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"FastTrack' Trains is a new train service that seeks to hit the market strong because of its advanced reservation system.Â Based on the success of Euro Star, Fast Track will be taking a similar approach with regards to fun trains, unassigned seating, and standardized train infrastructure.Â
The main goal of the system is to provide online booking of the train tickets so that the customer can get benefit of exact booking and the wastage of the time will be reduced.
The system work as follows
Once the user made his entry with the website then he will check for the availability of a particular train in which he want to travel, day and the time. If the seats available then the user has to give his information and his reservation will done successful
There are two possibilities exists with this application they are
The user will get the reservation for the train for what he is looking for and the day and time.
The user can't get the reservation for the train he will search for the next availability of the train
Context Level Diagram
For this approach the database manages 4 different database tables
The fields of the table are
CUSTOMER_ID Data type Number
NAME Data type Text
Address Data type Text
Contact Number Data type Number
Reservation Number Data type Number
Customer_ID Data type Number
Train Number Data type Number
Seat Reserved Data type Memo
Fare Data type Currency
Date Data type Date
Train Number Data type Number
Starting_Station Data type Text
Ending_Station Data type Text
Start_Time Data type Date/Time
Arrival_Time Data type Date/Time
Number_of_seats_Reserved Data type Number
Employee_Id Data Type Number
Name Data Type Text
Contact_Number Data Type Number
Employee_Role Data Type Text
Sorting the Employee table in ascending order based on Customer Id
Data base is a group of data that organized in a logical way. Data can be any meaningful object or element including numbers, alphabets, images and videos.
sDBMS (Data Base management System) is a software that developed for maintain the large collection of data
DBMS was invented by Charles Bachman in year 1960 and initially called as Integrated Data Store
1.2File system VS DBMS
Before Database developed files are used to store heavy data and process that data. Which are also helpful in now a days to maintain the back ups of a database.
Apart from the use of the file systems their disadvantages summed up as follows
Repetition of the same data
It is hard to maintain the information about each file like name of the file, type of data it's storing and so on
It takes much time for designing each and every file and the developers has to do this task
Solution for above mentioned all the problems is Database
DB maintains the data in a convenient and standard form. The data is arranged in different tables which are easy to access, update and delete
DBMS importance can be explained with the following points as
If a company maintains data which is larger than 4GB size which we cannot access directly from a computer system then their need a program for recognizing the data items
The data that is very frequently accessed by the users and the changes made by them will make the inconsistent. So the security is needed to the data from the sudden changes.
An Operating system assigns a password for the protection of the data this is not sufficient for a bulk database so different access permissions are given to the different data levels
If their any system crashes happens then it has to be restored in a efficient method
1.3 Advantages of Database Management System
Data Independency: The useful for an application program must be independent a DBMS provides the top level view of the data to get the required details to the user.
Efficient Data Access: DBMS has number of techniques to store and retrieve the data. It is mostly helpful in storing the data in external devices.
Data integrity and security: If the data is accessed from a DBMS all the time then it forces to implement the integrity constrains on the data. So it is easy govern the access controls of the different users and on which part of data they are acting
Data Administration: when multiple users are accessing data from a database the experienced developers can provide the details of the data.
Concurrent access and crash recovery: The administrator of the data has to schedule the database in such way that only one user can access it every time. So the crashes and failures in the system will be reduced.
Reduced application development tools: The data accessing time will be reduced by using a DBMS so it automatically increases the application development speed (Raghu, 2000)
Raghu Ramkrishnan, Johannes Gehrke (2000) "Database Management Systems" Second Edition
Different components of a Database System are
DBMS (Database Management System)
End Users (Kabay, 2010)
M. E. Kabay (2010) "Introduction to DBMS"
A data base table consists number of rows and columns where as the first row represent the names of the different fields of the table and the columns consists of the values for that particular field.
A primary key is a unique value for the filed of a database. It available with the table automatically or created by the database. It can be a single field or combination of fields.
In a train reservation system Customer Id is the primary key for the passenger table where we can get the information of a specific passenger depending on that .But we can't use the name of the passenger as the primary key because the names may not be unique but the system generated value Customer ID will be unique.
A Foreign key is a filed in one table that matches with the primary key of another table. It can be used tie up two different table based on a field.
1.4 Normalization Techniques
It is a process of arranging the data in a database very efficiently .The main aim of normalization is to eliminate same data in a data base and storing all the related data in the one table
There are 5 normal forms are available to the data base developers they are as follows
First Normal Form (1 NF)
Second Normal Form (2 NF)
Third Normal Form (3NF)
Boyce-Codd Normal Forms
Fourth Normal Form (4NF)
Fifth Normal Form (5NF)
First Normal Form (1 NF)
In order to consider a database that is in first normal form all the relation in the table has to satisfy following steps
Each column has to contain only one vale
All the given values of the column must be of the similar type
Don't give same values for all the fields of any two rows
The order of columns and rows will not determined
The Fast Track Database contains a table called passenger with the column names as Customer Id, Name, Phone number and address
The table satisfies the 1 NF because each every filed has given only one value and the values of column belongs to same type i.e either numbers or text. No two rows having the same values in all the fields
Second Normal Form (2 NF)
A relation is said to be in 2NF if all other field values are dependent on the primary key field. If a table contains only two fields one is primary key and one more filed then it is automatically in 2NF.If a table not satisfies the 2NF if it's having more number of fields then it is split into two or more tables according to the rules.
If we take Reservation table from the Fast track database
So it can be divided in to 2 other tables as
Table one contains 2 fields as Reservation Number, Customer Id and Fair for the trip
The next table contains Reservation Number, Train Number and Seat Reserved
Third Normal Form (3 NF)
If a relation satisfies the second normal form and the transitive dependencies then is in the 3 NF.
IF a relation R is having 3 attributes called A, B and C
A -> BÂ andÂ B -> CÂ thenÂ A -> C
The Employee_Info Table of the database having 4 fields as Employee id, Name, Contact Number and Employee role.
Here Employee Id is the primary key so we can get the name of the employee using the primary and then based on the name we can get the Employee role and contact number.
Employee_Id -> Employee Name
Employee Name -> Contact Number
Employee Name -> Employee Role
Leo Mark "Normalization" http://www.cc.gatech.edu/classes/AY2009/cs4400_fall/normalization.pdf [1/27/2010]
Employee_Info table can be divided into two other tables so that it can satisfies the 3NF
We have two types of data base software's are available
Desktop databases like Filmmaker pro and Microsoft access
Server side databases like Oracle, MySQL and Microsoft SQL server
Micro Soft Access
It is the software available freely with the Microsoft package so no expenses are made for creating databases. This is the most popular desktop database on the globe
It is very easy to implement and create databases in a simple method compared to Oracle and SQL Server. It allows maximum of 15 people can work on the database at the same time, updates the queries, reports and forms with high speed.
It is portable works on different operating systems like Windows XP, Windows 2000, Windows 98 and Windows ME.
Throw this software the remote users can also access the database of a website.
We can use it with the other Microsoft products like Excel, Word, and Outlook etc.
SorenLauesen (2007) "MicrosoftAccessTutorial"
This system contains a fully developed database that is with the MS access software All the required information for a reservation of a train are stored with the help of different tables and the 1NF, 2NF and 3NF techniques applied to the database tables so the data base normalized.
A set of quires executed across the tables to capture the information like Updating deleting and making the in Ascending or descending order and so on