The Encrypting File System Computer Science Essay

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Encryption is the process of making information indecipherable to protect it from unauthorized Viewing or use. A key is required to decode the information.

(EFS) provides encryption for data in NTFS files stored on disk. This encryption Is public key-based and runs as an integrated system service, making it easy to manage, Difficult to attack, and transparent to the file owner.

SUPPORT OF THE USE OF GROUP ON ENCRYPTED FILES IS NOT PROVIDED BY EFS

In Microsoft Windows XP, EFS supports file sharing of encrypted files among multiple users. With this support, you can give individual users permission to access an encrypted file. The ability to add additional users is restricted to individual files. Support for multiple users on folders is not provided in either Microsoft Windows 2000 or Windows XP. Also, support for the use of groups on encrypted files is not provided by EFS.

B) TO SUPPORT FOR MULTIPLE USERS ON FOLDERS IS NOT PROVIDED IN WINDOWS XP BUT EFS DOES SUPPORT FILE SHARING BETWEEN MULTIPLE USERS ON A SINGLE FILE

EFS FILE SHARING:

Support for the use of groups on encrypted files is not provided in either Windows 2000 or Windows XP. Also, support for multiple users on folders is not provided in either Windows 2000 or Windows XP. However, in Windows XP, EFS does support file sharing between multiple users on a single file.

The use of EFS file sharing in Windows XP provides another opportunity for data recovery by adding additional users to an encrypted file.

Enabling EFS File Sharing:

Sharing encrypted files using EFS has been supported since Windows 2000 through Win32 application program interfaces (API), but EFS has not been exposed in the Windows Explorer UI until the development of the Windows XP Professional client.

To encrypt a file for multiple users:

1. Open Windows Explorer and select the file you want to encrypt

2. Right-click the chosen file and select Properties from the context menu.

3. Select the Advanced button to enable EFS.

4. Encrypt the file by selecting the Encrypt contents to secure data check box as

shown in Figure 2 below. Click OK.

Figure 2. Encrypting contents to secure data

C) WINDOWS XP PERFORMS REVOCATION CHECKING ON ALL CERTIFICATES FOR USERS WHEN THEY RE ADDED TO AN ENCRYPTED FILE

Important Windows XP now performs revocation checking on all certificates for other users when they're added to an encrypted file. For performance reasons, users that hold a private key are not checked for revocation. However, certificates that do not contain a CDP (Certificate Revocation List Distribution Point) extension (such as those from some 3rd party CAs) will not be validated for revocation status. If the revocation status check on a certificate fails,

The messages shown in Figure 7 below will be displayed and the certificate will not be used.

Or

Figure 7. Failed check of certificate revocation status

If the revocation status and chain building completed successfully, the user will be added to the dialog box and the file updated as shown in Figure 8 below.

3. Click OK to register the change and continue.

Figure 8. Successfully adding a new user

D) DIFFERENT RESULTS CAN OCCUR WHEN MOVING OR COPYING ENCRYPTER FILE BETWEEN LOCATION

Copying, Moving and Encrypted Files:

Different results can occur when moving or copying encrypted files between locations. For example, when copying an encrypted file from a local machine to a server on the network, different results of the copy operation will occur depending on the operating system being used on the server. In general, copying a file will inherit the EFS properties of the target, but a move operation will not inherit the EFS properties of the target folder.

When copying an encrypted file:

If the target server is running Microsoft Windows NT® Server 4.0, the file will be silently decrypted and copied to the server.

If the target server is running Windows 2000, and the machine account of the server is trusted for delegation in the Active Directory, the file will be silently decrypted and copied to the server where it will be re-encrypted using a local profile and encryption key.

If the target server is running Windows 2000 and the machine account of the server is not trusted for delegation in the Active Directory, or the server is in a workgroup or a Windows NT 4.0 domain, the file will not be copied and the user will receive an "access denied" error message.

The "access denied" error message is returned to applications from the NTFS file system in order to ensure compatibility with existing applications. The use of an alternate or more descriptive error message would cause many applications to fail or behave erratically.

The Windows XP Professional client contains some enhancements in the area of copying encrypted files. Both the shell interface and the command line now support an option to allow or disallow file decryption. When an encrypted file is copied to a target location that does not allow remote encryption, the user will be prompted with a dialog box that allows a choice of whether or not to decrypt the file.

E) ONCE EFS USES A CERTIFICATE IT IS CACHED ON THE LOCAL MACHINE:

Certificate Caching:

Once a certificate uses EFS it will be cached on the local machine. This eliminates the need for looking up users in Active Directory every time a new user is added to an encrypted file. Certificates that are part of a certificate chain, and self-signed certificates, can be used and cached. When a user certificate that is part of a certificate chain is added to an encrypted file, the certificate will be cached in the current users

"Other People" certificate store as shown in Figure 9 below.

Figure 9. Caching User certificate in "Other People" certificate store

Certificates for other people that are self-signed, such as those generated automatically by EFS when no certification authority is available, are cached in the "Trusted People" certificate store of the current user as shown in Figure 10 below:

Figure 10. Caching user certificate in the "Trusted People" certificate store

When a certificate is added to the "Trusted People" store, the user is warned that the certificate will be explicitly trusted and asks the user to verify the action. Once a certificate is added to the Trusted People store, no certificate status checking will be performed with the exception of time validity. The Microsoft Outlook® 2002 client may also use the "Trusted People" Crypto API store for storage of individual certificate trust decisions.

F) YOU MUST BE LOGGED ON AS AN ADMINISTRATOR TO PERFORM THESE

STEP

Importing and Exporting Data Recovery Agent Keys The following steps and illustrations outline the process for importing and exporting DRA keys.

Exporting Keys:

Perform the following steps to export the certificate and private key of the default domain DRA:

1. Log on to the domain with the administrator account on the first domain controller in the domain.

2. Select Run from the Start menu.

3. Type mmc.exe and press Enter. An empty MMC shell starts up.

4. Select the Console menu, and then select Add/Remove Snap-In. A dialog box appears with a list of all the snap-ins that have been added to this MMC shell.

5. Click the Add button. A list of all the registered snap-ins on the current machine appears.

6. Double-click on the Certificates snap-in. Choose My User Account then click the Finish button.

7. Click the Close button on the Add Standalone Snap-In dialog box, then click OK on the Add/Remove Snap-in dialog box. The MMC now contains the personal certificate store for Administrator.

8. Expand the tree view of the certificate store. Click through Certificates, Current User, Personal, and then Certificates as shown in Figure 12 below . When clicking on the Certificates folder on the left, the right-hand pane will display a list of all the certificates for the administrator account. By default, two certificates will most likely be in the store.

Figure 12. Working with the file recovery certificate

9. Right-click on the certificate intended for file recovery. This default domain DRA certificate should have a 99-year lifetime.

10. After right-clicking on the file recovery certificate, choose All Tasks and then Export from the context menu. A wizard will guide the export process.

11. Choose yes, export the private key as shown in Figure 13 below and then click next.

Figure 13. Exporting the private key

Important It is important to ensure that the "Yes, export the private key" radio button is selected in the wizard to guarantee that the private key is removed from the system when the export is complete.

G) YOU CAN LOSE ACCESS TO ENCRYPTED FILE IF YOU INSTALL A NEW OPERATING SYSTEM OR UPGRADE YOUR CURRENT ONE OR IF THE CURRENT OPERATING SYSTEM FAIL. THE STEP CAN HELP YOU REGAIN ACCESS TO ENCRYPTED FILE

Do one of the following:

To recover encrypted files stored on an external hard disk, connect the hard disk to the new computer.

To recover encrypted files that are stored on a different partition from your operating system, move the encrypted files to a computer that is working or install a functional operating system on the current computer.

To open encrypted files stored on a system partition after re-installing the operating system, follow the steps below to re-install your original certificate and key.

Insert the removable media that your certificate and key are saved on.

Open Certificate Manager by clicking the Start button, typing certmgr.msc into the Search box, and then pressing ENTER.‌

Click the Personal folder.

Click the Action menu, point to All Tasks, and then click Import. This opens the Certificate Import wizard.

Click Next.

Type the location of the file that contains the certificate, or click Browse and navigate to the file's location, and then click Next.

If you have navigated to the right location but don't see the certificate you are importing, then, in the list next to the File name box, click Personal Information Exchange.

Type the password, select the Mark this key as exportable check box, and then click Next.

Do not enable strong private key protection.

Click Place all certificates in the following store, confirm that the Personal store is indicated, click Next, and then click Finish.

After you import the certificate, you should have access to the encrypted files.

So encryption is the best method used for window XP to protect data, help data to be transferred with out being damaged, it shares data simply and checking user certificates and adding user.

TASK 2

A) TO DESCRIBE HOW THESE FILE ARE DIFFERENT FROM OTHER FILE ON YOU MACHINE TO DISCUSS THE MANNER IN WHICH THESE FILE ARE USED BY THE SYSTEM AND ALSO EXPLAIN PRIVACY IMPLICATIONS OF EACH ONE OF THEM IF ANY

Introduction:

Cookies

Is small text file packet sent by an internet sever to web browser and stored on user's computer hard disk. A cookies files contains data like site preference, id sever-based session, shopping cart contents and authentication and also other data that can be stored in text files and it know as web cookies or "the cookie jar", browser cookies and HTTP cookies.

The term "cookies" comes from magic cookies which is a packet of data a program receives and sends again unchanged. Different browsers will store the cookie in different files locations, for example in Window 95/98 these files were located in the following located at;

There seven type of cookies file that are being created by web browser, which:

Persistent cookie

Secure cookie

Http Only cookies

Third-party cookie

Session cookie

Temporary internet file :

Are multimedia files video, audio, images and web page caches which are created by web browser in a special directory/folder after a user visited certain websites? This allows such website to load more quickly the next time they are visited and also when internet connection is not available, previously cached website (web page) will still be available in offline.

All this files are located in a specific folder/directory which is called Temporary internet files. In Windows 95/98 these files were located in the following locations at %systemdir%\Temporary Internet Files\Content.ie5 and in Windows 2000/XP these file is located at %systemdir%\Documents and Settings\%username%\Local Settings\Temporary Internet Files\Content.ie5. Despite the term Temporary this file are remain it hard disk until ther user decide to delete them.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTTP_cookie

URL History

A URL stand for Uniform reserve Locator ("URL"). This is a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that specifies where an identified resource is available and the mechanism for retrieving it or Is a standard type of internet address used on Web to locate resource and service associated with a variety of protocols (HTTP, FTP, etc.), but the best-known example of the use of URLs is for the addresses of web pages on the World Wide Web.

Any web browser must record or stored all URL address which user access them. Once a user visit a website, the address of that web site is being stored in a URL history file.

This is happening because in a near future, if a user will want to visit/used a same address again a web browser will automatically provided that address by looking on the URL history file.

This file are locate at :

Windows 95/98 %systemdir%\History\History.ie5 and in Windows 2000/XP the file locations have changed %systemdir%\Documents and Settings\%username%\Local Settings\History\history.ie5

B) PRINT LISTS OF SAMPLE ENTRIES OF EACH TYPE FROM THE HARD DRIVE OF YOUR PC CREAT THROUGH YOUR BROWSING AND EXPLAIN THE CONTENTS AS FAR AS POSSIPLE:

Contents as Managing Temporary Internet Files:

Files downloaded from Web sites are stored on your hard drive in your Internet cache (pronounced like cash). You're probably unaware of it because it's hidden behind the scenes. However, you can control both the size of the cache and how often pages are updated.

To do so, follow these steps:

1. Start Microsoft Internet Explorer.

2. Choose Tools → Internet Options to open the Internet Options page. In the General tab, you'll see some options under Temporary Internet Files

3. Click the Settings button in the Temporary Internet Files pane to get to the dialog box.

C) WHERE ARE THESE FILE LOCATED TO DESCRIBE THE FACILITIES AVAILABLE IN THE TWO MAIN BROWSERS (MICROSOFT INTERNET EXPLORER AND NETSCAPE) FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THESE FILE:

Netscape Navigator used to stores cookies in a file named cookies.txt. Internet Explorer stores cookies in multiple files in directory windows cookies. And also in Windows 2000/XP these files were locate in Netscape Navigator stores cookies in and in Internet Explorer stores cookies in are found in systemdir Documents and SettingsusernameCookies.

The file allocated in drive c

Netscape 4.x.

The cookies are in .nets cape cookies.txt.

Mozilla and Netscape 6.x.

Mozilla's cookie file is also named cookies.txt, located somewhere under mozilla, in the directory of your profile. The full path usually ends up looking somewhat like .mozilladefaultsome-weird-string cookies.txt.

Internet Explorer

.

You can produce a cookie file get can use by using the File menu, Import and Export, Export Cookies. This has been tested with Internet Explorer 5; it is not guaranteed to work with earlier versions.

Other browsers.

If you are using a different browser to create your cookies, '--load-cookies' will only work if you can locate or produce a cookie file in the Netscape format that Wget expects.

D) STATE HOW YOU CAN DELETE THESE FILE FROM YOUR DISK SO AS TO REMOVE TRACES OF YOUR BROWSING SESSIONS TO WHAT EXTENT IS THE DELETION PROCESS EFFECTIVE:

Delete those files. To do so, click the Delete Files button under Temporary Internet Files in the Internet Options dialog box.

Am concluding by saying that deleting cookies, URL history and internet temporary files to remove evidence of websites which am visiting.

TASK 3

forensic investigators use cookies url history and temporary internet file durng the process of evidence gathering to decribe the steps the necessary to investigate the following activities

a) excessive use of internet

TRACKING OF LOGON DURATION AND TIMES:

Some of the evidence you can gather to help determine logon and duration times can be derived from the Temporary Internet Files and Recent Documents list. These files can help establish and support patterns of use. Although a smart user might clean up these files frequently using the disk cleanup utilities that Windows provides, it is always good to check to see what information is available. The cleanup utilities are in the Start Menu, Programs, Accessories, Disk Cleanup. This utility erases the Internet files, temporary files, and most cookies. See prior sections of this article on how to find and access Temporary Files.

RECENT DOCUMENTS LIST:

The recent documents list can show you the latest documents that a user has accessed. There are two ways to see this list of documents, but only one shows you when the items on the list were accessed. First, you can see the documents from the Start menu, under the Documents "tab"/selection. You can click on any one of the documents listed and the document is brought up on the screen . You can also access the same list, via the Recent sub-folder under the Windows folder . This view will give you the name of the document and when each was last modified. Windows 95 does not have this directory; only

Windows 98 and more recent copies of Windows have a recent directory.

B) VISITS TO BANNED WEB SITES:

COOKIES:

For your investigation, you need to determine where each cookie takes you. Cookies can be named many things ; so by exploring and recording where each cookie takes you, you can determine what the user had been doing on the Web sites where the cookies came

from. Note the date and time of each cookie; this is when they were created or accessed by the user for the first time for this site. However, some cookies are generated without a user having to actually access a particular site. These "magic cookies," which are generated without a user having to actually access a particular site, are often marketing gimmicks or ploys to get the user to go to their Web site. To determine where a user

actually visited, you need to compare the cookies files to the history files. History files are described later in this article.

TEMPORARY INTERNET FILES:

The advantage of looking at the Temporary Internet Files over any other files is that this shows you the address of the site, and when it was last modified, last accessed, and last checked. This can be very useful when gathering evidence of too much Internet access, or inappropriate Internet access. These can also be useful in proving a pattern of logon

and duration times.

C) USE OF UNAUTHORIZED SOFTWARE:

TRACKING OF ILLICIT SOFTWARE INSTALLATION AND USE

Okay, how do you actually begin to search for this evidence? First, you need your lists of what can be on any given PC and what is registered to be on the specific PC you are investigating. You are also looking for a list of all information that pertains to the PC under review; specifically, information such as verification of assignment of the PC to a specific employee and, if available, all software licensed for the given PC.

You should then check and compare the information on these lists against the master list maintained by Operations.

So the excessive user of the internet helps the forensic investigator to find information required by using authorized software banned websites and the excessive use of internet.

TASK 4

PRIVANCY AND SURVEILLANCE:

Nowadays, despite national and International agreements that give individuals rights to privacy and a fair judicial process, the practice of surveillance is growing in complexity, thanks to the spread of electronic networks. It is increasingly being used by the private sector for economic purposes, and by the state for security purposes.

Increasingly, however, individual identity is central to the whole reason for processing data. Data surveillance is being used, for example, for:

Direct marketing - where individuals are targeted for some form of advertising or lobbying based on their known buying habits;

Political lobbying - where political parties increasingly use dataveillance as a means of identifying floating or swing voters in key marginal constituencies, in the hope of targeting election campaign resources more effectively;

Police investigations - where databases which log activities such as credit card transactions and mobile phone calls are used to target individuals as part of serious crime investigations. Police are increasingly using DNA samples as a means of identifying people, and retaining them on database for future reference;

Risks to privacy

Increasingly, the use of proprietary tools or services on the Internet comes at some cost to privacy.

For some time now it has been possible to embed, or encode, within the content of computer file information on the person, computer or software programme that created the file. This means that anyone with access to digital versions could identify not only the author but also the registration details of the software tool used.

This now applies to the Internet. Web browsers, and some of the proprietary plug-ins that browsers use, pass information about their users back to home base. Companies do this in an attempt to protect their intellectual property.

The privacy implications of the use of these tools are increasingly problematic; a growing number of software tools can only be registered online, which usually entails the transfer of information (about you as the user and about your computer) over which you have no control. Microsoft's XP operating system is a recent example of this.

Internet firewalls9 are another illustration of potential for the invasion of privacy. Some of these programs, such as Real Networks' RealPlayer, try to connect to the Internet to transfer information even when you are not using them.

Regular communication between programs installed on your computer, and their home

Source, is likely to become more common. It is also likely that, as restrictions on the use of certain proprietary information grow, these programs will also transact data about your usage of the program, not just the fact that it is installed on your system.

B) ID CARDS AND SECURITY:

To day ID is committed to providing you with the best available ID Card Systems and outstanding customer service.

Employee ID Badge Systems - Employee ID card Systems

Build Security, Integrity, and Verification. Enhance your company's safety, security and productivity with an employee ID badge identification system. ID badge systems are a simple, efficient, and effective way to protect the assets, facilities and

Today the most common token of person's digital identity is a smart card.infact, smart cards and their i built silicon security chip technologies are used across a whole range of application from personal use including bank cards and mobile phones, to computer system, and builing security.

they are used in devirse security processes which are likely to be even more sophisticated in the future with the increase demand for remote authentication of the user and their terminals via portals or the internet.

Inside personal computers(PC) both desk based and portable secure silcon based on chip card IC technology is already authenticating the access to IT networks as well the services of mobile networks.

In such open networks every device (client)as well as server has to be secured at different levels for different tasks . In many information dependent markets the focus is now end-to-end security which involves a variety of secure devices.

Existing products are involving such consumer appliances like TV set top boxes which can now be configured to support 3rd party services ,such as payment cards .

Integrated circuits for smart cards generically "chip card ICs" assembled in various formats can be score of trust for physical.

C) VOTING TECHNOLOGY AND SECURITY:

Voting technology seems like the perfect application for technology, but actually applying it is harder than it first appears. To ensure that voters can vote honestly, they need anonymity, which requires a secret ballot.

Security in e-voting includes a wide range of issues and actors and is highly related to the type of technology used. It also relates to the procedures and standards that are put in place to overcome technological security shortcomings. E-Voting needs to be secured from the voters, election officials, programmers, technicians and system administrators.

The threats posed could be internal e.g. the vendor, election officials. Or they could be external such as individuals, well funded agencies, states, parties, criminals, terrorists, many of whom cannot even be prosecuted. The motives of the attackers range from publicity, to foreign intelligence and terrorist acts to governments manipulating the system for their benefit.

This technology helps to have security in the election due to the use of privacy and surveillance voting technology, security also ID cards and security

TASK 5

Describe the types of vulnerabilities giving appropriate example"

Vulnerability refers to the susceptibility of a person, group, society or system to physical or emotional injury or attack. The term can also refer to a person who lets their guard down, leaving themselves open to censure or criticism. Vulnerability refers to a person's state of being liable to succumb to manipulation, persuasion, temptation etc

Heap Overflows:

Because the heap is used to store data but is not used to store the return address value of functions and methods, it is less obvious how an attacker can exploit a buffer overflow on the heap. To some extent, it is this nonobviousness that makes heap overflows an attractive target-programmers are less likely to worry about them and defend against them than they are for stack overflows.

There are two ways in which heap overflows are exploited: First, the attacker tries to find other data on the heap worth overwriting. Much of the data on the heap is generated internally by the program rather than copied from user input. For example, an attacker who hacks into a phone company's billing system might be able to set a flag indicating that a bill has been paid. Or, by overwriting a temporarily stored user name, an attacker might be able to log into a program with administrator privileges. This is known as a non-control-data attack.

Second, objects allocated on the heap in many languages, such as C++ and Objective-C, include tables of function pointers. By exploiting a buffer overflow to change such a pointer, an attacker might be able to substitute their own data or to execute their own routine.

Exploiting a buffer overflow on the heap might be a complex, arcane problem to solve, but crackers thrive on just such challenges. For example:

A heap overflow in code for decoding a bitmap image allowed remote attackers to execute arbitrary code.

A heap overflow vulnerability in a networking server allowed an attacker to execute arbitrary code by sending an HTTP POST request with a negative "Content-arbitrary code. Besides overwriting the instruction pointer, similar results can also be obtained by overwriting other variables and structures, like Exception Handlers, which are located on the stack.

Black Box testing and example:

The key to testing an application for stack overflow vulnerabilities is supplying overly large input data as compared to what is expected. However, subjecting the application to arbitrarily large data is not sufficient. It becomes necessary to inspect the application's execution flow and responses to ascertain whether an overflow has actually been triggered or not. Therefore, the steps required to locate and validate stack overflows would be to attach a debugger to the target application or process, generate malformed input for the application, subject the application to malformed input, and inspect responses in a debugger. The debugger allows the tester to view the execution flow and the state of the registers when the vulnerability gets triggered.

Gray Box testing and example:

When reviewing code for stack overflows, it is advisable to search for calls to insecure library functions like gets (), strcpy(), strcat() etc which do not validate the length of source strings and blindly copy data into fixed size buffers.

For example consider the following function:-

void log_create(int severity, char *inpt) {

char b[1024];

if (severity == 1)

{

strcat(b,"Error occurred on");

strcat(b,":");

strcat(b,inpt);

FILE *fd = fopen ("logfile.log", "a");

fprintf(fd, "%s", b);

fclose(fd);

. . . . . .

}

From above, the line strcat(b,inpt) will result in a stack overflow if inpt exceeds 1024 bytes. Not only does this demonstrate an insecure usage of strcat, it also shows how important it is to examine the length of strings referenced by a character pointer that is passed as an argument to a function; In this case the length of string referenced by char *inpt. Therefore it is always a good idea to trace back the source of function arguments and ascertain string lengths while reviewing code.

Usage of the relatively safer stinky () can also lead to stack overflows since it only restricts the number of bytes copied into the destination buffer. If the size argument that is used to accomplish this is generated dynamically based on user input or calculated inaccurately within loops, it is possible to overflow stack buffers. For example:-

void func(char *source)

{

Char dest[40];

…

size=strlen(source)+1

….

strncpy(dest,source,size)

}

where source is user controllable data. A good example would be the samba trans2open stack overflow vulnerability (http://www.securityfocus.com/archive/1/317615).

Vulnerabilities can also appear in URL and address parsing code. In such cases, a function like memccpy() is usually employed which copies data into a destination buffer from source until a specified character is not encountered. Consider the function:

void func(char *path)

{

char servaddr[40];

…

memccpy(servaddr,path,'\');

….

}

In this case the information contained in path could be greater than 40 bytes before '\' can be encountered. If so it will cause a stack overflow. A similar vulnerability was located in Windows RPCSS subsystem (MS03-026). The vulnerable code copied server names from UNC paths into a fixed size buffer until a '\' was encountered. The length of the server name in this case was controllable by users.

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