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Google released the Android code asÂ open-source, under theÂ Apache License.Â TheÂ Android Open Source ProjectÂ (AOSP) which was lead by Google aimed at the maintenance and further development of Android. Today android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of devices.
Developers write programs in a customized version ofÂ Java,Â and apps can be downloaded from online stores such asÂ Google PlayÂ (formerlyÂ Android Market), the app store run by Google, or third-party sites. In June 2012, there were more than 600,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from Google Play was 20 billion.
The first Android-powered phone was sold in October 2008,Â and by the end of 2010 Android had become the world's leading smartphone platform. It had a worldwide smartphone market share of 59% at the beginning of 2012.http://www.thebiblescholar.com/android_awesome.jpg
The Android operating system came into scene with the release of Android beta. It was launched in November 2007.Android is aÂ mobile operating systemÂ developed byÂ GoogleÂ and theÂ Open Handset Alliance, and has seen a number of updatesÂ to its base operating system. These updates are used to fixÂ bugsÂ and new features were added. From April 2009, each version developed was under aÂ codenameÂ based on aÂ dessertÂ orÂ sweetÂ treat.
The Android version released till date are as follows:
Froyo (frozen yogurt),
Ice Cream Sandwich
Â Jelly Bean.
Jelly Bean v4.1 is the latest update to Android operating system. It was launched in June 2012 and was released in to the Android open source project on 9th July, 2012.
The various versions are discussed in detail as followed:
Android 1.5 Cupcake
On April 30, 2009, the Android 1.5 update was released, based onÂ Linux kernelÂ 2.6.27.Â This was the first release that used dessert ("Cupcake") name as its version's name. this was the theme that followed in all upcoming versions. Android 1.5 was also updates by adding new features and amendments as followed:
It supports WidgetsÂ which is a miniature application that can be installed in other applications to receive periodic updates.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a1/Android_home.png/140px-Android_home.png
It provides third party virtual keyboard, user dictionary for custom words and text prediction option.
It has video recording and playback option in MPEG-4Â and 3GP formats
Auto-pairing and stereo support for Bluetooth is added features to it.
web browser includes copy and paste features
Favorites in Contacts can have picture added with details.
Specific date/time are shown for all kind of events in call log, and one-touch access to a contact card from call log event
Screen transitions are animated
Provides auto-rotation option for screen.
Provides accessibility to upload YouTube videos.
Provides uploading facility of photos in Picasa software.
Android 1.6 Donut
On September 15, 2009, the Android 1.6 SDK - dubbed Donut - was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29.Â It included various updates which are as followed:
To include bookmark history, contacts, and the web, the voice and text entry search was enhanced
It developed ability for developers to include in search results their content.
A multi-lingualÂ speech synthesisÂ engine was installed to allow any Android application to "speak" up the text
Easier searching and ability to view app screenshots in Android Markethttp://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRde-YzsyWlxBKae-iKoZ6f4HkFFmEimYWgNc9aqfCqVaai7bfp3A
It provided gallery, camera and camcorder which was fully integrated with faster camera functioning.
Option to select multiple photos for deletion to the user.
It facilitates WVGAÂ screen resolutions for wider display.
Speed improvements were made in searching and camera applications for faster working.
Expanded Gesture framework and new Gesture Builder development tool.
Android 2.0/2.1 Éclair
On October 26, 2009, the Android 2.0 SDK - codenamed Eclair - was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.29 and following are changes made:
Account sync was expanded which allowed users to add multiple accounts to a device for any email and also for contact-synchronization
It provided exchange of email with combined inbox view to browse an email from multiple accounts in one pagehttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/3/32/Motorola-milestone-wikipedia.jpg/160px-Motorola-milestone-wikipedia.jpg
It supported the new Bluetooth 2.1 technology
It facilitated to call, SMS, or email the person in your contact by just tapping onto his photo.
It had an ability to save all SMS and MMS messages and delete oldest messages in a conversation automatically.
Camera features were improved by including flash, zoom in and out, white balance, scene mode, macro focus and color effect.
Typing speed on virtual keyboard was improved and smarter dictionary was included that learned from word use and included contact names for suggestions.
Browser UI refreshed with thumbnails as bookmark, zooming can be done by double-tapping and it supported HTML5.
In case of any event to be organized status of each invitee and also inviting a guest can be done and agenda view can be enhanced.
Optimized hardware speed and revamped UI
Screen sizes and resolutions can be increased along with better contrast ratio
Google Maps 3.1.2 was installed
To track multi-touch events, motion event class was enhanced
Android 2.2 x Froyo
On May 20, 2010, the Android 2.2 (Froyo) SDK was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.32. The following were the updates made:
This version optimized speed, memory and its performance
ThroughÂ JIT compilation application speed improved.
Support for theÂ Android Cloud to Device MessagingÂ (C2DM) service, enablingÂ push notifications
Improved Microsoft Exchange support, including security policies, auto-discovery, GAL look-up, calendar synchronization and remote wipe
Application launcher with shortcuts to Phone and Browser applications was improved.
It had provided the option to restrict access to any data in mobile network.
Updated Market application with batch and automatic update features.
It had feature of quick switching between various keyboard languages and their dictionaries
Contacts can be shared through Bluetooth
Support for Bluetooth-enabled car and desk docks
Passwords can be numeric and alphanumeric
It facilitates expandable memory application
Abode Flash was installed
Support for extra-high-PPIÂ screens (320 ppi), such as 4" 720p
Gallery pictures can be stacked using a zoom gesture allowing user to view.
The presence of Bug fixes, security can be updated to improve performance.
Minor bug fixes, including SMS routing issues that affected theÂ Nexus One.
Android 2.3.x Gingerbread
On December 6, 2010, the Android 2.3 (Gingerbread) SDK was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.35.Â The changes included are as followed:
User interface design was updated to maintain simplicity and high speed.
Extra-large screen sizes and resolutions were supported well by this version. (WXGAÂ and higher).
Native support forÂ SIPÂ VoIPÂ internet telephony.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Nexus_S.png/150px-Nexus_S.png
In virtual keyboard, the text input became much faster and intuitive with high accuracy and voice input mode.
ImprovedÂ copy/pasteÂ functionality allowed users to select any word by just press-holding then copy and paste.
It supported Near Field CommunicationÂ (NFC), which allowed the user to read an NFC tag embedded in a poster, sticker and advertisement.
Audio effects were improved by incorporating reverb, headphone virtualization, equalization and bass boost.
NewÂ Download Manager was included to give users access to download any file from the browser, email or another application easily.
It supported multiple cameras on the device which included a front-facing camera.
It supported WebM/VP8 video playback, andÂ AACÂ audio encoding.
Power managementÂ with more active role in managing apps was enhanced to keep the device work for more hours.
Enhanced support for native code development.
Switched fromÂ YAFFSÂ toÂ ext4Â on newer devices.
It enhanced audio, graphical, and input elements for game developers.
Native support for more sensors (such asÂ gyroscopesÂ andÂ barometers).
Google WalletÂ was included for the Nexus S 4G.
Gmail application was worked on well.
List scrolling can do with shadow animations.
Android 3.x Honeycombhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/93/Motorola_xoom.jpg/170px-Motorola_xoom.jpg
TheÂ Motorola XoomÂ tablet introduced Android 3.0 Honeycomb and some changes were also included as followed:
From lock screen it was possible to access apps directly
Better voice integration and continuous, real-time speech to text dictation
Face Unlock, a feature that allows users to unlock handsets using facial recognition software
New tabbed web browser, allowing up to 16 tabs on February 22, 2011, the Android 3.0 (Honeycomb) SDK - the firstÂ tablet-only Android update - was released, based on Linux kernel 2.6.36.Â The first device featuring this version, theÂ Motorola XoomÂ tablet was released on February 24, 2011.Â The changes were as follows:
The tablet support was optimized with a new virtual and "holographic" interface for user.
Quicker access to notifications, status, and soft navigation buttons, available at the bottom of the screen were added features.
Action Bar was added giving access to contextual options, widgets, navigation or other types of content on the screen.
Multitasking became simple like tapping Recent Apps in the System Bar allows users to see snapshots of the tasks underway.
Keyboard was redesigned which made typing fast, efficient and accurate.
Multiple browser tabs replacing browser windows, plus form auto-fill and a new "incognito" mode allowing anonymous browsing
Quick access to camera exposure, focus, flash, zoom, front-facing camera, time-lapse, and other camera features
It facilitated to view albums and other collections in full-screen mode in Gallery, with easy access to thumbnails for other photos.
New two-pane Contacts UI and Fast Scroll to let users easily organize and locate contacts
New two-pane Email UI to make viewing and organizing messages more efficient, allowing users to select one or more messages
Support for video chat usingÂ Google Talk
Support for multi-core processors
Ability to encrypt all user data
HTTPS stack improved withÂ Server Name Indication
Bug fixes and minor security, stability and Wi-Fi improvements
Update toÂ Android MarketÂ with automatic updates and easier-to-read Terms and Condition text
Update toÂ Google Books
ImprovedÂ Adobe FlashÂ support in browser
ImprovedÂ ChineseÂ handwriting prediction
"Pay as You Go" support for 3G and 4G tablets
Android 4.0x Ice Cream Sandwich
The SDK for Android 4.0.1 (Ice Cream Sandwich), based on Linux kernel 3.0.1Â was publicly released on October 19, 2011.Â Google's Gabe Cohen stated that Android 4.0 was "theoretically compatible" with any Android 2.3.x device in production at that time.Â TheÂ source codeÂ for Android 4.0 became available on November 14, 2011.Â The update brought various new featured that included: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ad/Galaxy_Nexus_smartphone.jpg/150px-Galaxy_Nexus_smartphone.jpg
Soft buttons from Android 3.x were now available on phones.
Widgets were separated in a new tab being listed in same manner to those apps.
It facilitated easy creation of folders with a drag and drop style incorporated.
It added a customizable launcher.
Visual voicemail was improved with the ability to speed up or slow down voicemail messages.
Functionality of Pinch to zoom was used in the calendar.
Integrated screenshot capture feature was also added in this version.(accomplished by holding down the Power and Volume-Down buttons)
Error correction on the keyboard was improved
Automatic syncing of browser with users' Chrome bookmarks
A new typeface family for the UI,Â Roboto
Data Usage section in settings that lets users set warnings when they approach a certain usage limit, and disable data use when the limit is exceeded
Ability to shut down apps that are using data in the background
Camera app with zero shutter lag, panorama mode, time lapse settings, and the ability to zoom while recording also was improved.
Photo editor was built in it.
Android 4.1.x Jelly Beanhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Android_4.1_Jellybean.png/160px-Android_4.1_Jellybean.png
On June 27, 2012, at theÂ Google I/OÂ conference, Google announced Android 4.1 (Jelly Bean). Based on Linux kernel 3.1.10, Jelly Bean was an incremental update with the primary aim of improving the functionality and performance of the user interface. The performance improvement involved "Project Butter", which uses touch anticipation,Â triple buffering, extendedÂ vsyncÂ timing and a fixed frame rate of 60Â fpsÂ to create a fluid and "buttery"-smooth UI.Â Android 4.1 Jelly Bean was released toÂ AOSPÂ on July 9, 2012,Â and anÂ OTA updateÂ for theÂ Nexus 7Â to Android 4.1.1 was released on July 11, 2012, making it the first device to run Jelly Bean.
Smoother user interface:
Vsync timing across all drawing and animation done by the Android framework, including application rendering, touch events, screen composition and display refresh
In the graphics pipeline triple buffering could be done
Accessibility was enhanced.
Bi-directional text and other language support was added feature.
Keyboard maps were user installable.
On an app specific basis notifications could be turn off.
Shortcuts and widgets can automatically be re-arranged or re-sized to allow new items to fit on home screens
Bluetooth data transfer for Android Beam
Offline voice dictation
New interface layout for tablets with smaller screens (closer resembling that of a phone)
Improved voice search
Improved camera app
Google Wallet (for theÂ Nexus 7)
High-resolutionÂ Google+Â contact photos
Google NowÂ search application
USB audio (for external soundÂ DACs)
Audio chaining (also known asÂ gapless playback)
Stock Android browser is replaced with the Android mobile version ofÂ Google ChromeÂ in devices with Android 4.1 preinstalled