The Development And Impacts Of Computers Computer Science Essay

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Think of a day without computer? Sounds very impossible it would be more like with the computer the world would shut down as well. The importance of computer is vital in our daily human life as computer technology plays a vital role. Solving complex calculations, communication and many major tasks' which are quite tough or impossible at times for humans to do is performed by computers. In this group assignment our group is going to speak about the development and impacts of computer. We are going to talk about how the computer has transformed and developed throughout the generations. The four sections our group is going to focus are on:

History of computer

Present status of computer

Future of computer

Impacts of computer

Back in the years before the electronic computers were developed, the word computer was originally used to imply a person who could perfom mechanical calculations under the instruction of a mathematician. That was simply because at those times the mechanical calculating devices such as the abascus were in use. The abascus which is also called a counting frame is a tool that is used primarily in some parts of Asia for calculating arithmetic processes ( oldest elementary branch of mathematics used by almost everyone for tasks ranging from today counting to advanced science and business calculations)


Modern day abascus

Old abascus

Engineering and mathematics during the middle ages in Europe received a considerable boost as such this led to the invention of numerous mechanical calculating devices. The technology for clock work was then developed during the early 17th century while the period between the 19th century saw the development of a number of technologies which were seen vital for the development of the digital computer later on. Charles Babbage was the first person who came up with the development f a fully programmable computer in the year 1837 but he was unable to actually construct his computer due to a variety of reasons such as being not too perfect to make the best computer for he was still learning or making a new thing that was not there at the time.

By half of the 20th century analog computers were increasingly used for a number of scientific needs, for those operations that used direct physical or electrical model problems as the basis for computation or doing tasks that needed the use of computers. After the invention of digital computers the analog computers therefore became obsolete since technology was improving.


AKAT-1 Analog Computer

After the invention of the analog computers man saw the Atanasoff Berry Computer which was used as binary system of arithmatics, parallel processing, a separation of memory and computing functions and a regenerative memory. Atanasoff computers were much better than the analog computers in the sense that they used binary math and electronic circuits both of which are still highly in use in todays computers.


In the 1930's and 1940's, newer and more efficient computers were continuously developed still with the betterment of technology and they gradually came to possess the key features which are still present or used in the modern day computers- digital electronics and flexibility of programming. Among the more important machines to be developed during this time, the American ENIAC was prominent as it was a general machine but the only problem was that it had an inflexible architecture. Then as the years went by, a far more superior technic that was known as the stored program architecture was developed which is a foundation for which all morden computers were developed from or derived from.


The Apple II, an early personal computer

Word has it that the American ENIAC computer was the first programmable computer to be made.ENIAC simply stands for electronic numeral intergrator computer and it was built by J. Presper Eckert and John V. Mauchly at the university of Pernnsilvania. In the year 1943 the work of making this computer was started and funded by the Army Ordnance Department which needed to compute ballistics during the world war two. Until the year 1945 the machine was not complete but it was still under extensive use in the implementation of the hydrogen bomb. By 1955 it was already used for research on wind tunnels, random number generators and weather prediction before it was decommisioned . Eckert, john and mauchly and their consulant began working on another project before the ENIAC was complete which was simply an idea of being able to make the ENIAC more faster and much more better in the sense that it was to icrease the speed of the internal electronic operations. This was all through the use of a memory that was much more larger engh to be able to hold instructions and data, and also using the programmstored in memory to control the order of arithmetic operations(EDVAC), EDVAC was able to run orders of magnitude faster than storing instructions in the same medium as data, designers could concentrate on improving the internal structure without improving the internal structure of the machine without worrying about matching the speed of the external control. One could state that the team that made the development of this structure was actually a perfect match in the sense that they were engineers and mathematicians and scientists and as such making the work to be a much easier task to accomplish with much discipline.

Throughout the 1950's, the design of computers which is [] was primarily valve driven and was then later replaced by transistor-driven design in the 1960's. Transistor-based computers were smaller, faster and much cheaper hence commercially viable. The fact that in the 1970's the invention of intergrated circuits technology was present made the cost of computers to be at a much lower or cheaper price and individuals could afford them and that led to the birth of the personal computers as we all call them to this very day.

Present status of computer

Computer in the 21st century is not only a monitor with CPU. Computers are everywhere! In the 21st century starting from mobile phones, gaming consoles even in cars we have computers. The idea of computer technology has changed and it all started from the new millennium. In this section of the coursework we are going to write about the present status of computer technology. We will mainly be focusing on the new inventions based on the timeline which is 2000-2010.


Year 2000-2005 =In the starting of the year 2000 Microsoft introduced Windows 2000 in the 17th of February for personal computers, business desktops, laptops and servers. Windows 2000 was the successor of Windows NT 4.0, which is a graphical and business oriented operating system. Four versions of the windows 2000 was released which were: Professional, Server, Advanced Server and Datacenter server. Limited editions for certain editions were sold as well which were out in the year 2001. Windows 2000 includes many system utilities such as the Microsoft Management console which is a component that provides system based administrations and advance users with a flexible interface through which they may configure and monitor system. Windows 2000 was marketed as the most secured operating system of that time but it happened to be a target of some high profile virus attacks such as the Code red and Nimda. Besides Windows 2000 being introduced in the year 2000 in the early 2000's many cities has expressed their plans about city-wide WI-FI network which is the staring of WI-FI technology around the globe. Drexel University in Philadelphia made history in 2000 becoming the United State's first major university to offer completely wireless Internet access across the entire campus. The M systems launched the first USB flash drive in the year 2000. In 2000 Sony Ericsson also unveiled the 1st touch screen Smartphone called the R380 which is the 1st device to use the Symbian OS.

In Year 2001 Microsoft announced its Windows CE Pocket PC operating System for Windows Smart Phones. Microsoft Windows XP home and professional editions are released October 25 which became one of the most popular Operating System of all time based on the user review. Apple introduces Mac OS X 10.2 on the 23rd of August 2002. In March 2003 Intel introduced the Pentium M. Google introduced the Gmail on the 1st of April 2004, it was initially launched as an invitation only beta release with 1GB storage which was way more storage than its competitor hotmail and yahoo. In the end of 2004 and mid 2005 Sony launched one of the most powerful eye catching device of that time the PSP (Play Station Portable). It's a handheld gaming console and uses an optical disc format. The UMD (Universal Media Disc) is the primary storage medium. What make this device exciting are its features as in other words you can say it's a handheld computer as through the PSP you are able to play games, watch movies, listen to songs, and browse. It's built in WI-FI and microphone also Bluetooth respectively. Data can be stored as there is built of memory which can be expandable too. In 2005 Apple announced its plan to switch from Power PC to Intel processors. The first Apple Intel processors began to release by mid 2006. The switch from Power PC to Intel processors boosted Apple's sales a lot as Intel is very popular and trusted globally.

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Table 2

Table 2 above shows Apple's rapid growth of sales after switching to Intel processors which were sold in Million units per economic quarters.

Year 2006-2010- On January 5th 2006 Intel introduced the Intel Core solo and duo processors were released. In the same year Apple introduced Boot camp which allows the Mac users to use windows operating system on Apple computers. This feature was introduced with Apple Inc's Mac Leopard and Snowpard Operating System. Sony Computer Entertainment presented the Play Station 3 which became the hype of 2006 and it was also distributed in 2007 at some parts of the world. The PS3 has wide range of disk storage starting from 20 GB to 320 GB, which can also be upgradeable. Despite being a gaming console through the PS3 you can watch movies as it contains a blue ray disk, built in WI FI which enables you to browse the internet and contains USB ports too. In the early 2007 Microsoft released Windows Vista and Office 2007. However Windows Vista opened to a tremendous response almost selling double copies if compared to Windows XP but slowly it began to drop and was also one of the most criticized operating system from windows as it took a long time for development and the end product was not as good as expected. In the same year Nokia launched the Nokia N-95 which included a wide range of features into a consumer oriented Smartphone. Features such as GPS, 5 Megapixel Camera, 3G, WI FI, Bluetooth made this particular phone one of the best selling Smartphone's and raised the standard for Smartphone's as it is capable to manage your personal tasks such as e-mail, browsing, messaging, calendar, calculator, set reminders and etc just like a PDA. 2008 is the year when Apple launched the latest line of IMac computers in August 2008. In July 2008 Apple introduced the 2nd generation of I phone which had 3G support and multi touch interface. Intel has also introduced the core I7 (Bloomfield) in November 2008 which is the 1st I series processor from Intel. . In 2009 Microsoft released MSE (Microsoft Security Essentials) which is a free antivirus software that protects against different types of malware and it has already received positive feedbacks after its initial release. On the 22nd of October Microsoft also unveiled the Windows 7 and its said to be the most successful operating system today as it broke previous OS sales records for Microsoft. In the same year Mac OS X Snow Leopard was the major release of Apple which was a very successful OS too. In September the Core I5 and I7 were also launched from Intel which is now mainly the requirement of every user who is looking forward to buy a new pc.

The Impact of Computers in Our Daily Lives

Computers are commonly used items in many fields in our present world as will be in the future. Since the ages of the fathers of computers like Blaise Pascal and Charles Babbage. These machines have proven to be very essential or important and significant especially for people who run large organizations and industries, but also to the individuals themselves.

Computers have affected our lives in a great deal in that almost every thing now is either run by or made by computers. For instance, in large industries, cars and space exploration devices and machines are designed by the use of computers, in hospitals where medical billings, patient admittance and other medical equipments are run and made by computers; traffic lights that run the city traffic are run by computers. One of the major impacts of computer is communication. The level of communication has gone higher through computer as now you can be connected with friends and family around the world, many business deals and conference is now made through the help of computer. Nevertheless the entertainment world would not have been as successful as it is if it weren`t for computers, because movies these days require a lot of animations and use of graphics to create effects. So basically the whole universe is a computerized universe as it is right now.

Even back in the late years of 1600 to 1800, the people saw that life was becoming complex and so they needed to create something that would help them solve the complex problems and mathematics so they wouldn`t have to solve them manually. And so they came up with calculators which could only add and subtract mathematical problems. And the more the technology grew the more computers became important in their daily lives to the present. Computers have changed man a lot. It has helped man to step in to the future. Though computers have been said to take away man power, still computers have managed to make the impossible possible.

In the upcoming paragraphs I will be talking about how computers have impacted on different fields.C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\MEDIA\CAGCAT10\j0315447.jpg

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In today`s life computers have impacted many fields such as the business fields. Many business organizations need computer to keep track of accounts, money and other stuff that they need. It has been noticed that business people use computers a lot both at their homes and at their working places. One may see that these people make pie charts and graphs that they use for presentations during business meetings where most of these charts were made by the help of computers. The business field uses computers a lot in their activities. C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\MEDIA\CAGCAT10\j0233018.wmf

Nevertheless, business organization now a day's use online marketing to advertise and contact with their consumers from different parts of the world without direct contact. For instance in, this is an efficient way of business since it does not limit the area of supplies and consumers. It is through the use of computers that they are able to perform these activities.


Another area that computers have impacted is the entertainment area. It has been seen that most of the people love science fiction and action movies and those that have neat effects like Matrix or Harry Potter. Well the graphics and animations used in those movies were done by computers themselves. Most of the movies today use these graphics to make movie effects look realistic. For instance in Harry Potter where Harry has to fight dragons and big snakes, all those effects look real but they are not realistic and some movies where we see aliens, space ships, monsters or flying men. Some movies are even made by computers from top to bottom like toy story and wall E.

Not only movies but also game consoles use computer animations like the Play Station, PC and Nintendo. And it has been seen that games made by 3D graphics have been big breakthrough in gaming. All thanks to the awesome computer graphics. Even the music industry has been impacted in its way. Since music editing and video making all require computers to create effects or edit videos. Thus computers have a great deal of effect in the entertainment industry today.


Educational field has been impacted by computers as well in its own way. Like in universities computers help students a lot with their assignments and presentations. For instance a student had to do a project on World Religions; he would use the encyclopedia to search for information. Even when presenting their works like for presentations one would use Microsoft power point and writing of essays would require Microsoft word.

Even teachers themselves use computers as well. They use computers to keep track of grades or prepare notes and presentations for their students. Through servers/networks educational institutes can share and control resources, by connecting computer devices together which saves a lot of time and money. For lecturers it becomes easy when a lecturer is giving a lecture then students can just take note rather than printing out pages and pages of notes. Nevertheless e-learning is also a product of computer`s development. Thus computers have a great deal of importance in the educational field.


This is one important field that computer have impacted. Computers help in hospitals and even in small pharmacies. Doctors and nurses use computers to make records on medication of patients and in what amount so they wouldn`t lose track. But in big hospitals computers are also used to keep records of every patient. They also keep records on medical bills and equipments.

Nevertheless scientists need computers so they could find cures to different diseases that keep erupting every day. If it wasn`t for computers these cures wouldn`t have been found. Therefore computers are important since they help us maintain our health.C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\MEDIA\CAGCAT10\j0315447.jpg


Computers have had a great deal of impact in this area. Computers help in designing the right kinds of equipments and ships that are used now a days for most exploration. For instance a large organization like NASA needs these kinds of machines for space exploration. In space, small errors or miscalculations can create serious problems that cannot be easily corrected. Computers provide faster and more accurate handling of data, both in planning a mission and in analyzing parameters during a mission. Without them, effective space exploration would be nearly impossible. This has proven to be successful since everyday huge deal of inventions and discoveries from these explorations, like life in mars. And now scientists are trying to find if there is another life form on other planets. Computers also help them to solve complex mathematics such as from which degree/angle should the rocket be launched, which would be quite difficult for humans to calculate.