Through-put, End to end delay, Routing Overhead with and without the influence of node isolation attack.

Analyse the reason for the variation of the performance metrics on these protocols.

The design involves comparing the OLSR and AODV protocol by generating the DOS attack in mobile ad hoc networks. Bandwidth consumption type of DOS attack is going to be implemented in which a malicious node attacks a victim node by generating huge volume of traffic in such a way other nodes in the network will not be able to communicate the victim node, Three scenarios are implemented, The protocol comparison of the network is done with and without attack is done using 25 nodes in the first scenario,50 nodes in the second 100 nodes in the third scenario, In each scenario we consider 5 source and 5 destination node with the victim node in between them and generate the two protocols on the network and compare the metrics in terms of 25/50/100 variable mobile nodes with attack and without attack.

Initially I have done literature search on various Dos attacks in MANET such as Black hole attack, Worm hole attack ,Rushing attack, Route disruption attack,node isolation attack and their effects in various MANET protocols such as DSR,AODV,OLSR. Previous studies involved the study of attacks in one particular protocol in MANET .Viren Mahajan et all analysed the worm hole intrusion attack on OLSR protocol using qualnet simulation, Bounpadith Kannhavong et all studied the impact of node isolation attack in OLSR based MANET using NS-2 simulator ,V.Madhu Viswanatham et all studied an approach for detecting attacks in MANET which involves Route Disruption,Node isolation Attack,Resource Consumption Attack using NS-2 simulator, S R Chaudhry et all compared the proactive and reactive protocol in MANET and analysed the performance metrics such as packet delivery ratio ,throughput,end to end delay, routing overhead using OPNET 11.0 without the implementation of DOS attack, Shabana et all analysed Network intrusion simulation of Dos attack using Opnet, In this project we are going to implement node isolation attack which is one form of DOS attack in which the attacker isolates a particular node from receiving data packets from other nodes .We are going to implement the bandwidth consumption type of DOS attack in the simulation and compare the OLSR and AODV protocol in the network using OPNET 14.5.


By studying the various research papers regarding Dos attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, The attack simulation has been prominently done using NS-2 simulator, Thus it would be more relevant and new for mobile ad hoc networks if the attack simulator is done using some other simulators. The solution have been identified to use Opnet 14.5 for the attack simulation since it is well know simulation and is available in university .


In the project proposal it has been mentioned that the attack simulation for mobile ad hoc networks will be done using NS-2 simulator, After analysing various researchers since NS-2 simulator has been used frequently for attack simulation in mobile ad hoc networks .We are deviating towards Opnet 14.5 for attack simulation.


In this project I am going to analyse the impact of node isolation attack which is one form of DOS attack in Mobile Ad hoc Network using Opnet 14.5.The simulation scenario involves creating the mobile ad hoc network model and compare the performance metrics of OLSR and AODV protocol in three scenarios which involves 25/50/100 nodes in the presence of DOS attack and without attack.



Literature Review is going on about various methods to create the dos attack in Opnet 14.5 and various tools in OPNET is analysed which can be used to generate Dos attack for mobile ad hoc network is analysed. The simulation model without the implementation of DOS attack is analysed and testing is going with 25/50/100 nodes in order to compare the performance of AODV and OLSR protocol.


To analyse the graph for the model without the attack and duplicate the scenario for 25/50/100 nodes which involves the creation of DOS attack to the same network by victimising a node and test the network performance by implementing AODV and OLSR protocol.


Proposal of the Project


Mobile ad hoc networks are a new concept of wireless communication which are composed of frequently changing mobile nodes without any central administrator communicating through wireless links between them. These nodes operate both as an end point and have routing functions to forward data packets to the appropriate node once a route is created. Although these networks are adopted in military and commercial applications, These networks are vulnerable to various security threats due to their characteristics of changing topology, shared medium. Many routing protocols have been developed for efficient routing between them due to their dynamic nature and high extent of node mobility. Denial of service attack is one of the most prominent attack in MANET which affects the performance and availability, There are many routing attack namely black hole ,worm-hole, node-isolation attack which leads to DOS in MANET In this paper we analyse the impact of Dos based node isolation attack between the two different type of MANET routing namely proactive and reactive protocol through NS-2 simulation and compare the packet delivery ratio, through-put, end to end delay and routing overhead between AODV which is a reactive protocol and OLSR a proactive protocol .


1 Introduction………………………………………………..9

2 Problem Description……………………………………….10

3 AIM &Objectives……………………………………………....11

4 Expected Outcome/Deliverables…………………………..11

5 Related Research and Relevant technology……………...12

6 Research Question………………………………………….........12

7 Challenges and Contribution……………………………........13

8 Method of the Project……………………………………..........14

9 Project Plan……………………………………………….................15

10 Gantt Chart………………………………………………................16

11 Resource Requirements………………………………….17

12 Risk Management……………………………………….17

13 References………………………………………………...18

14 Ethical Issues……………………………………………..18


Mobile ad-hoc networks are the advancement of wireless communication technology in which the mobile nodes uses wireless links for communication in a frequently changing network environment without a centralised server. The nodes move freely thus forming a random and dynamic topology. This characteristic of MANET have made them to be deployed in wide range of application such as disaster relief, military operation, vehicle to vehicle network and so on .In order to communicate with nodes situated in different transmission range they act both as host and router to forward data packets between them. Many routing protocols have been developed which are designed to maintain the routes between different nodes dynamically even during the topology changes due to the mobility of nodes. MANET routing protocols are of two types namely Proactive (Table-driven) and Reactive (On-demand) protocols.

Proactive protocols (Optimised link state routing) are those in which the communicating nodes sustain the current routing information between all points of the network and generate routing updates through out the network during a topology change thus maintain a consistent network view, Reactive protocols(AODV,DSR) maintains routes only on demand when a source node requiring a route to a destination it starts a route discovery process in the network until the destination is reached and maintains the route till the destination is active. The routing protocols in MANETS trust all nodes in the network and presume that they behave properly, However MANETS are subjected to attacks by malicious nodes which disrupt the normal functioning of the networks due to nature of MANET which are open medium, Dynamic topology without a base station .There are various network attacks which are prominent in MANET such as DOS, Black-hole, worm-hole have been studied on the performance of proactive and reactive protocols separately and various intrusion detection techniques have been proposed, In this paper we consider one form of DOS attack called the Node isolation attack which prevents a node from communicating with other node by disrupting routing function which produces a Denial of service thus affecting the availability of the system. The nature of effect of this attack on proactive and reactive protocol is analysed, We have chosen AODV and OLSR protocol for implementing the attack and analyse the performance of these protocols using NS-2 simulator. (Bounpadith Kannhavong, V.Madhu Viswanatham).


MANET have gained an increasing popularity in wireless communication systems, however with its unique characteristics of open medium, changing topology has posed a considerable security threat to the mobile nodes and protocols involved .There are various attacks at different layers of the MANET such as black hole ,worm hole, DOS attacks which affects the confidentiality, availability, integrity of the network. Most of the previous works on attacks have mainly addressed on reactive protocol such as the AODV and various countermeasures have been proposed, There were no previous paper which have analysed the effect of attacks by comparing both reactive and proactive protocols, In this paper we study the impact of one form of attack called the node isolation attack which is common routing attack on both reactive and proactive protocol which results in DOS thus affecting the availability and compare the performance metrics such packet delivery ratio, end to end delay, through-put, routing overhead using NS-2 simulator as a result we can study the how the attacks affects the two types of protocols and analyse the possible counter-measures on them.(Bounpadith Kannhavong, V.Madhu Viswanatham).


The main aim of this project is to analyse the effect of node isolation attack which results in DOS on proactive protocol(OLSR) and reactive protocol(AODV) and compare the performance metrics such as packet delivery ratio ,throughput, end to end delay, routing-overhead between these two different protocols using NS-2 simulator. The main objectives are :

To implement the simulation model for MANET using NS-2

Implement the protocols involved in the simulation to the created model

Investigate the creation of node isolation attack model using NS-2

Implement the node isolation attack in the model for the two protocols

Analyse the impact of attack for these two different types of protocol

Identify the performance metrics for both the protocols such as packet delivery ratio, through-put, End to End delay, routing overhead with and with out the generation of the attack.

Analyse the reason for variation of the performance metrics on these protocols.


Difference in the Performance metrics of Proactive and Reactive protocols under normal condition without the attack .

Difference in the performance metrics of Proactive (OLSR) and Reactive (AODV) under the influence of node isolation attack is expected as outcome.


In V.Madhu Viswanatham,"An Approach for detecting attacks in Mobile ad hoc networks",2008 various network attacks such as node isolation,route disruption and resource consumption attack is analysed on reactive protocol such as AODV which is simulated under ns 2 using my AODV agent and recovery procedure using wireless intrusion detection system under the attacks is discussed.

In Bounpadith kannhavong, "A study of a routing attack of OLSR-based mobile ad hoc network",2007 the node isolation attack based on proactive protocol is analysed where the node isolation model is created in ns 2 and packet delivery ratio is analysed.

In S R Chaudhry et all, "Wimob Proactive and Reactive Routing Protocol Simulation Comparison" The mobility comparison of AODV and OlSR protocol is analysed using OPNET 11.0 and performance metrics such as through put and end to end delay is compared .


How does the node isolation attack perform on AODV protocol which is reactive protocol?

How does the node isolation impact the OLSR protocol which is a proactive protocol?

How the routing function works when there is malicious user in the networks for both the protocols?

How the performance metrics works with and without the node isolation attack in both the protocols?

What are the counter measures to mitigate these attacks in the future?


In this project the creation of node isolation attack in NS-2 simulation between two different protocols and identifying the routing function during the attack and analysing the various performance metrics and identifying the reason for the variation of the metrics with and with out node isolation is among the challenging task to be attained .

Previous studies of network attacks in MANET were mainly based either on proactive or reactive protocol ,Though there are many papers in the literature which compares the two types of protocols in different environment, There were no analysis of network attacks involving both proactive and reactive protocol in the network ,In this paper We analyse the impact of common type of Dos based Node isolation attack which works by isolating the node from other nodes there by preventing packets to reach the victim node, This attack is implemented on two popular protocols namely AODV and OLSR and comparison is made based on the performance metrics and some countermeasures to migitate these attacks in future is the main contribution of this paper.


The author is using a Quantitative methodology for the success of the project, We use NS-2 simulator which is open source model and can be installed in windows or linux. In the literature NS-2 is widely used for security simulation of MANET environment under various attacks. In this project we consider Node isolation attack impact on AODV and OLSR protocol .

During this attack the malicious node attacks the victim by preventing the routing packets to reach the victim thus isolating it from the network which results in DOS. This project follows the existing research on MANET routing protocol security and integrates the two protocols AODV and OLSR for the analysing the impact of node isolation attack on them thus aims at providing a solution to the effectiveness of proactive and reactive protocol under the network attack .

The simulation scenario is implemented in NS-2 simulator in which the nodes are designed to move in a random way point model. Once the simulation is set up the performance metrics such as end to end delay,packet delivery ratio,throughput ,routing overhead is compared between AODV and OLSR protocol without the influence of the attack.Then the node isolation attack is created by choosing a malicious node using NS-2 and target a victim node by preventing the packets forwarded to them and compare the impact of this attack by generating the AODV and OLSR protocol in the simulated environment and analyse the difference on the performance metrics on them .Once the simulated graph is obtained, The reason for the variation in proactive and reactive protocol is analysed .


Note: Documentation of the project will be done simultaneously in each phase of the project.

Literature search and Review: In this phase we are intended to concentrate on collecting the reviewing various materials involving the creation of simulation using NS-2, reviewing about the protocols and attack involved in the project in order to design and implement the project successfully.

Simulation Parameters: After the literature search and review, The system design is first step for the project which involves the setting up of simulation parameter such as number of nodes required, number of attackers, protocols involved, simulation duration time, link-bandwidth, data transmission rate and so on is obtained to simulate using NS-2 simulator.

System Design: In this phase the mobile nodes according to the simulation parameters and protocols involved is designed using ns 2 simulator.

Testing the System Design: This is an important phase as it requires time ,Once the simulation is set up, The node isolation attack for both the proactive and reactive is implemented and various performance metrics are generated in order to identify the variations between them .

Analysing the Simulated Results: This phase includes the analysis of various output with regard to both proactive and reactive protocols , This phase helps to identify the reasons for variation in the graphs.

Drawing conclusions: This phase involves the extraction of graphs and comparing them with different scenarios.

Presentation:This phase involves the final presentation of the project.




















Define Project Aim

Write Literature Review

System Design

Phase-I Implementing the protocols on the design

Phase-II Implementation of the attacks in AODV

Phase-III Implementing the attack in OLSR

Phase-IV Analysing the performance metrics

Comparing & Analyzing Results


Write First Draft

Write Final Draft

Slack Period






Supervisor Meetings





Literature Review and its documentation


Completion of Network Design


Phase-I Testing


Phase-II Implementation and testing


Phase-III Implementation & Testing


Phase-IV implementation & Testing


Create Template


First Draft


Final Draft





1.Literature Review:

Access to various sites to view various journals, articles, white papers related to the project from Athens login

Access to internet and university library

2. Execution of the project:

NS-2 simulator which is a open source and can be installed in linux or windows OS which is used for simulating some scenarios.


"It is process of analysing the exposure to risk and to determine how to best handle such exposure".There were few risks identified affecting which will affect the project.

This project is simulated in ns 2 simulator which is a open source thus care should be taken for installing the simulator in a particular OS so that it wont be corrupted .NS-2 works well in linux environment.

All the simulation model and scenarios done in the project is saved and the information collected during the simulation process will be saved and backed up in a storage medium to avoid corruption of files.

The project is perfectly planned for every phase of the simulation and each phase is given a considerable time without any rush so that it can be managed properly and completed in time.

To avoid the risk of not getting the expected results of the attacks on the protocols a detailed study of research papers will be carried out.