The Focus Of This Assignment Computer Science Essay

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The focus of this assignment is on the Network Fundamentals and Routing Protocols and Concepts modules. Where we have to research in this area and write the comparison between the topics given. Here we explain the understanding of the osi reference model, hub, switch, router, hosts and other transmission mediums in the networking hardware. How to increase the performance of the network protocols using the hub, switch, router, hosts, etc. Lastly the aim of your goal in the networking carrier.


In first part we are going to discuss about the various networking hardware devices and their comparison and contrasts.

In second part we are going to examine the different layers of the osi model.

In third part we suggest how to increase the performance of the network layer by using the various networking hardware devices.

In fourth part my career in the networking side.



A transmission medium is material substances that carry the energy waves to communicate between the two devices. As we communicate over the cell in the form of sound waves in air .similarly computers communicate though cables ,wireless communications ,radio waves .Transmission medium enables computers to send and receive data in the form of digital bit stream .There are various types of transmission mediums they are:-

  • Twisted pair cable
  • Coaxial cable
  • Optical fiber cable
  • Wireless transmission

The copper cable is mostly used in the media for twisted pairs and coaxial cables. Twisted pair cables are used to connect computers in a lan.coaxial cables are also used in the connection of the television set to the cable TV operators. Wireless transmission use radio waves or infrared light to transmit data. Hubs, switches, and routers are the devices which let you connect one or more computers to other network devices. Where we used different cables like straight cables to connect in between LANs, routers hosts. Crossover cables are used to connect routers, switch with pin layout of RJ-45.


The most commonly used in the networking are the hubs where they transmit the received packets to all the ports connected to it .They serve as the central point in the Local Area Networks (LANs).hubs used twisted pair cabling to connect the ports on it to the other network devices in the LAN.Routers and switches are different devices allocated to their specific tasks.hear we contrast and compare the Hub and switch in a Network.


Host is nothing but a end-users where each end-user as a unique IP Address to communicate in the network. Host in a network communicate with other hosts by using protocols such as file sharing, e-mail, Telnet, FTP. Some of the end-users and illustrated in the diagram to communicate over the network.

PART 2:-


This layer provides an error-free transmission over the network virtually. It encodes bits into packets before the transmission and then decodes them back to bits at the destination. It has two sub layers Media Access Control layer and Logical Link Control Layer. LAN and WAN technologies are most defined in the Data Link Layer. The other layers associated with this are Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, ATM, SLIP, HDLC, PPP, and ADCCP. It is implemented in software network interface as a driver. While transmission of the bits (binary 1's and 0) from physical layer to t he destination, data link layer performs error detection by discarding the bad frames in the transmission.

PART 3:-


Subnetting to Increase Performance of the network layer protocol.

When a network becomes more big and performance getting reduce due to more traffic .In order to solve the problem one of the best way is breaking the network into small pieces. They are many way to split the network one is subnetting.

Subnetting is a way of splitting a TCP/IP network into small and manageable pieces. It reduces the excess amount of traffic which causes the network to run slowly. When u subnet network most of the network is isolated to the subnet in which it is originated. Whereas u can still communicate across a subnet, but traffic will cross subnet boundaries when it's specifically destined host residing in an alternate subnet.

The main problem with this type of network is when two systems in a network send packets simultaneously they collide and destroy. This slows down the network by resending the packets to the destination. Switch solves this excessive collision problem by directing the packets from source to destination. All the subnets will have to be linked together through a router. Similarly each subnet will need its own hubs or switches. One more consideration is server placement in a network. It takes longer time to access the server if it is on another subnet .so if u have servers accessed by everyone in the organization, consider putting multiple NICs into each server and binding each NIC to a separate subnet. Another way is that on cross subnet traffic you can cut down each subnet by giving its own domain controller. Make sure to define sites through your Active directory where users will force to authenticate through a domain controller in their own subnet.