DSP or Digital Signal Processor is the part of the TMS320C6x (C6X) family, is the microprocessors with speedy function and appropriate with instruction set and architecture for the purpose of digital signaling. DSP techniques are treated as the most successful real time signal processing and powerful processor of the C6X group as it is made in such a way that it is most helpful for numerically intensive calculation .DSP's base is VLIW architecture or very long instruction word. The internal memory of DSP is in that way that eight instruction can be fetched in every single cycle.
Digital signal processors are used within a huge range of applications including communications and it controls the speech and image processing too."DSP is concerned with the representation of discrete time signal by a sequence of numbers or symbols and the processing of these signals. Digital signal processing and signal analog signal processing are subfields of signal processing. DSP includes subfields like: speech and audio signal processing, radar and sonar signal processing, sensor array processing, spectral estimation, statistical signal processing, digital image signal processing signal processing for communications, control of systems, biomedical signal processing, seismic data processing etc".
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Areas where it generally uses-In cell phones, fax/modems, disk drives, radio, printers, HD, iPods, iPads, digital cameras etc .the reason why DSP uses in wide number is it is very much cost effective. As we said earlier that DSP is a real time signal processing it requires some external pace along with analog input .in high frequency range though DSP is not very useful but in case of audio-frequency range it is more comfortable. The figure given below shows the TMS320C6713 DSK-
Input can be sampled at 8 kHz, and by sampling we figure that each value which is sampled by the processor, and is acquired at the rate of 1/ (sampling rate) or it also means that every value is being sampled every 1/(sampling rate) sec. However if we use a sampling rate of 8 kHz, then the processor will gain the values at every 1/ (8*10^3) seconds or 0.125 milliseconds. The rate of sampling for a compact disc is 44.1 kHz and analog signals which can also be sampled at 48 kHz depending upon the needs of the application.
Digital signal Processing and applications with the C6713 And C6416 DSK by Rulph Chassaing, 2005.
The typical or common DSP application goes in the following manner
System of communication
Demodulation and demodulation, channel of
equalization, cancellation of echo
Electronic and consumer
Audio and video coding in way of perptual
DVDs, speech synthesis, recognition of speech.
Instruments made of synthetic, effects of audio
Reduction of noise
ECG, EEG, MEG, AED, audiology etc.
seismology, exploration of oil
speckle interferometry and VLWI
Evaluation of sensor data
Radar and its navigation
biometric identification etc.
System control,extraction of features
The DSK board is not expensive one and it's the advantage of applying DSP.
TheDSP on the 6713 DSK integreted to the on-board integral part by a 32-bit wide EMIF or External Memory InterFace.The SDRAM, Flash and CPLD all there are connected to the bus. EMIF signals are also connected along with the daughter card expansion connectors which are generally used for third party add-in boards.DSP interfaces to the analog audio signs through the on-board AIC23 codec and four 3.5 mm audio related jacks that are microphone input, line output, line input, and headphone output.The codec can pick the microphone or the line input as the active input. The analog output is advanced to the both of the headphone which is adjustable gain and line output that is fixed gained and connectors. To send commands to the codec control interface while McBSP0 is applied. McBSP1 is applied for the gained digital audio data. McBSP0 and McBSP1 may be re-routed to the expansion connectors in the software.CPLD is a programmable logic device used to implement glue logic that connectsthe board components altogether. The CPLD has a register based user interface that enables the user construct the board by writing and reading to its registers.The DSK involves 4 LEDs and 4 position DIP switch as a easy process way to supply the user with interactive justification. Both are accessed by reading and writing to the CPLD registers. An included 5V external current supply is applied to power the board. On-board switching voltage regulators supplies the +1.26V DSP core voltage and +3.3V I/O supplies. The board is held in reset til these providings are within executing specifications.The C67xx family of DSPs has a lhuge byte addressable address space. Data and program code can be placed anywhere in the unified address space. Addresses are always remains as 32-bits wide.The memory map presents the address space of a generic 6713 processor on the left with particular specification of how every region is applied on the right. By default, the internal memory sits at the starting of the address space. Part of the internal memory can be constructed again in software as L2 cache rather than RAM that is fixed anyway.The EMIF has 4 different addressable regions which called chip enable spaces (CE0-CE3).The SDRAM engages CE0 where the Flash and CPLD jointly share CE1.CE2 and CE3 which are commonly reserved for the daughtercards.
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
DSK has 4 configuration switches which allows one to control the the state of operation of the DSP when it get release from the reset. The configuration switch block is labeled SW3 on the DSK board, which is next to the reset switch.
Again: Configuration switch 1generally control the bendiness of the DSP where switche 2 and switch3 constructs the boot mode which will be used when DSP starts executing.Configuration switch 4 has control on the on-chip multiplexing of HPI and McASP signals brought out to the HPI expansion connector. And by default all switches are off which generally relates to EMIF boot (out of 8-bit Flash) in less endian advance and HPI signs on the HPI expansion connector.
The DSK operates from a single +5V external power supply connected to the main power input (J5). Internally, the +5V input is converted into +1.26V and +3.3V using separate voltage regulators. The +1.26V supply applied to the DSP core where the +3.3V supply is applied to the DSP's I/O buffers and all other chips situated on the board. The power connector is a 2.5mm barrel-type plug and there are 3 power test points on the DSK at JP1, JP2 and JP4. All I/O power goes through JP2 while all core current passes through JP1. The system current goes through JP4. Commonly the jumpers are closed and to measure the current that passing through erases the jumpers and connect the pins with an current measuring instrumen like a multimeter or current probe. It can be possible to supply the daughter card with +12V and -12V when the external power connector (J6) applied.
There are some major components of DSK board and now we are going to discuss few of them-
Generally DSK board exercises a 64 megabit synchronous DRAM (SDRAM) on the 32-bit EMIF. The SDRAM is composed at the starting of CE0 (address 0x80000000). So theTotal gained memory is 8 megabytes. The integrated SDRAM controller is the lump of the EMIF and it must be constructed in software for correct operation. EMIF clock is arrives from the PLL Settings and it must be configured in software at 90MHz. This number is based on an Enclosed PLL clock of 450MHz which required to achieve 225 MHz operation with a divisor of 2 and a 90MHz EMIF clock with a divisor of 5. While using the SDRAM, the controller must be arrange up to refresh 1 row of the memory array every 15.6 microseconds to retain data integrity. With a 90MHz EMIF clock, this period is 1400 bus cycles.
The Flash is one kind of memory which does not lose its contents when the power or current is turned off. At the time of reading it,it looks like a easy asynchronous read-only memory (ROM). Flash can be removed in huge blocks commonly referred to as sectors or pages. Once a block has been deleted every word can be programmed once by a special and exclusive command Sequence. After than the entire block should be removed again and again to change the contents.The DSK applies a 512Kbyte external Flash like a boot option.It is visible at the starting of CE1 (address 0x90000000). The Flash is cabled as a 256K by 16 bit device to help the DSK's 16-bit boot option. The software that ships with the DSK considers the Flash as an 8-bit device (ignoring the top 8 bits) to match up the 6713's default 8-bit boot mode. In this construction, only 256Kbytes are always ready to use without software modifications.
LEDs and DIP Switches:
DSK includes a 4 software accessible LEDs (D7-D10) and also DIP switches (SW1) which supplies the user easy form of input/output. Both of them are accessed through the CPLD USER_REG register.
Code Composer Studio
Code composer studio relates to an IDE to incorporate the different software tools.It includes tools for code generation, for example- a C compiler, an assembler, and a linker. It has graphical abilities and it also supports real-time debugging. It supplies an very easily usable software tool to make and debug programs.The C compiler arranges a C source program with extension .c is to assembles an assembly source file with extension.asm.The assembler assembles an.asm source file to produce a machine language object file with extension.obj.The linker combines object files also with object libraries like as input to devise an executable file with extension.out. This executable file denotes as a linked common object file format (COFF), popular in Unix-based systems and also adopted by different makers of digital signal processors .This executable file can be loaded and run directly on the C6713 processor.
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CCStudio's integrated debugger has DSP-specific capabilities and advanced breakpoints to simplify development. Conditional or hardware breakpoints are based on full C expressions, local variables or registers. The advanced memory window allows you to inspect each level of memory so that you can debug complex cache coherency issues. CCStudio supports the development of complex systems with multiple processors or cores. Global breakpoints and synchronous operations provide control over multiple processors and cores.
Code composer Studio's collective profiler makes it easy to quickly measure code performance and ensure the efficient use of the DSP target's resources during debug and development sessions. The profiler accords developers to easily and simply profile all C/C++ functions in their application for edification cycles or other events such as cache hit or misses etc. Profile ranges can be applied to concentrate efforts on high-usage areas of code during optimization, helping developers produce finely-tuned code. Profiling is very much available for ranges of assembly, C++ or C code in any fusion. for increasing productivity, alle profiling facilities are available all over the development cycle.
There are few tasks like examining need to run for hours without any user connection. To accomplish this type of task, the IDE should be able to automate common jobs. Code composer Studio has a complete and absolute scripting atmosphere which allows the automation of constant tasks such as examining and performance benchmarking.A aparted scripting console approves one to type commands.
To maximize DSP usage and performance, TI developed C/C++ compilers.TI compilers uses a huge range of DSP-oriented and studied device-specific optimizations that are tuned to DSP architectures. The optimizations are shown here:
"Common sub-expression elimination
Auto increment addressing
Cost-based register allocation
TI compilers also operates program level optimizations to evaluate and examine code performance at the level of application.
Matlab that is Matrix Laboratory uses for a wide variety of scientific and engineering calculations, but especially for automatic control and signal processing, MATLAB runs on Windows, Mac and a different type of Unix-based systems.Matlab was inventented and developed by Cleve Moler in the year of 1970 and it is based on the original and real LINPACK and EISPACK FORTRAN libraries,but it was initially used for factoring matrices and solving linear equations or calculations.Moler commercialized the product with his two colleagues in 1984. MATLAB is also famous for its extensive graphics ability. The following MATLAB commands generate the 3D graph shown below:
[X,Y] = meshgrid(x,y);
In short MatLab is-
A of kind programming language
An interactive numerical computation atmosphere
Collected development environment
A programming library and API
A graphics system for plotting and GUI creation
Use of Matlab in DSP
Analyze data including-
import, export, number-crunch, curve fitting
Visualize and explore data including-
interactive, easy to transform data, powerful plotting/graphics
Implement/prototype/test algorithms including-
vast library of built-in functions, available add-on toolboxes,
integration with Simulink
easy to map algebra of DSP algorithms to Matlab syntax
Simulation, modeling etc.
All functions that are frequently used in DSP are included and
named as - sin,cos,tan,exp,sinc,log,log10,log2,sqrt,pow etc.
Matlab has the following components-
Matlab working environment
Mathmatical Functional Libray
External interfaces etc".
Matlab has so many functions for analyzing and compunding filters
and transfer functions-
Roots: Finding the zeros of any polynomial
Poly: Compound a polynomial from a set or group of roots
Zplane: Plot poles and zeros on the complex plane
Residuez: Transformation of the part of fraction expansion
Fdatool: Design of filter and analysis tool
Fvtool: Visualization of filter tool
The other useful DSP functions are as follows
"filter(B,A,x) FIR and IIR filtering
fftfilt(B,x) FIR filtering using the FFT
conv discrete convolution (polynomial multiplication)
buffer divide a signal into (possibly overlapping) frames
windows hanning, hamming, blackman
xcorr auto and cross-correlation"
Simulink supplies an atmosphere for embedded and compelling systems for multi domain simulation and model based designs. Simulink helps in designing, , executing and testing by affording a customized set block and a fine reciprocal graphical environment.Simulink is very much capable of examining many time varying systems for example- controls, process of signal, communications and videos and image processing. The add on products gives important tools for implementation, design and verification of numerous jobs. Simulink, which is merged with MATLAB contributes the required access for different tools which are very useful for analyzing and visualizing simulations, for defining signal, defining parameter and examining of the data.
The main features of simulink are as follows
Extended and expandable libraries of defined earlier blocks.
Associated graphical editor for the reason of assembling and managing intuitive block figures.
Capability for managing complex designs by segmenting models into hierarchies of design materials.
Model Explorer to examine, navigate, modify,create construct, and search all signals and signs parameters, properties, and generated code associated with the model.
APIs or Application programming interfaces that let one connect with other simulation programs and features.
Enclosed MATLAB Function blocks for gaining MATLAB algorithms into Simulink and implanted system implementations.
Simulation modes which are Accelerator, normal and Rapid Accelerator for spreading simulations at compiled C-code speeds applying fixed- or variable-step solvers.
Graphical debugger and profiler is to examine and execute simulation outcome and then diagnose performance and accidental attitude in one's design.
Full access to MATLAB for the diagnosing and visualizing results, organizing the modeling atmosphere, and identifying signal, parameter, and examined data.
Analysis of model and diagnostics tools to confirm model consistency and identify modeling flaws.