In this technological world understanding of a emerging technology like nanotechnology is important so that development is made in all sectors. In my personnel opinion people should be made aware of such technology so that both science and technology can be put together with relevant social contexts in which it should be used. Nanotechnology is such a technology that relates to both environmental and health issues. Many countries have entered in this field of technology like the UK, USA and India. Nanoscience and nanotechnology refers to the study and use of materials that is less than one-eighth of the width of human hair. It is a fact that many smaller things in the world have their advantages in terms of efficiency of transport and function. Many developing countries are thought to bring new nanotechnology products into the market in coming years.
Book: - age of nano technology by Nirmala Rao Khadpekar (ed.) published date 08 Nov 2007.
What is Nanotechnology?
"Nanotechnology is engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced". In its original meaning "nanotechnology " means the ability to constuct something using the bottom up approach, using tools and techniques developed today to make high performance products.
The renowned physicist Richard Feynman said in his theory in 1959 that "Much of the work being done today that carries the name 'nanotechnology' is not nanotechnology in the original meaning of the word."
"I want to build a billion tiny factories, models of each other, which are manufacturing simultaneously. . . The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of manoeuvrings things atom by atom. It is not an attempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are too big". - Richard Feynman, Nobel Prize winner in physics
http://www.crnano.org/whatis.htm on 18 Jan 2010
APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY
Environment: - Our environment is the most important resource that we have often taken for granted. And for this nanotechnology is offering new opportunities for e.g. researches of nanotechnology are working on a project for the development of combination of solar panel/fuel cell. The idea behind this is that when solar panel is working, the fuel cell will store the excess energy and convert it into hydrogen. And when the sun goes down and solar panel stops working then fuel cell will provide energy it stored in the form of hydrogen. Nanotechnology can provide cost-effective and solutions to many cleanup problems of the world as with US. Many researches are thinking to use nanopraticals in such way that they should detoxify the common contaminants.
Medicine: - Nanotechnology is also providing benefits to our health care industry. As a result doctors are thinking of preparing sensitive disease detectors that target the disease tissue but not the healthy tissue. The U.S. National Nanotechnology has identified the detection, diagnosis and treatment of disease as "grand challenges" for nanotechnology. The researchers working on nanotechnology are working to develop such tools that can detect the disease before they overwhelm the body. Disease is caused largely by damage and destruction at the molecular and cellular level. Many current treatments cause damage to healthy tissue as well as diseased tissue. Hence, researches are planning to make such a sensor using the nanoparticals that could identify the diseased tissue and release drug exactly where required.
Security: - Nanotechnology is being used by many countries around the world for their national security. And the agencies working under this include new and potential bio- detection systems that can tackle the bioterrorism threat in time of emergency. Another important area is that of protecting our troops. It is the goal of the security agencies to use nanotechnology to create such uniforms that can protect and heal the foot soldiers in future.
http://www.discovernano.northwestern.edu/affect/applications_content as on 18 Jan. 10
IMPACT OF NANOTECHNOLOGY ON SOCIETY
Nanotechnology is not a product like a microchip or an automobile. It is the process that has the unique properties of materials at the 1-100 nanometer scale to develop new products. Nanotechnology has that potential that can greatly improve the quality of our living. There are many unknown facts about nanotechnology; it is important to separate science fact from science fiction. For e.g. "are nanoparticles harmful?" And the answer to this can be the chemical composition by using which it is made. Nanoparticles are the part of environment and there are many types in the air we breathe. So, it can have both the properties i.e. toxic and non-toxic. It is being used in our society in many different and harmless consumer products like sunscreens, anti-aging creams, paints etc. A huge research is being conducted by scientists and engineers to turning their attention towards social and ethical implications.
"HARMFUL TO HUMANS"
"Can nanoparticles cause chronic health effects similar to asbestosis?" the simple answer to this is we don't know. Several ways in which nanoparticles can enter the human body are inhalation, absorption through skin and direct injection for medicinal purposes. The blood brain barrier protects the brain from harmful chemicals in blood, cannot be a barrier to certain nanoparticles. However, it is an advantage for medicine as drugs can enter the brain, where it is very difficult to deliver drugs. But at the same time, unwanted nanoparticles also enter the brain and accumulate there. This has been observed in a study by "Kai Pelkonen et al".
"NANOTECHNOLOGY AS WEAPON OF WAR"
Being widely used in various fields of science, technology, it is also looked up as greatest threat to the world. As a weapon of war it has much scope than any other weapons of war. All the countries around the world are fearsome from the destruction that could be made by using this as a weapon. But as this technology is emerging in our lives the potential dangers of this has started unveiling the mask that will cover the people. By chance, if this technology gets into the hands of terrorists and criminals it would very dreadful because these people have very strong intentions. Terrorism then can never be diminished if is being used as a "WEAPON OF WAR". It is such a technology when used in war can sweep out nations at a time. So, this technology should never be encouraged and strict measures should be taken to stop the misuse of this technology because if this is not done the world could then end up in WORLD WAR III.
http://www.discovernano.northwestern.edu/affect/societalimpact/stayinformed as on 18 jan 2010.....
Apart from all this negative effects Nanotechnology also have positive effects on the society. Nanotechnology can bring benefits to risk mitigation of new materials like Cars could be made to absorb mode impact during crash, building materials could be made stronger to resist damage caused due to earthquake, fire ,etc. Clean-up operations can be made easier and cheaper. However, this could be the greatest dangers with the fact that these benefits are so seductive that society may rush on to them without assessing the safety standards. In present day, all regulations of nanotechnology are being done using the existing machines and stakeholders are divided into which regulation is to be required. An approach known as "WAIT AND SEE" is becoming popular for determining the risk. This approach is recommended in EUROPE, whereas USA and JAPAN likes a lighter regulatory touch.
THE IMPACT OF NANOTECHNOLOGY ON BUSINESS
The continuous evolution in technology has served innovation after innovation from mapping of Human cloning to supercomputers and the internet. Nanotechnology is the next chapter in the advancement in technology and it indicates the transformation of global economy. The developments in emerging technologies had indicated that forecast are less accurate in predicting the future. Predictions about nanotechnology have fuelled the imagination out which much is imagination but still future looks promising. However, the advancement made in technologies had redefined the economy of many countries. Nanotechnology if realized in the next coming years has the potential to realign the business and economies. It will touch all the aspects of economies: wages, employment, supply and demand. If development in nanotechnology reach to a critical mass in supplying most of the vertical industries will be influenced. Just as computers and internet has become vital in today's strong economy, nanotechnology will emerge as the technology which will shape the future economy. Nanotechnology has been integrated into the economy because of its readiness and investments by business and government. With complete knowledge of strategic value of the nation we can have a number of benefits from the nanotechnology applications. If we employ nanotechnology in economy with proper planning it will have a positive future outlook. As we know that global economy is in the face of transformation which may lead to new talent, capital and technical expertise. And the profit that today's technologies are making it indicates the change in the economy, which means that the innovation of the new nanotechnologies will have a dramatic shift to the economy. Nanotechnologies provide us with some stimulating and awesome challenges to meet in context with the business industry.
http://www.leader-values.com/guests/canton%20Nanotech%20Future%20of%20Biz%20Economic.pdf as on 18 jan 2010.
Cloud computing refers to a technology that delivers a kind of hosted services to the clients over the Internet. It is a paradigm in which different services are assigned to a combination of network, and services accessed over a network. This kind of server's network and connections referred to a "CLOUD". The information is stored on a server and is provided as a service and on demand to the clients who want to access the information. Some firms will be able to adopt service on demand in order to avoid the cost which is needed for hardware and software equipments. Cloud Computing is a general concept that uses Software-as-a-service (SaaS), and other technology trends in which a common goal is to satisfy the needs of customers over the Internet for example Google as we can access common applications related to business through a web browser on the Internet but its data as well as software resides on a server. The goal of cloud computing is to provide scalable access to the IT and computer related services.
Cloud computing is of two types Public and Private. In Public cloud services are provided to everyone on the internet it means that anyone can access information over the Internet without any restrictions (for example, Amazon Web Services are the largest provider of public cloud) whereas Private cloud is a kind of data centre where the services are provided only to the limited number of clients or users.
SERVICES OF CLOUD COMPUTING:
There are three services of Cloud Computing which are stated as follows:
Infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS): These are the services that provide instances of virtual server along with a unique IP addresses and blocks of storage on demand. To configure a virtual server and storage, Application Program Interface (API) is used by the clients.
Platform-as-a service (PaaS): This service is a set of software
IMPACT OF CLOUD COMPUTING ON SOCIETY
Cloud computing have some issues related to the business sector. Data accessibility and security are two which are needed to be ioned up. There are atleast two areas of cloud computing in the terms of enterprise as a fait accompli.
Pricing Transparency - Prepare your pencils
The pricing transparency from cloud providers completely changes the practices of the enterprise for benchmarking the IT cost. All the companies used to spend huge amount of money in order to understand IT expenses and effectiveness. The top line ratios which are based on R&D (Research and Development) revenue dollars are easy to access from SEC filings, but there are more detailed metrics like part science and part art. Cloud computing has changed all of that as now we can exactly understand that how much it will cost to rent an x86 server or a content delivery service by doing few links to host of other providers or to Amazon Web Services. Amazon S3 is now capable to do differentiation between a storage capacity, in and out of data and also the number of requests made by individuals.
Departmental Decision - The Outerprice
Deploying a new application meant couple of days or weeks of research, approvals, set ups as well as budgeting. But now it means that the individual who is outside the enterprise IT domain can pick up any service of their choice, select a plan and pay for it themselves. The benefits to the scale are high but the barriers to start are low and the decision gets down to the simplicity of impulse purchase. This is not likely a sequence of major enterprise system events, but if for those who are outside of the enterprise, in the "Outerprice". Project management, an extra reporting service for finance or an outsourced job by a creative developer have limitless possibilities.