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It is the term that defines the use of Nanobots, which are very small, that can even fit inside of DNA. Therefore, many of them can easily fit inside of a human body and transmit medicine in extremely small amounts and these nanobots are programmed, which can easily be stopped from operating and flushed out of the body. (13)
The microstructure of the materials can have different properties than materials at large scale that can improve different fields in physics, chemistry, engineering, and technology. The main properties of the micro sized materials are: faster and lighter in performing a task, can get into small spaces, more energy efficient. (2) Therefore, working at the atomic size, at the scale of about 1 - 100 nm range, through the control of matter at the atomic level in order to design, create and use materials, devices and systems with essentially new properties and functions because of their small structure. (3)
Nanotechnology is highly needed in many fields because of its low cost, accuracy and simplicity that leads to great economic growth, improves the life quality and leads to job creation.
In addition, there are many examples of Nano materials such as zinc oxide, copper oxide, silver, aluminum and carbon Nano tubes that are shown in figuresâ€¦..
Applications of Nanotechnology:
Many companies apply nanotechnology in manufacturing such as cosmetics, paint, textile, sporting equipment, sunglass, automobile, nanowire for electronics, and semiconductor. In the domain of medicine, the capacity of nanorobots to perform subtle surgery without causing any damages to the surrounding cells. For example, the nanomaterials of gold that becomes extremely hot when subjected to light, is resulted in killing cancer cells. This technology can also be used in controllingÂ diabetes and mental illness or reengineering of tissues. (10)
Nanotechnology has many applications as it has contributed frequently in manufacturing machines to be used by human beings. It can be used in health and medicine, materials and manufacturing, information technology, energy and environment, transportation and space exploration.
In Medical Field:
Nanotechnology has the potential to bring major advances in medicine. Nanobots could be sent into a patient's veins to clear away obstructions. Surgeries could become much faster and more accurate. Injuries could be repaired cell-by-cell. It may even become possible to heal genetic conditions by fixing the damaged genes. Also, Nanotechnology could also be used to improve drug production by producing drugs at atomic level to make them more effective and reduce side effects. (4)
In addition, nanotechnology is used to manage drugs, heat, light and other healing tools in the human body. For example, silver is one of the best tools which protect Irritation in the human beings. Scientists have discovered that if materials are reduced to their Nano scale, it could work in different manner than in macro scale. At nano level silver, it becomes stronger matter than in its natural form. Also, dot and nano shells are the two medical machines that have been developed by using nanotechnology. Both of the devices are very helpful in early discovery of diseases. (5)
There are some ways that nanotechnology is revolutionizing medicine:
-Cancer treatment with nanotechnology, it has the potential to target and destroy cancer cells without causing any damages to surrounding healthy tissue. (12)
-Heart disease: nanobots could repair damaged heart tissues. Another advantage is to use nano devices to clean out arteries, helping unclog those that have accumulation due to cholesterol and other problems. (12)
-Drug delivery: Systems that mechanize drug delivery to patients by providing medications to them and to guarantee that certain types of medications are issued at the proper time and without any human errors.(12)
-Surgery: Nano surgery is using some lasers and other Nano devices that can be programmed to perform some surgical functions. Being able to perform surgery at the smallest level can have a number of benefits for long term medicine. (12)
Nanotechnology can provide developments in medical field by allowing Nano devices into the human body that can lead to better diagnosis of many diseases and conditions.
Nanotechnology will benefit the medical field by providing better defense against viruses. Since the world is full of viruses and people getting sick with anything such as flue or worse. Nanotechnology will help in avoiding deadly viruses by as acting as a second immune system. The white cells' role is fighting off viruses and bacterial infections, however; the white cells should first identify a virus. As a result, people will get affected by the virus at least once. Therefore, with nanotechnology within our bodies and it will be able to identify viruses immediately and destroy them. (13)
Privacy and Security:
Nanotechnology is used in microscopic recording devices, which would be undetectable. Also, nanotechnology could be applied in atomic weapons that are called "Smart Bullet," a computerized bullet that could be controlled and aimed very precisely. These developments may an advantage for the military; but if they were misused by mankind, they could cause traumatic disasters. (4)
Nanotechnology will be applied in clothes that people will be able to buy. These clothes will be fireproof, waterproof and resistant to damages. This works by tying the fabrics together at Nano level. Then, liquid will be large to get through the holes and the material itself will be stronger but soft as silk. (13)
Nanotechnology will be applied in products to differentiate between authentic items and face items. Some people try to duplicate some products and pass them off as the original. Therefore, with nanotechnology, it will differentiate between the fake and real item. As a result, nanotechnology will aid crime prevention. (13)
Applications of Nanotechnology in Telecommunications
Nanotechnology will allow manufacturers to produce sensors that are significantly smaller, faster and more energy efficient.
Today's developments in nanotechnology have resulted in new methods for improvements in telecommunications. As a result, traditional electronic devices are gradually being substituted by optoelectronic devices such as photonic crystals and quantum dots. It consumes low energy, and can be produced using carbon nanotubes. Components based on the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) hold important promises for future developments in wireless communications. (11)
Micromechanical sensors became a primary part of manufactured automobiles in mid1990's. Ten years later, the development of sensors based on nanostructures will become a part of our daily life. Nanotechnology can help to develop autonomous devices that adjust to their environment and become a part of the network of devices surrounding them. Also, Nanotechnologies may help to provide solutions for sensors that are robust in strict environmental conditions and that are stable over a long period of time. These future embedded sensors will be inexpensive and environmentally sustainable so that they can be used in very large numbers.
Advantages of Nanotechnology:
Nanotechnology has many advantages due to its micro size that benefits many sectors in medicine, industry and engineering. First, researches claim that reduce the size of any material can have many positive properties such as lighter and faster, energy efficient and unbreakable. Second, it can be applied in diverse fields in life such as chemistry, engineering, medicine and industry. (7)Third, nanotechnology can benefit the energy sector as it is more efficient energy, energy absorbing, and energy storage products in smaller and more efficient devices.
Another advantage that can result from nanotechnology is the manufacturing sector. This sector will need micro materials such as nanotubes and nanoparticles and others. These materials are usually stronger, more durable, and lighter than in its original size.
Nanotechnology has many advantages in the medical field as it can help in creating "smart drugs". These will help cure people faster and help in the early diagnosis, without the side effects that are caused by traditional drugs. Nowadays, the researchers of nanotechnology in medicine is focusing on areas like tissue regeneration, bone repair, immunity and cures for illnesses such as cancer, diabetes, and other life threatening diseases. (8)
Disadvantages of Nanotechnology:
On the other hand, Nanotechnology also has negative impacts on many sectors in life. The developments of nanotechnology result on loss of jobs due that nanotechnology has replaced many jobs were performed by humans.
Also, the development of nanotechnology can cause negative impacts of certain markets due to the dropping of the value of oil and diamonds due to the possibility of developing alternative sources of energy that are more efficient and won't require the use of fossil fuels. In other words, since people can develop products at the atomic level, diamonds will also lose its value since it can be mass produced.
Atomic weapons associated with nanotechnology can be more accessible, more powerful and more destructive.
Since these atoms are very small, problems can arise from the inhalation of these micro particles, much like the problems a person gets from inhaling micro asbestos particles.
Nanotechnology is very expensive and developing it can cost a lot of money. Also, it is difficult to manufacture, which is probably why products made with nanotechnology are more expensive. (8)
One of the main problems of nanotechnology is that it will definitely be used for destructions. With nanotechnology, countries will be able to start war without letting the enemy know who is attacking them. Also, terrorists will misuse the nanotechnology in order to perform violent acts.
Future of Nanotechnology:
Nano- electronics and computer technology:
Nanotechnology will permit the building of smaller computers. Smaller computers will run faster, allowing greater computer speeds and durable. So, nanomaterial will mean that computers will have a much longer life. A laptop computer could therefore have its efficiency increased by millions living longer and working faster to give far better value for money.Â
TheÂ environment and energy:
Nanotechnology will have an important impact. For instance, nanometer sized solar cells could be developed to provide much of the energy needed around the world and nanomaterials will increase the efficiency of fuel cells and batteries. In the future nanotechnology will be used to tackle environmental problems. New 'green' processing technologies will minimize the generation of undesirable by-product effluents by limitation of emissions.
Health care and medicineÂ biological Nano sensors:
The next 5 years, they are being developed and will be used with higher speed and accurate diagnostics. Further ahead, nanotechnology may be used to build artificial muscle and 'lab on a chip' technology will develop more efficient drug discovery processes. (9)