The purpose of this report is to understand an Information Systems. Computer System has a view consists of hardware, operating system, system programs and application programs. There are many different aspects of computer system including : Internet Technologies , Information systems in organizations , Database Management Systems , Teleworking / Telecommuting , Computer Networks , Enterprise Resources Planning , Knowledge Management , Accounting Information Systems , Outsourcing , E-Supply Chain Management , Web 2.0 , Cloud Computing , E-Commerce & M-Commerce , and Value Chain Management . However, this report will more consider in Database Management Systems and explain all about Database Systems and how it can be applied. Such as, a short history of DBMS, the applications that include, and a future trends relating of database systems.
2.1 HISTORY OF DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
Database Management system is a system that used to store , organize and retrieve information or data . DBMSs is a program or group of programs that help with the maintenance , creation , and use of a database . Database have been use since the earliest days of electronic computing. Dissimilar modern systems which can be applied to widely different databases and needs . The expansive common of older systems were closely related to the custom databases in order to gain speed at the expense of flexibility. At the beginning , Database Management System were found only in large organizations with the computer hardware needed to support large data sets.
In 1960s , Database Management System begins around the time that computers began taking-off. The concept was put in use and also began to grow in commercial use. The guy who invented the DBMSs was Charles W Bachman. He was an industrial researcher , beginning a career at 'DOW CHEMICAL'. Came up with the integrated Database System , very first Database Management System.
In 1970 , another change was coming. There were no way easy to use , but a man named Edgar Codd thought of a way to make all the things a bit easier. He wrote a paper entitled ' A Relational Model Of Data For Large Shared Data Banks', in which he proposed replacing these current systems with that of tables and rows. This concept would become relational Database Management System.
2.2 INTRODUCTION TOÂ DBMSs
Database is a constellation linked files that are usually integrated and related to one and another. The advantage of database is data and record that contained in different files can be easily orderly and be accepted to using specialized.
Database Management System is a unity of software programs that allow users to create, update, edit and store data in those database files. Data in database can be added, deleted, sorted, searched and changed by using a DBMS. Database Management System is commonly used to manage: customer and inventory information, accounting and bookkeeping information, membership and subscription mailing lists and personal records .
There are some advantages and disadvantages of Database Management System . The advantages are minimized redundancy, improved availability and program and file consistency. Minimized redundancy means company need to repeat the same data over and over again . Minimizing redundancy can significantly reduce the cost of storing information on hard drive and other storage devices . Improved availability means same information can be made available to different users. Program and file consistency is makes the data files easier to maintain because the same rules and guidelines apply across all types of data.
The disadvantages of Database Management System are cost and security. In these case , cost in implementing a DBMS be expensive and time consuming, specially in large organizations. Training requirements alone can be quite costly. On the whole , database access is an all or nothing proposition. For security ,once an authorized user gets into the database , they have access to all of the files , not just a few steps they also be taken to regularly make backup copies of the database files and store them because of the possibility of fires and earthquakes that might destroy the system.
3.1 TYPES OF DBMS
DBMS come in many sizes , shapes , and mainframes based DBMS are leased by organizations. DBMS of this scale are highly up-to-date and would be extremely expensive to develop from scratch. There are 4 structural types of DBMS : Hierarchical database , Network database , Relational database , Object-oriented database.
3.1.1 Hierarchical Database
Hierarchical Database is one of the oldest methods of organizing and storing data, it is still used by some organizations for making travel reservations. A hierarchical database is organized in pyramid fashion (branch of a tree extending downward). The database work by moving from the top to down. Hierarchical database can be accessed and updated rapidly because the tree like structure and the relationships between records are defined in advance. Adding a new field or record requires that the entire database refined of hierarchical database is so rigid by their designed.
3.1.2 Network Database H:\ASSIGNMENTS\BIS\network databases.jpg
Network Database is similar with hierarchical database by also having a tree structure (moving from top to down). A network database instead of looking like an upside down tree , looks more like a cobweb or interconnected network of record. The important difference is that each members can have more than one owner.
3.1.3 Relational Database H:\ASSIGNMENTS\BIS\relational databases.gif
Relational Database is connect data in different files by using common data elements or a key field. Data in relational database is stored in different tables , and each table having a key field that uniquely identifies that row.
3.1.4 Object-oriented Database http://images.devshed.com/af/stories/Introduction%20to%20RDBMS%20OODBMS%20and%20ORDBMS/1.jpg
Object-oriented Database can be used to store data from a variety of media sources , such as photographs and text , and produce work as output in a multimedia format. Object-oriented database use a small reusable chunks of software that called objects. Each object consists of 2 elements. First, a piece of data ( video , sound , text and graphic ). Second, instructions or software programs called methods for what to do with the data.
3.2 Applications of DBMS
These tools are available in a number of difference composition , scalable to use by the individual or a globally-scattered corporation. Database software organizes and stores data in such a way that the tables are searchable and questions may be answered. Some database software are user-friendly with visual interfaces to the database . There are some Types of Database like Access , Visual FoxPro and MySQL.
Access is a database tools for gathering and understanding all of the information. Access is needed when a company or organization want to keep track of not only who's on the guest list. Access is a personal database system from Microsoft. It is a visually oriented software product , making it easy for non-programmers to develop useful databases while the access database structure can scale up to serve corporate needs. The most common use for this database is for small individual databases or limited use multiuser programs. It integrate the visual basic for applications language.
MySQL is one of the most database software. Applications manager MySQL server monitoring capability that helps database administrators monitor the performance and availability of a MySQL database. It is monitoring solution that provides out of the box performance metrics for make sure the MySQL database server runs efficiently. Additionally, applications manager also provides the ability to monitor any AQL query of a MySQL database by using Database Query Monitoring capability. With this application , a DBA can monitor additional performance metrics , custom database tables and expose business metrics to line of business managers. Applications manager provides a web client that allows you to visualize MySQL monitoring data from your database level in addition to your application grades. Furthermore , Application Manager also has a groping capability. So , that you can gain more visibility on which business applications are affected due to the outage. Some of components that are monitored in MySQL databases are : table lock statistics , thread details , connection time , request and connection statistics and key efficiency.
3.3 Future Trends
The desired evolution of database management system could take the form that decouples the storage mechanism from the access mechanism. One way to think of this is that there is an underlying database management system that operates only in terms of very generic database concepts to an abstract class in object-oriented programming. The implementation of database management system could be derived from this base DBMS that applied the constraint and assumptions of a particular model to the data. The underlying storage mechanism does not need necessarily conform to that view internally, but only to endure that the view remains consistent for the consumers of that view.
The relational model has been dominant for several internet generations and many database implementations. Similarly, many of the XML solutions are suffering from the growing pains that the relational database solutions went through a long time ago. However, as the need for efficient distributed data management grows both in numbers and in importance, it is likely that there will be a competitive advantage in having solution such as this , regardless of how sophisticated the pipeline approach becomes. If that is the case , then we can rely on the axiom that computing nature achors a competitive vacuum.
In conclusion , Database management system is a software that's used to store , organize and retrieve information or data and it is a program or group of programs that help with the maintenance , creation and use of a database. Database Management System is typically used for data independence and efficient access , reduced application development time , data integrity and security , uniform data administration , and concurrent access from crashes recovery. Many companies run into difficulties because they lack the exact data to make effective decisions, and the way their databases are constructed inhibits the ability to analyze data. However , everything from banking transaction to online auctions , anything deals with data and information is using some sort of Database Management System. As the technology grows , more businesses and consumers get online for certain reasons. There are several possible futures. As unlikely as it seems, distributed computing may turn out to be a fad. One particular mechanism of model adaptation may improve to the point where it satisfactorily addresses the needs of most businesses. One of the models may evolve to accept the assumptions of the other models, making it the reference model.