System Requirements And Context Level Diagram Computer Science Essay

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"FastTrack' Trains is a new train service that seeks to hit the market strong because of its advanced reservation system.  Based on the success of Euro Star, Fast Track will be taking a similar approach with regards to fun trains, unassigned seating, and standardized train infrastructure. 

The main goal of the system is to provide online booking of the train tickets so that the customer can get benefit of exact booking and the wastage of the time will be reduced.

The system work as follows

Once the user made his entry with the website then he will check for the availability of a particular train in which he want to travel, day and the time. If the seats available then the user has to give his information and his reservation will done successful

There are two possibilities exists with this application they are

The user will get the reservation for the train for what he is looking for and the day and time.

The user can't get the reservation for the train he will search for the next availability of the train

System Requirements

Context Level Diagram

Structured Chart

Link: http://www.slideshare.net/joveria/railway-reservation-software-documentaion-536753

For this approach the database manages 4 different database tables

They are

Passenger

Train_Info

Reservation

Employee

Passenger table

The fields of the table are

CUSTOMER_ID Data type Number

NAME Data type Text

Address Data type Text

Contact Number Data type Number

Reservation Table

Reservation Number Data type Number

Customer_ID Data type Number

Train Number Data type Number

Seat Reserved Data type Memo

Fare Data type Currency

Date Data type Date

Train_Info

Train Number Data type Number

Starting_Station Data type Text

Ending_Station Data type Text

Start_Time Data type Date/Time

Arrival_Time Data type Date/Time

Number_of_seats_Reserved Data type Number

Employee_Info Table

Employee_Id Data Type Number

Name Data Type Text

Contact_Number Data Type Number

Employee_Role Data Type Text

Sorting the Employee table in ascending order based on Customer Id

SQL view

Literature review

1.1DataBase

Data base is a group of data that organized in a logical way. Data can be any meaningful object or element including numbers, alphabets, images and videos.

sDBMS (Data Base management System) is a software that developed for maintain the large collection of data

DBMS was invented by Charles Bachman in year 1960 and initially called as Integrated Data Store

1.2File system VS DBMS

Before Database developed files are used to store heavy data and process that data. Which are also helpful in now a days to maintain the back ups of a database.

Apart from the use of the file systems their disadvantages summed up as follows

Repetition of the same data

It is hard to maintain the information about each file like name of the file, type of data it's storing and so on

It takes much time for designing each and every file and the developers has to do this task

Solution for above mentioned all the problems is Database

DB maintains the data in a convenient and standard form. The data is arranged in different tables which are easy to access, update and delete

DBMS importance can be explained with the following points as

If a company maintains data which is larger than 4GB size which we cannot access directly from a computer system then their need a program for recognizing the data items

The data that is very frequently accessed by the users and the changes made by them will make the inconsistent. So the security is needed to the data from the sudden changes.

An Operating system assigns a password for the protection of the data this is not sufficient for a bulk database so different access permissions are given to the different data levels

If their any system crashes happens then it has to be restored in a efficient method

1.3 Advantages of Database Management System

Data Independency: The useful for an application program must be independent a DBMS provides the top level view of the data to get the required details to the user.

Efficient Data Access: DBMS has number of techniques to store and retrieve the data. It is mostly helpful in storing the data in external devices.

Data integrity and security: If the data is accessed from a DBMS all the time then it forces to implement the integrity constrains on the data. So it is easy govern the access controls of the different users and on which part of data they are acting

Data Administration: when multiple users are accessing data from a database the experienced developers can provide the details of the data.

Concurrent access and crash recovery: The administrator of the data has to schedule the database in such way that only one user can access it every time. So the crashes and failures in the system will be reduced.

Reduced application development tools: The data accessing time will be reduced by using a DBMS so it automatically increases the application development speed (Raghu, 2000)

Raghu Ramkrishnan, Johannes Gehrke (2000) "Database Management Systems" Second Edition

Different components of a Database System are

CASE Tools

Repository

DBMS (Database Management System)

Database

Application Programs

User Interface

Database administrators

Developers

End Users (Kabay, 2010)

M. E. Kabay (2010) "Introduction to DBMS"

http://www.mekabay.com/courses/academic/norwich/is240/lectures/02_intro_to_dbms.pdf [1/26/2010]

A data base table consists number of rows and columns where as the first row represent the names of the different fields of the table and the columns consists of the values for that particular field.

Primary Key

A primary key is a unique value for the filed of a database. It available with the table automatically or created by the database. It can be a single field or combination of fields.

In a train reservation system Customer Id is the primary key for the passenger table where we can get the information of a specific passenger depending on that .But we can't use the name of the passenger as the primary key because the names may not be unique but the system generated value Customer ID will be unique.

Foreign Key

A Foreign key is a filed in one table that matches with the primary key of another table. It can be used tie up two different table based on a field.

1.4 Normalization Techniques

It is a process of arranging the data in a database very efficiently .The main aim of normalization is to eliminate same data in a data base and storing all the related data in the one table

There are 5 normal forms are available to the data base developers they are as follows

First Normal Form (1 NF)

Second Normal Form (2 NF)

Third Normal Form (3NF)

Boyce-Codd Normal Forms

Fourth Normal Form (4NF)

Fifth Normal Form (5NF)

First Normal Form (1 NF)

In order to consider a database that is in first normal form all the relation in the table has to satisfy following steps

Each column has to contain only one vale

All the given values of the column must be of the similar type

Don't give same values for all the fields of any two rows

The order of columns and rows will not determined

The Fast Track Database contains a table called passenger with the column names as Customer Id, Name, Phone number and address

Customer ID

Name

Phone number

Address

123

RINKU

5532467

YARKSHRIE

124

SONY

9876743

TRENTON

125

SMITH

8765434

BRUNSWICK

126

SONY

655437

YARKSHIRE

127

RON

4877665

BRUNSWICK

The table satisfies the 1 NF because each every filed has given only one value and the values of column belongs to same type i.e either numbers or text. No two rows having the same values in all the fields

Second Normal Form (2 NF)

A relation is said to be in 2NF if all other field values are dependent on the primary key field. If a table contains only two fields one is primary key and one more filed then it is automatically in 2NF.If a table not satisfies the 2NF if it's having more number of fields then it is split into two or more tables according to the rules.

If we take Reservation table from the Fast track database

Reservation

Number

Customer ID

Train

Number

Seat

Reserved

Fair

90045

123

255561

12 A

$ 20

90046

124

223441

55 C

$ 13

90047

125

278652

76 B

$50

90048

126

763629

32 A

$28

90049

127

876500

43 C

$ 10

So it can be divided in to 2 other tables as

Table one contains 2 fields as Reservation Number, Customer Id and Fair for the trip

The next table contains Reservation Number, Train Number and Seat Reserved

Reservation

Number

Customer ID

Fair

90045

123

$ 20

90046

124

$ 13

90047

125

$50

90048

126

$28

90049

127

$ 10

Reservation

Number

Train

Number

Seat

Reserved

90045

255561

12 A

90046

223441

55 C

90047

278652

76 B

90048

763629

32 A

90049

876500

43 C

Third Normal Form (3 NF)

If a relation satisfies the second normal form and the transitive dependencies then is in the 3 NF.

IF a relation R is having 3 attributes called A, B and C

A -> B and B -> C then A -> C

The Employee_Info Table of the database having 4 fields as Employee id, Name, Contact Number and Employee role.

Here Employee Id is the primary key so we can get the name of the employee using the primary and then based on the name we can get the Employee role and contact number.

Employee_Id -> Employee Name

Employee Name -> Contact Number

Employee Name -> Employee Role

http://www.cs.cityu.edu.hk/~helena/cs34622000B/Normalization.pdf

Leo Mark "Normalization" http://www.cc.gatech.edu/classes/AY2009/cs4400_fall/normalization.pdf [1/27/2010]

Employee

Id

Employee Name

Contact Number

Role

675

Sonu

4567732

Driver

676

Sunny

3445734

Ticket checker

677

Sam

2786544

Manager

678

Don

1223222

Officer

679

Joe

9876565

House Keeping

Employee

Id

Employee Name

675

Sonu

676

Sunny

677

Sam

678

Don

679

Joe

Employee Name

Contact Number

Role

Sonu

4567732

Driver

Sunny

3445734

Ticket checker

Sam

2786544

Manager

Don

1223222

Officer

Joe

9876565

House Keeping

Employee_Info table can be divided into two other tables so that it can satisfies the 3NF

We have two types of data base software's are available

Desktop databases like Filmmaker pro and Microsoft access

Server side databases like Oracle, MySQL and Microsoft SQL server

Micro Soft Access

It is the software available freely with the Microsoft package so no expenses are made for creating databases. This is the most popular desktop database on the globe

It is very easy to implement and create databases in a simple method compared to Oracle and SQL Server. It allows maximum of 15 people can work on the database at the same time, updates the queries, reports and forms with high speed.

It is portable works on different operating systems like Windows XP, Windows 2000, Windows 98 and Windows ME.

Throw this software the remote users can also access the database of a website.

We can use it with the other Microsoft products like Excel, Word, and Outlook etc.

SorenLauesen (2007) "MicrosoftAccessTutorial"

http://www.itu.dk/~slauesen/UID/AccessTutorial.pdf

Conclusion

This system contains a fully developed database that is with the MS access software All the required information for a reservation of a train are stored with the help of different tables and the 1NF, 2NF and 3NF techniques applied to the database tables so the data base normalized.

A set of quires executed across the tables to capture the information like Updating deleting and making the in Ascending or descending order and so on

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