Technology In The Modern World Computer Science Essay

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Modern world is blessed of technology. Technology makes life simple, comfortable and faster. The latest of this technology is 3G, better known as 3rd generation technology. Standards of mobile telecommunications includes GSM EDGE, UMTS, and CDMA2000 as well as DECT and WiMAX. Web applications include wide-area wireless voice telephone, video calls, and wireless data everything founded in a mobile environment because of 3G technology. Thus, 3G networks enable network operators to provide users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency.

The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched in May 2001 by NTT DoCoMo in Japan branded FOMA on a pre-release of W-CDMA technology. The first commercial launch of 3G was also by NTT DoCoMo on 1 October 2001. At first it was limited in scope. Another powerful mobile 3G technology is CDMA2000 1x EV-DO technology. AT&T Mobility is also a true 3G network, having completed its upgrade of the 3G network to HSUPA.

Advantages:

The advantage of 3G web application has no bounds. Some of these advantages are described below -

Compared to 2G and 2.5G services, 3G allows simultaneous use of speech and data services and higher data rates (up to 14.0 Mbit/s on the downlink and 5.8 Mbit/s on the uplink with HSPA+).

3G phones are like mini-laptops and can accommodate broadband applications like video conferencing, receiving streaming video from the Web, sending and receiving faxes and instantly downloading e-mail messages with attachments.

One of the biggest advantage compare to all is u can use one mobile number between different service providers. If u r current service provider is Airtel and u want to change to BSNL then no need to change number u can change only the service provider.

3G's high data rates are ideal for downloading information from the Internet and sending and receiving large, multimedia files.

3G phones are like mini-laptops and can accommodate broadband applications like video conferencing, receiving streaming video from the Web, sending and receiving faxes and instantly downloading e-mail messages with attachments.

The 3G technology in cellular phones can also benefit us while we are at home with different other applications. 3G can help simplify everyday tasks such as shopping, wherein we can order items that need to restock supply at home at our local market so it would be ready for pickup once we are there, giving us opportunity to make better use of your time.

Radio spectrum to relieve overcapacity in existing systems.

Higher bandwidth, security, and reliability.

Applicable between service providers.

Variable data rates.

Data rates are asymmetric.

Backward compatibility.

3G use IP connectivity and it is packet based (not circuit based).

Developed multimedia services.

Disadvantages:

Although 3G technologies offer a lot of new advancements and changes in the world of telecommunication, there are still a few things that render the use of 3G telephone communication systems technology as disadvantageous. Some of the negative impacts are described below -

One thing that makes 3G cellular phones disadvantageous to users is the fact that these types of cellular phones are more expensive as compared to those which do not share the same technology. Aside from this, people who have 3G can only enjoy the video conferencing feature of the technology with other 3G subscribers only.

Can take longer to develop as they are more complex and may have to work on different browsers of different version.

The cost of upgrading stations is very high.

Handset availability is another issue. Different handset required. 3G handsets are complex product. Roaming and both data/voice work has not yet been demonstrated. Also need a larger handset, shorter talk time, and strong battery performance.

Needs more base stations closer to each other (more cost).

Spectrum-license costs are very high. High network deployment costs and handset subsidies to subscribers, etc.

.

Classification of 3G web application

3G web application can be classified in the following ways -

2.1 Applications:

With the high bandwidth and greater performance 3G technology offers wide range of application. Communication is packet based and 3G devices are combination of a phone, PC, and a TV. Examples of services that 3G networks offer are:

Although always-online but users have to pay only when sending or receiving packets.

Web browsing in mobile devices.

Instant message and email with multimedia attachments.

Location based and oriented services.

A personalized service is also available.

Multimedia data services like video conferencing and streaming video is very much available.

Able to send and receive fax.

Global roaming is also possible.

It is easy to get maps and directions with the help of Global Positioning System (GPS).

User can Customized entertainment accordingly.

Allows simultaneous access to multiple services and multi tasking is also available. Each service offer some combination of voice, video, data, etc.

The Creation of new services possible because of high bandwidth of 3G network, some of which we have no idea about at this time. Two special services in 3G networks are

video conferencing and

video messaging.

2.2 Operating System:

Like a computer operating system, a mobile operating system is the software platform on which all programs run. The mobile manufacturer company usually install and load all the necessary software and operating system. The operating system is responsible to simultaneous functionality of mobile hardware and software. Mobile hardware depends on the operating system for operation. Hardware cannot do anything unless software for that hardware is installed. Software of specific hardware defines how the hardware will perform it functions. Different mobile manufacturer uses different operating system for their mobile devices. Some of well known operating systems are describes below -

Symbian OS

It is a standard operating system for smartphones, and is accredited by most of the world's handset manufacturers. The Symbian OS is developed and designed specifically for the requirements of 2.5G and 3G mobile phone devices.

Link: Symbian OS Web site

Windows Mobile

Like computer operating system, the Windows Mobile platform is applicable on most of the devices of wireless operators. Windows Mobile software mostly used by Dell, HP, Motorola, Palm and i-mate products. Windows Mobile powered devices can be used on both GSM or CDMA networks.

Link: Windows Mobile Web site

Palm OS

from the beginning the Palm OS platform has been developed for devices with essential business tools, as well as capability to access the wireless Internet via Bluetooth or a central corporate database via a wireless connection. The Palm OS are mainly used in business purpose mobile devices and it is tremendous powerful mobile OS.

Link: Palm OS Web site

Mobile Linux:

Motorola is the first company that use Linux as operating system in their mobile devices. Linux is a very powerful operating system with great security and user modifiable. User can modify the functionally and appearance if the wish to. Linux is especially suitable for higher-end phones with powerful processors devices and larger amounts of memory with super functionality.

Links: OSDL Mobile Linux Initiative

MXI

It is a universal mobile operating system with most functionality of desktop as well as mobile applications for Windows, Linux, Java, and Palm. It will be enabled immediately on mobile devices without any redevelopment. MXI supports for interoperability between various platforms, networks, software and hardware components.

2.3 Hardware:

Special hardware is needed to operate with the different of 3G application software. Touch screen and touch pad is great option to enjoy. Also the battery performance, LCD display range, Bluetooth, infrared functionality, memory card slots everything of high importance. The touch and gesture features of the iPod Touch is based on Finger Works technology. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) or the processor which is the brain of computing is also implemented in 3G devices for better functionality and applications.

Mac system requirements

Mac computer with USB 2.0 port

Mac OS X v10.4.11 or later

iTunes 8.2 or later (free download from www.itunes.com/download) 

iTunes Store account

Internet access

Windows system requirements

PC with USB 2.0 port

Windows Vista; or Windows XP Home or Professional with Service Pack 2 or later

iTunes 8.2 or later (free download from www.itunes.com/download) 

iTunes Store account

Internet access

Environmental requirements

Operating temperature: 32° to 95° F (0° to 35° C)

No operating temperature: -4° to 113° F (-20° to 45° C)

Relative humidity: 5% to 95% no condensing

Maximum operating altitude: 10,000 feet (3000 m)

Cellular and wireless

UMTS/HSDPA (850, 1900, 2100 MHz)

GSM/EDGE (850, 900, 1800, 1900 MHz)

Wi-Fi (802.11b/g)

Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR wireless technology

3. System Requirement:

3.1 Functional Requirements:

Functional requirements are the fundamental or essential subject matter of the product. They describe what the product has to do or what processing actions it is to take. It is the services that the system should provide, react to particular inputs and the systems behaviour in particular situation.

For example the Apple iPhone 3G, also called the Apple iPhone 2 works on Operating System version 2.0, with a user-friendly interface and menu system icons. It comes with language support and has International keyboard. It works on quadband technology with GSM 850, GSM 900, GMS 1800, GMS 1900 and UMTS. Its network coverage may vary depending on its user's network provider.The handset is equipped with support for WiFi, making Internet connection easy in various hotspots. As the phone is equipped with EDGE and HSDPA technologies, Internet downloads and file transfers are speedy. It also supports multitasking.

3.2 Non-functional Requirements:

Non-functional requirements are the constraints on the services or functions offered by the system such as timing constraints, development constraints on the development process, standards etc. Non functional requirements may be more significant than the functional requirements. Non-functional feature such as security, privacy, integration and system performance are crucial to the development of high-quality 3G web system. System integration and speed also the vital non functional requirements for 3G web application system.

For example Background Mode function is the main drawback of the iPhone. iPhone does not support background execution of application. Also if the touch pad damaged then the phone will be unusable.

3.3 Domain Requirements:

Domain requirements are fundamental for software reuse and are the product of domain analysis. Domain requirements are the requirements that come from the application domain of the system and that reflect characteristics of the domain.

Application domain is similar to operating system. An application domain is a mechanism that is used to separate executed software applications from one another so that they do not affect each other. Each application is stored in separate virtual address scope.

For example iPhone 3G is the second generation of iPhone, a smartphone made by Apple as combination of iPod, a tablet PC, a digital camera and a cellular phone. iPhone OS 2.0 can be installed and used in both iPhone model. The use has the option to upgrade software, application and also operating system.

Technical Approach:

Among the five work packages (WP) of 3GWeb implementation structure I would like to focus on WP1. The initiatives are described below -

Mobile Web Best Practices

It is a web standard and change the experience of many mobile Web stakeholders into practical advice on creating user friendly mobile content, helping to improve browsing the Web on a speedy, multitasking, functionality, Graphical User Interface and high battery performance of mobile handsets.

Device Description Repository Simple API

It describes a language-neutral API. It allows Web content providers to modify their contents taking into account a range of factors such as screen size and resolution, HTML, XML language support and image format support.

MobileOK Basic

MobileOK allows estimating whether the designed page is compatible in mobile application.

In Development

Content Transformation Guidelines

This is a guideline to content provider to produce web content for mobile devices. The content should be produced and designed in such a way that it would works on mobile phone correctly.

Mobile Web Application Best Practices

This is new generation of guidelines and focus on the huge modification of Web applications and widgets for the best possible use of the mobile device. For example, mobile content providers have developed different software for mobile web browsing, global map for location base service etc.

White papers

Relationship between Mobile Web Practices and Web Content Accessibility Guidelines

It describes the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) and the Mobile Web Best Practices (MWBP).

Device Description Repository Core Vocabulary

This document describes a standard recommended guideline for mobile devices both feature specification and functions.

Device Description Structures

It describes XML language and syntax to create groups o devices with a common characteristics. For the best functionality and user friendly, the structure should follow the standard.

Guidelines independent tests focused on ways to develop test cases and test suites that are suited for usage on mobile devices. What can the device do, how the user can use function and features, how to use wireless internet, how to setup internet in mobile devices these are describes here.

Summary:

3G technology makes web application easier to use for all even in mobile devices. Now anyone gets connected and stay in touch with internet from anywhere. 3G technology makes this possible and 3G enabled devices make this easy to get to. People can use mobile internet and can access social web pages like facebook, twitter, yahoo, widowslive messenger etc. from their 3G mobile phone. Now every mobile device company use 3G technology and makes their mobile devices 3G enabled. As a consequence mobile operator invests more for the maximum use of 3G technology and gets benefitted. Web applications include wide-area wireless voice telephone, video calls, and wireless data; all can be accessible in mobile environment because of 3G technology. 3G web applications include instant messaging, email with multimedia attachments, Location based services, global positioning system, IP network, internet browsing etc. Special hardware and software is needed for those applications. Special operating system such as Symbian OS, a standard operating system for smartphones, others include Windows Mobile operating system, Palm Operating System, Mobile Linux, MXI etc. Also there are special hardware requirements to operate on this operating system. There are some functional requirements that is what the product has to do or what processing actions it is to take like a touch screen and displays a host of animated over a high resolution of 320 x 480 pixels a QWERTY keyboard. Non-functional requirements are the constraints on the services or functions offered by the system such as timing constraints, development constraints on the development process, standards etc. Non functional requirements such as Lack of Background Mode, screen resolution, battery charge sustainability etc. and the domain requirements are fundamental for software reuse and are the product of domain analysis.

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