The Evolution Of The Ip Video Surveillance Computer Science Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Video surveillance systems were initially created for the security of banks in the 1940s. These systems are widely seen today and have evolved to become popular safety and security systems. There are dramatic advances in technology in the modern world we live in today. These technological advances have enabled video surveillance systems to come a long way from its black-and-white days.\newline

The evolution of surveillance systems can be categorized in to three periods. Namely they are the First, Second and Third generations. The use of CCTV cameras, multiplexers, analog monitors and VCRs fall in to the first generation surveillance systems. In this time the camera images were transmitted via coaxial cables and were stored in VCR cassettes. The main drawback here was the limited storage capacity, which led to cassettes being replaces frequently for long recording periods.\newline

The second-generation surveillance system emerged in the early 1990s. This consisted of CCTV cameras, DVRs and digital monitors. In these systems the analog camera images were digitized and stored in DVRs. As the DVRs replaced the VCRs the users were given more flexibility in data viewing and storage. Pure network-enabled NVRs were introduced in 2005 due to the increase demand for network enabled DVRs. These NVRs provide remote data access and management capability.\newline

The third-generation surveillance system emerged in early 2000, which was also known as IP surveillance. These IP surveillance systems use network cameras and takes full advantage of the TCP/IP Internet. This allows users to remotely control, monitor and record live network camera.\newline

A network camera transmits live digital video over an Ethernet network to back-end devices such as a PC or 3G phone. Internet camera, IP camera and Internet video camera are all other names used for a network camera. With a dedicated IP address, a built-in web server and audio/video streaming protocols, it can work independently for real-time monitoring.\newline

Video surveillance system Created initially as a means of security for banks in the 1940s,

these systems have evolved to become one of the\newline

most popular safety and security systems today and you can see anywhere throw this system. Thanks to rapid advances in modern technologies, video\newline

surveillance systems have come a long way from their early

black-and-white days. surveillance system evolution is segmented into three periods, known as the first, second and third generation.\newline

The first-generation surveillance system consists of the use of analog CCTV cameras, multiplexers, analog monitors and VCRs. Camera images are transmitted via coaxial cables and stored in VCR cassettes. Due to\newline

limited storage capacity, the cassettes must be replaced frequently for a long period of recording.

\newline

The early 1990s saw the emergence of the second-generation surveillance system, which is composed of CCTV cameras, DVRs and digital monitors. Analog camera images are digitized and stored in DVRs. The replacement\newline

of VCRs by DVRs gives users more flexibility in data viewing and storage. Around 2005, demand for networkenabled

DVR picked up, and pure network-enabled NVRs were introduced. NVRs provide remote data access and

management capability.\newline

The third-generation surveillance system, also known as IP surveillance, appeared in early 2000.

The surveillance system uses network cameras and takes full advantage of the TCP/IP Internet. Users can remotely control, monitor and record live network camera\newline

A network camera, also known as Internet camera, IP camera or Internet video camera, transmits live digital video

over an Ethernet network to back-end devices such as a PC or 3G phone.

\newpage

\section*{\Large Chapter 3}

\setcounter{section}{3}

\setcounter{subsection}{0}

\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{\large Chapter 3}

\textbf {Camera types}

\subsection{\textrm{Fixed cameras}}

Fixed network cameras allow users to monitor a very specific area and also allow users to have the camera, and the direction it's pointing, clearly visible. A specific area can be viewed once the camera is focused on that specific location. Interchangeable lenses and housings for various environments are supported by most fixed cameras. Exchangeable C/CS-mount lens design is available in many of these cameras.

\begin{figure}[h]

\begin{center}

\includegraphics[scale=0.6]{wiimote.jpg}

\caption{Fixed network cameras including wireless and megapixel versions}

\label{Fixed network cameras}

\end{center}

\end{figure}

\normalsize

\subsection{ \textrm{Fixed dome network cameras}}

\normalsize

These cameras are often small and discreet with a fixed camera installed inside dome housing. Fixed dome network cameras can be pointed in any direction and then set in one particular place to target a specific area. Fixed domes provide unobtrusive surveillance, and the housing helps to hide which direction the camera is aiming. Such cameras are usually mounted on a wall or ceiling.

\begin{figure}[h]

\begin{center}

\includegraphics[scale=0.6]{wiimote.jpg}

\caption{Fixed dome network cameras}

\label{Fixed done network cameras}

\end{center}

\end{figure}

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Speed Dome Type}}

\normalsize

Speed dome network cameras are integrated with pan, tilt and zoom capabilities. Therefore this enables far greater field of view. Other main features of these cameras are high zoom capability, image stabilization and 360-degree endless pan. Therefore these cameras camera are mainly used for professional applications, such as airports, banks or city security.

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{PTZ cameras }}

\normalsize

In these cameras users can control pan, tilt, and zoom functions in order to monitor wider areas and zero on specific individuals, objects, or activity. For example if we consider a retail shop surveillance operators can control a PTZ camera to follow any suspected shoplifters. Both manual and automatic PTZ control if provided in most PTZ cameras. A PTZ camera or a PTZ dome camera also provides manual or automatic panning, tilting and zooming in and out of an area or object.\newline

There are 2 main types of PTZ cameras

\begin{itemize}

\item Mechanical PTZ network cameras.

\item Non-mechanical PTZ network cameras

\end{itemize}

\subsection{\textrm{PTZ dome network cameras}}

\normalsize

These cameras allow users to cover a wide area by enabling greater flexibility in pan, tilt and zoom functions. Due to the design, mounting and difficulty in seeing the camera�s viewing angle (dome coverings can be clear or smoked) PTZ dome cameras are ideal for use in discreet installations. A 360-degree, continuous pan, and a tilt of usually 180 degrees are enabled in these cameras.\newline

\begin{figure}[h]

\begin{center}

\includegraphics[scale=0.6]{wiimote.jpg}

\caption{PTZ network cameras}

\label{PTZ network cameras}

\end{center}

\end{figure}

\normalsize

\newpage

\section*{\Large Chapter 4}

\setcounter{section}{4}

\setcounter{subsection}{0}

\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{\large Chapter 4}

\textbf{Lenses Technology}

\subsection{\textrm{Lenses}}

\normalsize

When camera is selecting for video surveillance, lens should be change according to the requirement.

Cameras can be varied according to its key features such as focal length, Iris, F-number, depth of field etc

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Focal Length}}

\normalsize

Focal length is the distance between the sensor and secondary principal point of the lens. As the focal length gets longer, the field of view narrows.

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Iris}}

\normalsize

The role of the iris in the network camera is to adjust the amount of light that passes through lens like iris in our eye. This is an important factor to determine quality of image. The iris can also be used to control the depth of the field. Some camera has fixed or adjustable iris. The adjustable iris lenses can be manual or automatic. There are mainly four types of iris such as Manual-iris, Auto-iris, Video-drive iris, DC-drive iris.

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{F-number}}

\normalsize

F-number = focal lenth/ lence

When f-number is becoming smaller, the more light is admitted to the sensor. For this reason, low f-numbers allow for better image quality in low-light situations.

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Depth of field}}

\normalsize

The range of distance is clearly visualized by a lens.

Lenses include the following types:

� Fixed lens: the focal length cannot be changed.

� Vari-focal lens: the focal length can be manually adjusted. The most common vari-focal

lens is 3.5 - 8 mm.

� Zoom lens: a kind of vary-focal lens with motorized mechanism to adjust its focal length.

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Sensor Size}}

\normalsize

Image sensors available in a camera have variety of sizes such as 2/3, 1/2, 1/3, and 1/4-inch sensors. To avoid black corners and lost information, the length size should be equal to sensor size as given below.

\begin{figure}[h]

\begin{center}

\includegraphics[scale=0.6]{wiimote.jpg}

\caption{different kind sensor and lens sizes}

\label{different kind sensor}

\end{center}

\end{figure}

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Lens mounts type}}

\normalsize

There are mainly two types of mount types C and CS mount. The main difference between these two types is distance between the lens and the image sensor. Some modern camera has extra ring to adjust the distance to change the mount type. In CS-mount type the distance between the sensor and the lens should be 12.5 mm and in C-mount it is 17.526 mm.

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Image sensors}}

\normalsize

There are two kind of sensors use in the cameras. The differences and strengths between CCD and CMOS are shown in the follows.

\begin{figure}[h]

\begin{center}

\includegraphics[scale=0.6]{wiimote.jpg}

\caption{comparison between CMOS and CCD sensor}

\label{comparison}

\end{center}

\end{figure}

CMOS megapixel sensor is widely use in the modern camera to get more accurate image identification such as vehicle number plate recognize, parking lots and air port.

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Field of view}}

\normalsize

Before choosing the camera it is important to view the area of coverage and the degree of detail for increase quality of the image. The field of view is determined by the focal length of the lens and the size of the image sensor.\newline

There are three different types of views as normal view, telephoto and wide angle. These cameras are selecting appropriate application. Example are given below.

\begin{figure}[h]

\begin{center}

\includegraphics[scale=0.6]{wiimote.jpg}

\caption{different field of view}

\label{field of view}

\end{center}

\end{figure}

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Image scanning techniques}}

\normalsize

Some IP camera takes images when the object moving very fast moment. In this case the image or video will not in good quality. In security reason this will give bad effect for surveillance. There are two techniques as Interlaced scanning and progressive scanning provide by image sensor thus given good clear image example like below.\newline

In modern IP cameras have several features like noise reduction, backlight compensation, exposure zones and wide dynamic range. Those features are improved the image quality.

Noise reduction: There are main two techniques to reduce noise as spatial processing and temporal processing. It helps to get high quality image or video radius.

Dynamic range image processing converts dark images in to clear and also recognizes the images. This technique is very applicable for bank and ATM centers when considering security factors.

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Day and night ip cameras}}

\normalsize

It helps to use ip cameras in night also. Human beings are sensitive only 455566 but most of the camera sensors are sensitive visible and infrared light. Day and night cameras use IR-cut filter gadget to night visible clearly.

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{ICR}}

\normalsize

When it mount at the right place of the camera as mention below when ICR switch on it filter the IR ray in day time without blocking the visible light. In the night ICR use IR rays to visible object in black and write mode. These operations are controlled by a motor or an electromagnet.

\begin{figure}[h]

\begin{center}

\includegraphics[scale=0.6]{wiimote.jpg}

\caption{different field of view}

\label{field of view}

\end{center}

\end{figure}

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{IR Corrected}}

\normalsize

Desing this kind of lens it provide focus visible light and IR ray on the same point. It provides better quality image or video.\newline

An IR illuminator \newline

When image is taken in the low light or night time condition IR illuminator is purchasing IR light to visiable high quality videos.

\normalsize

\newpage

\section*{\Large Chapter 5}

\setcounter{section}{5}

\setcounter{subsection}{0}

\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{\large Chapter 5}

\subsection{\textrm{Bandwidth and storage}}

\normalsize

When we are designing a video surveillance system, Network bandwidth and storage requirements are going to be key factors. In designing surveillance system, bandwidth storage calculation depends on some key factors such as;

� Number of cameras and the duration of time camera will be recording

� Type of recording (continuous/ event based/trigged base)

� Image resolution ( high resolution needs higher bandwidth, low resolution needs lower bandwidth)

� Video compression mode: Motion JPEG, MPEG-4, H.264

� Duration of record time of cameras per day

� According to complexity of the scene (crowded place)

For a example;

At least 2-3 Mbit/s network bandwidth is needed for a system that contains 10 cameras with high image quality and high frame rate. When the number of cameras increases (12-15), gigabyte bandwidth support for the system will be needed.\newline

This is important in reducing bandwidth and assists to transfer high quality video stream through the internet under very low storage costs. Some of the examples for compression technologies are; Motion JPEG, MPEG-4, and H.264

Below given is an equation for calculating video compression. Here there will be no consideration on the amount of motions of the video; however these equations will have a major effect on the bandwidth storage.

bit rate / 8 = byte pre second

byte pre second x 3600 = byte pre hour

byte pre hour / 1000 = mega byte per hour

mega byte per hour x number of hours operating = number of mega byte operating per day

number of mega byte operating per day/ 1000 = number of giga byte operating per day

number of giga byte operating per day x requested period of storage = Storage need Bit Rate (Kbit/s) Frames per second MB/hour Hours of operation GB/

Storage media

High capacity storage is very important for a data backup system. There exists five storage media;

I. Internal buffer: In the internal buffer there is a flash memory inside the camera which can store videos for a short period of time.

II. External memory cards: is a portable device that can be plugged into a camera.

III. DAS: In DAS, Images are transmitted from a camera to a host PC via Ethernet cables and stored directly in the hard disk drive of the PC. This is better for small surveillance systems.

IV. NAS: When the number of cameras increase it would be difficult to save data in the PC like in the DAS storage. Therefore in this case we have to use an external storage device that is capable of connecting LAN using wire and also that has high storage capacity.

V. SAN: Same data is stored simultaneously in several storage devices (servers) that connect via fiber in the LAN.

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Data Backup Techniques}}

\normalsize

Data backups play an important role in IP video surveillance system. There are four techniques used to backup data in a system which are known as RAID, Data replication, Server Clustering and Multiple video recipients.

I. RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks): This is a method that is used to store data in several hard discs but in a system it is saved only in one place.

II. Data replication: In this method network system file servers are configured to share same duplicated data with other servers.

III. Server clustering: In this method two servers are used to save same data as a RAID system.

IV. Multiple video recipients: In this method data is saved in an outside location to make sure that data is safe in a disastrous situation.\newline

\newpage

\section*{\Large Chapter 6}

\setcounter{section}{6}

\setcounter{subsection}{0}

\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{\large Chapter 6}

\subsection{\textrm{Video compression}}

\normalsize

In the world of IP cameras, video compression is used to reduce and remove redundant videos, reduce usage of bandwidth and enhance storage capacity. The key factors in good compression are low file size after the compression and undamaged image quality. Due to these factors video compression provides high-quality video images. Different network camera models use different compression technologies. There are three techniques used in video compression, they are MJPEG, MPEG-4 and H.264. Each technique has a different compression ratio and is intended for different applications and purposes.

Motion JPEG: This was formed by JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) in 1992 under an unlicensed standard. In this technique all frames are encoded and decoded individually. Every frame is independent. The disadvantages of MJPEG are high cost of bandwidth and high data redundancy. This is used in snapshot viewing and local storage.

MPEG-4: This was formed by the MPEG working group under ISO and IEC in 1998 under a licensed standard. Except for some key frames which are compressed entirely, in this technique the difference from a reference key frame is considered, leaving out redundant information and compressing only frame to frame differences. This provides high quality images, low cost of bandwidth and low file size than in Motion JPEG.

H.264: This was initially developed by ITU (International Telecommunication Union) and then published by JVT, a group combined by ITU and ISO/IEC, in 2003. This is the latest video compression standard. The main advantages of this technique are reduced storage, lower bandwidth costs, higher resolution and frame rate, and improved megapixel camera performance than other compression formats. This is used for real time transition and moving picture viewing.

\begin{figure}[h]

\begin{center}

\includegraphics[scale=0.6]{Processor.jpg}

\caption{compressed file size of origin}

\label{size of origin}

\end{center}

\end{figure}

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Audio compression}}

\normalsize

Audio signals are in usually analog signal mode. Therefore it should be converted into digital audio signal using a sampling process. Thereafter audio compression techniques are used to radius the size and storage of the file. After that the conversion and compression is done using an audio codec. There are few compression techniques available, such as G.711, AMR and AAC. A comparison of G7.11, AMR and AAC is given below.

\begin{figure}[h]

\begin{center}

\includegraphics[scale=0.6]{Processor.jpg}

\caption{compressed file size of origin}

\label{size of origin}

\end{center}

\end{figure}

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Audio mode}}

\normalsize

There are three basic modes of audio communication: simplex, half duplex and full duplex. These modes are used for appropriate surveillance systems as they want.

I. Simplex mode: In this mode the audio is sent from the camera to the surveillance monitor center or either from the monitor center to the camera. This means the audio can be sent only in one direction.

II. Half duplex mode: In this mode the audio can be sent in both directions. But the audio can be sent only in one direction at a time. E.g: walkie-talkie

III. Full duplex mode: In this mode the audio can be sent in both directions simultaneously

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Conclusion}}

\normalsize

\normalsize

\newpage

\section*{\Large Chapter 7}

\setcounter{section}{7}

\setcounter{subsection}{0}

\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{\large Chapter 7}

\subsection{\textrm{Video management system}}

\normalsize

The key factor of the any video surveillance is the power full central management software. Most advanced NVR softwares can view and manage multiple cameras at once, multiple recording modes(including continuous, scheduled, and triggered recording), can handle large image files with high frame rate, fast search capabilities, pan/tilt/zoom control, audio support, and remote access via web browser as well as cell phones and other handheld devices. Therefore it provides reliability, flexibility, scalability and high efficiency. Some software programs also support intelligent surveillance using sophisticated video analytics such as facial recognition and advanced motion detection.

There are two kind of video management platform to do video management. They are PC based and NVR based.

PC based

In this platform the NVR software is installed in a single pc. The CPU performance and the operating system should be considered before the installation of the software. Large organizations, institutes and other enterprises usually use pc base surveillance systems because there are advantages such as scalability, integration, and flexibility.

NVR based

This is a devise in which the NVR software is pre-installed and it provides an easy-to-use interface and a video management platform. This devise has functions such as a DVR with a network interface to connect the CCTV cameras. However, unlike PC-based, NVR does not allow changing or upgrading of components. This is widely used in small- and medium-sized surveillance systems.

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Digital Input Devices}}

\normalsize

These devices are connected to the surveillance to gather specific information such as breaking glasses, appearing of smoke that is important for the security purposes.

\normalsize

\newpage

\subsection{\textrm{Digital Output Devices}}

\normalsize

These devices can give messages to the observing people.

Examples: Alarm, alert light

\normalsize

\newpage

\section*{\Large Chapter 8}

\setcounter{section}{8}

\setcounter{subsection}{0}

\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{\large Chapter 8}

\subsection{\textrm{Intelligent video system}}

\normalsize

With the passage of time, many manufacturers tried to supply not only video surveillance, but also intelligent video applications with functionality in detecting vehicle number plates and also even detecting human emotions.

There are two broad categories of systems that are used for implementing intelligent video:

1. Centralized architectures

2. Distributed architectures

\normalsize

\newpage

\subsection{\textrm{DVRs and centralized intelligence platform}}

\normalsize

In centralized architectures, all the details that are collected from analog cameras and sensors are connected to one server through the intelligent DVR. These analog cameras are connected to the DVR by using COAX cables.

The disadvantage here is that there is high CPU requirement and limitations in analog camera usage. Therefore centralized platform will not be much flexible and also scalable.

\begin{figure}[h]

\begin{center}

\includegraphics[scale=0.6]{Processor.jpg}

\caption{compressed file size of origin}

\label{size of origin}

\end{center}

\end{figure}

\normalsize

\newpage

\subsection{\textrm{Distributed intelligence platform}}

\normalsize

Distributed architecture platform is able to overcome the limitations of centralized architectures by using intelligent video cameras that can provide the necessary information.

For example when recognizing the number plates in vehicles, only a few snapshots that are relevant will be transferred through the intelligent video camera.

Following are some of the advantages of distributed intelligent platform when comparing against a centralized platform;

� Real-time analysis and response

� Reduced labor cost

� Lessened server workload, storage space and bandwidth usage.

� Higher scalability and integration

� Better flexibility and cost-effectiveness.

� Higher bandwidth efficiency

\normalsize

\newpage

\subsection{\textrm{Intelligent video system detections}}

\normalsize

1. Tamper detection

Tamper detection is where the controlling units are notified by ringing alarms whenever a person tries to redirect, defocus, block or spray-print the detecting camera.

2. Loitering detection

This helps to identify suspicious behavior of people by ringing an alarm before the actual damage occurs.

For example when a man stands very close to a car for long period of time, the system may ring an alarm.

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Head counting and facial recognition}}

\normalsize

This is important especially for the business sector since it counts the number of customers.

\normalsize

\newpage

\section*{\Large Chapter 9}

\setcounter{section}{9}

\setcounter{subsection}{0}

\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{\large Chapter 9}

\subsection{\textrm{how to build quality IP video surveillance system}}

\normalsize

The quality of video surveillance is based on camera positioning and environmental considerations. There are few recommendations for achieving quality IP video surveillance system.

� Clearly identify Surveillance objective (the people or object, view of filed, position of the camera�.etc)

� Use lots of light or add light if needed

� Avoid direct sunlight(if this occur it reduce image sensor performance)

� Avoid backlight

� Reduce the dynamic range of the scene

� Adjust camera settings

� Legal considerations (this depends on the laws that vary from country to country)

System configurations

There are three kinds of surveillance that can be established at an organization. Small systems, medium systems, large centralized systems and large distributed systems.

Small system: In this system there are approximately 1 to 30 cameras. NVR software and storage hard disk (DAS) media usually consists of one server. All videos and images are viewed by using in this machine. This can be accessed remotely via internet or LAN by authorized people.

\begin{figure}[h]

\begin{center}

\includegraphics[scale=0.6]{Processor.jpg}

\caption{A small system}

\label{small system}

\end{center}

\end{figure}

Medium system: In this there are approximately 25 to 100 cameras. NAS storage is used with RAID configuration to provide increased performance and reliability. \newline

Large centralized system: In this there are approximately 50 to +1000 cameras. In order to get a high performance there should be reliability, good backup techniques (RAID, server clustering, Multiple video recipients), high storage capacity(SAN) , manage bandwidth and load. There is a master server that controls the whole system and decides what kind of video is going to be stored at what storage device.\newline

Large distributed system: If multiple site surveillance is required with centralized management, distributed recording systems may be used. As mentioned large centralized system features are required for this system.

\normalsize

\newpage

\section*{\Large Chapter 10}

\setcounter{section}{10}

\setcounter{subsection}{0}

\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{\large Chapter 10}

\subsection{\textrm{Wireless Connectivity}}

\normalsize

IEEE 802.11, developed by the IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee, is a set of standards for wireless local area network computer communication. Wireless network devices mainly use, 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n.

The most common modes of wireless communication are;

� Wireless local area network (LAN) and

� Wireless bridges.

A wireless LAN is used to cover indoors and shorter distances where as wireless bridges are used to connect buildings or multiple sites together.

Wireless network cameras are especially used in some circumstances such as in historically important building where extra cables can damage its value also in some places that need frequent changing of cameras as in jails.

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{3GPP connectivity}}

\normalsize

This is a set of open standard protocol for viewing audio and video bit streams via a 3G mobile phone. Network cameras provide 3GPP support, allowing users to access video images at anytime, anywhere via a 3G mobile phone. Thus this standard is adopted by many popular mobile phone vendors today.

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Privacy and Security of IP video surveillance}}

\normalsize

Privacy and security is essential when considering the setting up of an IP-based video solution. What users need the most is to be assured that no outside person can tap into their video feeds. When it comes to IP network cameras, protecting files from such unauthorized viewing or tampering is quite a simple task. How these cameras provide protection by simply encrypting the video beforehand, thereby allowing only the authorized viewers. In addition to this many other systems also provide password protection and authentication at differing levels of security to prevent unauthorized access.

IP cameras are also capable of adding encrypted digital watermarks into the video feeds; these digital watermarks also act as a protection method. Such digital watermarks may comprise of;

� time � to create trails of accessed times

� location and - to create trails of edited files

� user activity � which user has accessed the files to view/edit

When discussing about wireless IP cameras, WPA (WiFi Protected Access), WPA2, AES, and 802.1x authentication standards are considered as primary level of wireless network protection. Using WPA, the encrypted videos each frame is transmitted via (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol).

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Power over Ethernet (PoE)}}

\normalsize

PoE (Power-over-Ethernet), developed by the IEEE802.3af task force is a technology that uses standard Ethernet cabling. PoE will enable network cameras, IP telephones and other LAN enabled devices to be used over IP network infrastructure.

What are the major benefits of PoE?

1. Eliminate the need for expensive cabling � Since the PoE cameras in IP- based surveillance system receives and also transmits data through the use of a single Ethernet cable, expensive cabling is unnecessary. The system merely operates via an existing network.

2. Enabling flexible camera installations � Since PoE doesn�t require power outlets, the cameras can be placed basically anywhere even if AC sockets are missing. Here the power is supplied from the data ports itself. The additional benefit is that users being able to install Wireless LAN access points for flexibility.

3. Enabling easy UPS installations- This is especially useful when the video surveillance applications require 24/ 7 surveillance even when power goes off.

\normalsize

\newpage

\section*{\Large Chapter 11}

\setcounter{section}{11}

\setcounter{subsection}{0}

\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{\large Chapter 11}

\subsection{\textrm{Camera housing}}

\normalsize

The main purpose of the housing is to protect cameras from damages caused by destruction or insensitive environments. Thereby it assures the continuous operation of the cameras.

The two major types of housing are:

� vandal-proof housing

� weather-proof housing

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Vandal-proof housing:}}

\normalsize

This type of housing is designed to resist violent attacks, and enable cameras to operate in high-risk public environments such as prisons, transportation stations, parking lots, and ATM sites. A vandal-proof housing consists of a robust design made of metal or polycarbonate plastic. Therefore it can resist a violent impact force.

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Weather-proof housing:}}

\normalsize

These types of housing are designed to protect cameras from damage caused by rain and dust. Therefore it allows cameras to be used in external environments. If the environment is extremely warm or cold, housing with a built-in heater and fan will be needed. This will ensure constant camera operation.

There are IP ratings that the weather-proof housing needs to conform to should conform to which defines protection against solid objects and liquid on a six and eight scale respectively. It is accepted that housing should be at least IP66-rated. This would provide necessary protection for camera components.

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Covering}}

\normalsize

There are 2 main types of coverings. They are:

� Transparent

� Smoke

Smoke covering

A housing with a smoke cover would make the camera�s shooting direction invisible. Therefore this can be used if people feel nervous with the view of the cameras pointing at them.

Transparent covering

The transparent covering is also known as the �Window�. This is made of high-quality glass or durable, polycarbonate plastic. Transparent coverings are required to be of high quality in order to minimize its effect on image quality.

\normalsize

\subsection{\textrm{Camera mounting}}

\normalsize

Network cameras are required to be placed in different locations. Users can choose different mounting solutions for different types of problems faced. Furthermore different types of mounting would also provide different levels of protection for the cameras.

Below listed are some of the different types of mounting:

� Wall mount

� Gooseneck wall mount

� Pole mount

� Drop-ceiling mount

� Pendant mount

� Corner mount

\begin{figure}[h]

\begin{center}

\includegraphics[scale=0.6]{Processor.jpg}

\caption{type of camera}

\label{camera}

\end{center}

\end{figure}

\normalsize

\newpage

\section*{\Large Chapter 12}

\setcounter{section}{12}

\setcounter{subsection}{0}

\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{\large Chapter 12}

\subsection{\textrm{Applications}}

\normalsize

Application of network cameras can be divided into two categories;

1. professional application

2. SMB(small and medium size bussines,3GPP and home application.

Professional application need more advance technology to meet day to day changing of requirements. In SMB, surveillance system does the monitoring and management function. Home video surveillance mainly stands for home security. In 3GPP application real time monitoring and control takes place and anyone can update details even using a 3G phone.

Following are some of the features application surveillance system comprise of,

\begin{figure}[h]

\begin{center}

\includegraphics[scale=0.6]{Processor.jpg}

\caption{type of camera}

\label{camera}

\end{center}

\end{figure}

\normalsize

\newpage

\section*{\Large Chapter 13}

\setcounter{section}{13}

\setcounter{subsection}{0}

\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{\large Chapter 13}

\subsection{\textrm{Problems associated with IP video surveillance }}

\normalsize

To establish and maintaining IP camera based video surveillance need higher technical and theoretical knowledge than legacy CCTV camera surveillance. There are three important design requirements to establish properly Such as compatible bandwidth speed, power and signal feeds and multi-service traffic segmentation. If these are not properly design, the system will not function. Sometimes also it has other problems like

(1) IP cameras being too expensive more than equivalent Analog Cameras

(2) Storage too expensive,

(3) Smart cameras not widely available,

(4) Limited digital video recorder (DVR) support

(5) Lack of integrator training.

\normalsize

\newpage

\section*{\Large Chapter 14}

\setcounter{section}{14}

\setcounter{subsection}{0}

\addcontentsline{toc}{section}{\large Chapter 14}

\subsection{\textrm{Conclusion}}

\normalsize

Even though IP video surveillance can address most of the problems in ordinary video surveillance due to high cost and lack of knowledge regarding this technology. IP video surveillance still unable to replace ordinary video surveillance so problem associated with ordinary system still as discussed earlier still persisting field. On the other hand companies that are produce try develop highly advanced IP cameras at low cost and compatible open source software, try to give maximum DVR support, though ongoing research publications try to increase knowledge among society regarding IP surveillance. Beyond this point there are challenges to develop intelligent IP video surveillance system with developing new video analytics algorithms, vector partitioning and build artificial intelligent like neural computing to detect every suspicious incidence, that may pose a threat to people, property and infrastructure. So I�m trying to complete my survey report on how to use IP video surveillance and intelligent IP video surveillance to benefit humans.

\normalsize

\newpage

\bibliographystyle{plain}

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.