The existence of Web 2.0

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Abstract

There are not object that the existing of the internet has a lot of benefit since it has facilitated accessibility for broad range of information and communication among people. Furthermore the existence of Web 2.0 make the internet become friendlier since people can get connected and communicate in two ways around the globe. But we cannot hide the disadvantage of it and take for granted of the convenience. Because of the development of technology, many illegal and unethical materials can easily transport into the internet [1]. Pornography site is one of the examples. This paper will present a topic on Internet pornography especially among student.

Introduction

The term of pornography can be described as printed or visual material that deliberate to stimulate sexual enthusiasm (Compact Oxford English Dictionary online). Different countries have difference definition on what constitutes pornography [3]. But in Malaysia pornography can be easily define as any files, images or activities that contain a sexual action. It is important to study about this topic because internet and the student can be metaphor as a “best friend” where the student cannot be apart from it. Even all their assignments have been referred to the internet and as a society, I have an accountability to make sure that technology is used properly without abuse it. The topic on Internet abuse among USM student (main campus) has been discussed in the earlier proposal and I come out with one of the highest types of the internet abuse that is internet pornography. Thus, this literature review will consider Internet Pornography as main focus that will be discussed. This type of internet abuse will be my part that later will contribute into the full paper.

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This paper will examines the existing papers or work by several researchers and compare the theory between them. The scope of study will cover the current problems of the issue that is the statistic of the pornography issue in USM, and discussion about their factors that contribute to this problem together with the effects to the students. To achieve the objective on doing this paper as was stated on previous proposal, I will identify whether the problem is still in control or has reached critical state.

Background of Problems

     In the earlier study on proposal, our group has made a survey on 80 undergraduate students at USM main campus. The questionnaire was relate to the internet abuse that done by themselves, in context of representing USM students. As stated by Schumacher and Martin [4], college students are the people that have been considered at high risk for involving in internet abuse because they have ready access to the Internet and flexible time schedules. From the survey, all the questionnaire paper has been answered properly but we have chosen only 62 papers because of some technical problems. From the survey, an alarming result really makes me want to further this study. The statistic of the result shows that 34 students (54.8%) have been plagiarism during completing their assignment, 33 students (53.2%) have viewing pornography website even once while 29 students (46.8%) using the internet during the teaching and learning session. Moreover, 3 students (4.8%) have been involved in hacking system and 14 students (22.6%) have been made a fraud of identity. The statistic shown as depicted on figure 1.

From the statistic above, it shows that there are 3 critical types of internet abuse that need to aware. But in this paper I will focus on second highest type that is viewing pornography site. From the survey, a total of 5 students from 33 students that have been into the website are admitting that they always view the pornography website. It is important to study this problem since Quayle et al. [8] state that the person who with sexual interest, accessing parts of that community may result in problematic cognitions and behaviors.

Related work

Internet era has enables us to perform and completing our routine task in easy ways, quick and orderly. Compared to about ten years ago, the number of house that has internet connection can be count. But nowadays, almost every house has their own internet connection since the usage is widely beneficial other than a cheaper price to subscribe it. The rapid growth of the internet user has been accompanied by the questions about its impact, both pros and cons. We cannot guarantee that the internet facility have been used properly since every people can use it without other people knows their identity.

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Furthermore, the development of Web 2.0 enables people to make more social activities for example collaboration, cooperation, interactivity and also social networking [2]. This is one way where people can make their own site and publish anything according to their interest. Another main concern on this Web 2.0 allowing users to upload content is pornography. According to Internet Filter Review 2006, there were 28,258 internet users are viewing pornography for every second while another 372 users of internet are typing adult search terms into the search engines [5].

As suggest by George and Scerri [2], one of the factor that contribute to this problem is the sites can be easily accessible without need individuality authentication and requirement of age. Thus anybody can surf for it at everywhere and anytime without have any problem and feel of guilty. In context of USM student, internet can be access at anywhere. It is more convenience since USM has wireless hotspot and can be used for free. Internet is only by their finger clicks, either by laptop or even by using handphone. By clicking one word related to adult terms like porn or sex, a thousand of website will be listed and student can easily access for it. For example in YouTube, which is one of the most popular website among youths, pornography can be found freely on it with a great quantity of it.

Pornography site is not only focus at adult site like Redtube or Playboy. We are not aware that cartoon or anime website also contain pornographic image. This is called virtual porn where a drawings or cartoons are used to be virtual people and being manipulate to become pornographic image in their site [1]. People may think that is only a cartoon but it is totally illegal since Malaysia is one of 13 countries those ban the pornography outright. The other countries are: Saudi Arabia, Iran, Bahrain, the UAE, Egypt, Kuwait, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Kenya, India, Cuba and China [3]. As we know cartoon or anime are always being watch by teenagers where the range age of students is generally teenagers. This is one of the factors why internet pornography becomes one of the highest types of internet abuse. It become worst when the anime being downloaded, watching and spread to their friends.

     Several existing researchers also said that the rapid development of Web 2.0 increase the number of pornographic websites available. According to Johnson and Rogers [1] and George and Scerri [2] the development of Web 2.0 enables people to sharing by uploading the content through internet and the content can be view by people around the world. This service is not guarantee that people will upload only a useful and benefit content or information. This is another factor that leads the student to view the pornographic website. Maybe they are not the one who uploaded it but unfortunately they may become the one who received the pornographic content. We know that the social networking website like Facebook and MySpace are the most favorite website by youths and teenagers. But on that website, a virus contain pornographic images are spread widely and it will continue passing the image to another people who are using the same sites. According to Martin [6] students nowadays are live more their live on the Internet using the services on Web 2.0 and it is older generation's accountability to rethink the way to mentor them to be a good citizens. It totally shows that the students are doing a bad thing with the facilities. They are not using it on a good side and they tend to abuse it. As agreed by Gotterbarn [7], he also addressed the same problem and state that internet has been misuse and people can send e-mails of a lascivious nature to all women instead of establishing individual social interaction.

While we are worried about what was leading this problem, it is important to get to know the impact for the student according to the problem.

Almost for every student, internet is their main reference while doing their homework and assignment. It is quite difficult to refer from a book because it need more time to search for the right book, read and searching for the answer. Compare to the internet, students can easily type for the right keyword and can straightly find a thousand of resource answer. However, for some students who misuse it causes problems in their live. Misuse is often is accompanied by guilt, craving, and attempts to hide or reduce time online [4, 8]. For a student who are viewing pornographic site, the probability for them to addict to that bad habit is high. From viewing it through online, they tend to watch it in reality and finally they may apply what they have been watching to another people. This is another reason why the cases of rape can be increase.

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Schumacher and Martin [4] stressed that the internet addicted will cause their academic, work or interpersonal problems, suffering, tolerance symptoms, and mood-altering use of the Internet. However, Quayle et al [8] suggested that the internet addicted has similar character and behavioral to other impulse control disorder. While George and Scerri [2] stated that the natural human attraction and interest into the sexual content generates, means that there will always be a demand for pornography in future, therefore it will boost the user generated pornographic content.

From the above factors and effects of internet pornography, I can say that the problem has been in critical state and it is going to be serious if a quick action not be taken. It is an important issue since more than half students that have answered the questionnaire have been abuse the internet by viewing pornography website.

Conclusion

This pornography issue is certainly serious, and actions need to be taken and addressed by the combined effort of individuals and organizations. For a user of internet itself, they need to take responsibility for their activities and be honest to self, while parents need to make sure that their children are not use the internet for a bad side and being protected from dangers associated with utilize of the internet. For software developers, they need to consider with the issue of ethical and legal when developing new products. As a society, it is our responsible to ensure the internet facilities is used appropriately. The internet can be wonderful, which it enhancing experience and knowledge but we should provide a safe and secure environment for all citizen.

References

  1. Johnson, M. & Rogers, K. M. (2009). Too far down the Yellow Brick Road - Cyber-hysteria and Virtual Porn, Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology, Volume 4, Issue 1, Page(s): 72-81
  2. George, C. & Scerri, J. (2007). Web 2.0 and User-Generated Content: Legal challenges in the new frontier, Journal of Information, Law and Technology, volume 2
  3. Joyce, R.A. (2008) Pornography and the Internet, Internet Computing, IEEE, Volume 12, Issue 4, July-Aug 2008, Page(s): 74-77
  4. Schumacher, P. & Martin, M.J. (2003) Incidence and correlates of pathological Internet use among college student, Computer in Human Behavior Computers in Human Behavior, Jan 2000, page(s) 13-29, ISSN-0747-5632
  5. Ropelato J., (2006) Pornography Time Statistic, Internet Filter Review http://internet-filter-review.toptenreviews.com/internet-pornography-statistics.html
  6. Martin, C. D. (2007) Taking the High Road, Blogger Ethics and YouTube Common Sense, SIGCSE Bulletin, Volume 39, Issue 4, ACM, December 2007, Page(s): 11-12
  7. Gotterbarn D. (2007) Thinking Professionally Don't Soil the Commons: Turning the Blogosphere into the Clogosphere SIGCSE Bulletin, Volume 39 Issue 4, ACM, December 2007, Page(s): 12-13
  8. Quayle, E., Vaughan, M., Taylor, M. (2006), Sex offenders, internet child abuse images and emotional avoidance: The importance of values. Aggression and Violent Behavior 11, 2006, Page(s) 1-11.