Technical Aspects Of Computer Operation Systems Computer Science Essay

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An operating system is a layer of software which controls all the technical aspects of a computer's system . It hides the low-level details of the machine's operation from the user of the machine and provides frequently needed facilities. There is no universal definition about what an operating system consists of, but you can think of it as being the software which has been already installed on machine, before you add anything on your own.

Normally the operating system has a number of key elements:

A technical layer of software for driving the hardware

A file system which provides a way of organizing files logically,

A simple command language which enables users to run their own programs and to manipulate their files in a simple way.

Some operating systems provide text debuggers, compilers, editors and a variety of other tools. Since the operating system is the controller of a computer, all the requests for its resources and devices need to go through the OS. An Operating System therefore provides

Legal entry points into its code for performing basic operations like writing to devices.

Operating systems may be classified by both how many tasks they can perform simultaneously and by how many users can be using the system simultaneously . That is:  single-task or multi-tasking and single-user or  multi-user. A multi-user system is generally multi-tasking.

Here are some examples of OS with their specifications:

OS

USERS

TASKS

PROCESSORS

MS/PC DOS

S

S

1

MS WINDOWS

M

M

n

MACINTOSH

S

M

1

AMIGA DOS

S

M

1

HLINE MTS

M

M

1

UNIX

M

M

n

VMS

M

M

1

NT

S/M

M

n

BeOS(Hamlet)

S

M

n

The (MS/PC DOS) are single user, single-task systems which build on a ROM based library of basic functions called the BIOS.

The Macintosh system 7 can be classified as single-user quasi-multitasking.

AmigaDOS is an operating system for the Commodore Amiga computer. It is based on the UNIX model and is a fully multi-tasking, single-user system.

MTS (Michigan timesharing system) was the first time-sharing multi-user system.

Unix is arguably the most important operating system today. It comes in many forms, developed by different manufacturers. Originally designed at AT&T, UNIX split into two camps early on: BSD (Berkeley software distribution) and system 5 (AT&T license).

NT is a new operating system from Microsoft based on the old VAX/VMS kernel from the Digital Equipment Corporation (VMS's inventor moved to Microsoft) and the Windows32 API.

The Be operating system, originally developed for a new multimedia computer called the BeBox, is also new and is a fully multitasking OS.

Comparison of different operating systems

The operating system is the software manager of a computer system. There are many forms of operating systems software available. Choosing the best operating system depends on the system requirements and hardware one is using. There are operating systems that work on most hardware platform configurations but their also some operating systems which are built for some specific system and hardware requirements. Choosing the best operating systems software depends on budget and expectations for the system. Typically, a true multiprocessing system is the best general purpose operating system available.

There are a number of and many terminologies twittering like birds around our heads we must be confused for what operating system to choose for our next or existing machine. Here are some criteria's which can help you select your best operating system. They are:

Cyber warfare secure

Viruses

Drivers

Free Software

GUI

Backward Compatible

Better & free support

Over heads

Power saver

Ethically secure

We must have this consideration as we are working in a sensitive organization with much of official data lying on our desktops. So we must have a good technology to counter the evil. If we have a virus free life and then their no need to run for some good antivirus all the time. Enjoy free software as good as the costly one available in the market. Get a stunning and unbelievable Graphical User Interface with many customizable options. There is nothing to worry about the newer version of any software as we can have forward and backward compatible environment. You need not to pay anything to talk to some expert as you can have free and customer support.

Get rid of all over heads which are processes running in you task manger all the time. If we can get rid of overheads which means less processor, hard drive and ram working which in returns saves power. Our laptop battery life can be amazingly increased by one hour. The operating system should be ethically non disturbing as we need not to pay anything for it.

There are other operating systems, but most of them are designed for a special purpose, out of date, or extremely difficult to use. Linux, Mac OS, and Windows are the average user's most viable choices. It's important to make sure that you know what you intend to do with your computer, and that the operating system you use is best able to accommodate that purpose.

We here will generally compare the main three market holders of the operating systems. These are as we generally know are:

Windows

Linux

Macintosh

Windows

The god father of operating systems market, Windows is the only choice for many business and home business users. Microsoft has almost universal third party programming support, which enables it to run thousands of great software. It has a lot of great Microsoft-products, many of which have the universal standard (Microsoft Word and Outlook, for instance). If you like to play video games, Windows' video game library completely dwarfs that of Mac OS. Windows is simple to use, is updated frequently, and is the world's most popular operating system. Of course, it is notorious for its many bugs and crashes. Technical experts will always tell you to stay away from anything made by Microsoft, until their last breathe.

However, people have an opinion that it is because of Windows' popularity that so many bugs have been discovered; it's very likely that if Macintosh was being used by as many people as Windows, all the crackers would be attacking Apple. If you decide to use Windows, it's important to update your windows often, since Microsoft updates their OS drastically with every revision. Also, it is wise to run Windows Update often to protect your computer from bugs. Windows is also more prone to viruses than other systems, so good virus protection software is a must.

Microsoft Windows is a family of proprietary operating systems that originated as an add-on to the older MS-DOS operating system for the IBM PC. Modern versions are based on the newer Windows NT kernel that was originally intended for OS/2 of IBM. As of 2009, Microsoft Windows holds a large amount of the worldwide desktop market share. Windows is also used on servers, supporting applications such as web servers and database servers. In recent years, Microsoft has spent significant marketing and research & development money to demonstrate that Windows is capable of running any enterprise application, which has resulted in consistent price/performance records and significant acceptance in the enterprise market.

On October 22, 2009, Microsoft released Windows 7, the successor to Windows Vista, coming three years after its release. While Vista was about introducing new features, Windows 7 aims to streamline these and provide for a faster overall working environment. The timeline of windows operating system is stated below :C:\Users\ASHISH\Desktop\time1.JPG

Macintosh

Mac OS X is a line of partially proprietary, graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc., the latest of which is pre-loaded on all currently shipping Macintosh computers. Mac OS X is the successor to the original Mac OS, which had been Apple's primary operating system since 1984.

Your first reaction to Mac OS will be, "Hey, this operating system is very stable, works with many programs, and is a viable alternative to Windows." Your second reaction will be, "Why does the mouse have one button?" .The point is that if you're a lifetime Windows user, switching to the Mac interface is a bit daunting task. Macintosh OS is just like any other operating system, except that

it doesn't have a flashy name, and

it is built for the Mac architecture.

This means that you can forget about installing it on anything other than an Apple computer. Which means paying a higher price tag in many situations, and another thing, your mouse will have one button on it. Even after using a Mac for years, many haven't gotten used to this, then again, many people have.

The Mac computers is unable to use Windows programs and there are a few file types that are difficult to open. Luckily, Apple made up for this by creating a host of great programs, most of them more effective and usable to their Windows counterpart. Some people find that Apple computers tend to be more stable than Windows computers, meaning that they crash less, but that's just a personal opinion.

Files deleted in Mac OS are immediately overwritten, making them unable to be recovered in most situations. This is a built in e-shredder for businesses, but if you delete something you needed, even top data recovery companies are usually unable to get it back, and if somehow they do, it won't be cheap. It's also worth mentioning that Apple will be using Intel processors in its computers soon.

This should mean a boom in Macintosh OS programming, though at least at first it still won't be able to keep up with Windows. Apple computers are well known within the graphics industry as one of the best graphic software platforms available.

The server edition, Mac OS X Server, is architecturally identical to its desktop counterpart but usually runs on Apple's line of Macintosh server hardware. Mac OS X Server includes work group management and administration software tools that provide simplified access to key network services.The timeline of MAC OS after the 19th century is shown below :

C:\Users\ASHISH\Desktop\TIME2.jpg

Linux

Ken Thompson was the one wrote language B which he used to write Unix, based on his experience in the this project, B was replaced by C, and Unix from then has developed into a large, complex family of inter-related operating systems which have been influencing every modern operating system. 

The Unix-like family is a diverse group of operating systems, with several major sub-categories. The name "UNIX" is a trademark of The Open Group which gives authority for use with any operating system that has been shown to conform to their definitions. "Unix-like" is commonly used to refer to the large set of operating systems which resemble the original Unix. Unix-like systems run on a number of variety of machine architectures. They are used heavily for servers in business, as well as workstations in engineering and academic environments. 

Linux is developed by people from all over the world working together with the common goal of spending long nights in front of a computer screen to develop a useful, free operating system. The source code used to create Linux systems is open for everyone who wants to view it.

Luckily for us, the programmers behind Linux have the attention spans necessary to improve on the code to make better and better operating systems, as well as programs, hardware drivers, etc. Different programming teams work to develop Linux for different purposes, leading to many different types of Linux, called "distributions." Most of the distributions are available for free, which obviously is a big plus for Linux users. Since Mac OS only works on Apple computers and Windows costs around 90 bucks per user, Linux could be the ideal choice for businesses that need computer systems for basic functions. For instance, Mandrake Linux, one of the most popular distributions, has programs built right in to the OS that are comparable to Windows Outlook, Microsoft Office, and Internet Explorer-all free. Mandrake has a user-friendly, simple interface like Windows, allowing the computer beginner to utilize its features. Another popular distribution is Red Hat, to which many businesses are converting to. Linux sounds great, but it has significant darksides. Some distributions are hard to use, and even user friendly distributions like Mandrake and Red Hat are unable to open many Windows and Macintosh file types. Gaming is pretty limited on Linux computers, and if a Linux machine crashes, data recovery can be very expensive. The timeline of LINUX after 19th century is shown below:

C:\Users\ASHISH\Desktop\TIME3.jpg

Conclusion

Operating System

Numbers Of Viruses

WINDOWS

60,000

MAC

70

LINUX

40

There are number of operating systems in the market and all of them have some characteristic that make them different and give an edge over the other operating systems. The operating systems discussed above are the names which instantaneously come into our mind. Windows is the best operating system if judged with respect of number of users using the operating system. If judged with respect of number of viruses that can attack an Operating System then Windows is the most venerable operating system. While Macintosh is best if we need the best GUI and image processing or editing options. In case if we are interested in high performance, stability, cost, best support, research etc then by any means you should opt for Linux. There are significant differences in their comparison. If we compare the size of an Operating System then also Windows is on the top this means it is not at all fruitful for those who need a large amount of data to be stored.C:\Users\ASHISH\Desktop\graph1.JPG

Operating System

Lines Of Code

WINDOWS

89 MILLION

MAC

50 MILLION

LINUX

40 MILLION

So last but not the least in my opinion if you are a technical student or person interested in research then LINUX is the only that u should opt for, but if are interested in entrainment then you should opt for Windows or MAC.

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