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Primary Health Care is committed to helping patients take control of their health. This system is virtual, but our physicians and their dedication is real.
Using secure, web-based technologies provided by Medical Web, our health-care providers offer advice and treatment for a variety of conditions. Patients can communicate securely and confidentially with our physicians throughout the treatment process using our messaging system. As a physician-owned company, we are committed to helping our patients receive the utmost care and medical attention.
Primary Health Care delivers quality healthcare through innovative services. Using secure, web-based technologies provided by Medical Web, our physicians provide advice and treatment for a variety of healthcare conditions.
Our services include:
Â§ Treatment of Non-emergent Conditions
Â§ Mental Health
Â§ Naturopathic Advice & Remedies
Â§ Physician Advice
Â§ Laboratory Interpretations
All of our services are provided through the Internet in a secure and confidential manner. A secure communication portal is established between the patient and a Primary Health Care provider to allow one-on-one interaction. Physicians can discuss treatment options with patients and patients can respond. By building a trusting relationship, Primary Health Care can effectively provide a direct benefit to each and every patient.
THE EXISTING SYSTEM
* The existing system is a manual system. Here the User of the system needs to save his information in the form of excel sheets or Disk Drives.
* There is no sharing is possible if the data is in the form of paper or Disk drives.
* There is no online appointment facility.
* The manual system gives us very less security for saving data; some data may be lost due to mismanagement.
* There is no rich user interface.
* It's a limited system and fewer users friendly.
* There is no email facility.
* Searching of particular information is very critical it takes lot of time.
* The users cannot able to restrict the information.
* There is no report generation.
The development of the new system objective is to address the solutions for the drawbacks of existing problem domain. Using this new system the patient can register for making online appointment with doctor. For interaction between patient and doctor chatting has provided. By this facility patient would chat with doctor.
The development of this new system contains the following activities, which try to automate the entire process keeping in the view of database integration approach.
* User Friendliness is provided in the application with various controls provided by system Rich User Interface.
* This system provides online appointment facility.
* The system makes the overall project management much easier and flexible.
* It can be accessed over the Intranet.
* It provides email facility.
* The user information files can be stored in centralized database which can be maintained by the system.
* This can give the good security for user information because data is not in client machine.
* Authentication is provided for this application only registered users can access.
* It provides search facility.
* There is no risk of data management at any level while the project development is under process.
* Report generation features is provided to generate different kind of data reports.
Advantages for Patients
For Patient of Primary Health Care, advantages primarily concern access, time, and cost factors compared to those incurred from attending the doctor as manual.
Patient can able to see his health card details and also he can view the prescription details that given by doctor. The patient would have one facility he can raise the complaints based wrong medicine or prescription given by doctor. That complaint will be goes to admin. Admin assign one more doctor to answer that complaint.
Mails and chat can be archived in the Primary Health Care for instant reviewing, which is another advantage to patient.
STUDY OF THE SYSTEM
In the flexibility of uses the interface has been developed a graphics concepts in mind, associated through a browser interface. The GUI's at the top level has been categorized as follows
1. Administrative User Interface Design
2. The Operational and Generic User Interface Design
The administrative user interface concentrates on the consistent information that is practically, part of the organizational activities and which needs proper authentication for the data collection. The Interface helps the administration with all the transactional states like data insertion, data deletion, and data updating along with executive data search capabilities.
The operational and generic user interface helps the users upon the system in transactions through the existing data and required services. The operational user interface also helps the ordinary users in managing their own information helps the ordinary users in managing their own information in a customized manner as per the assisted flexibilities.
Now Doctors and Patients anywhere in the world can connect and meet live in the Primary Health Care for an online interaction. The collaborative web conferencing environment enables you to communicate synchronously through text chat, and to share problems and prescriptions.
NUMBER OF MODULES
The system after careful analysis has been identified to be presented with the following modules:
* General Public
* Web Registration
Administrator is treated as a super user in this system. He can have all the privileges to do anything in this system. He is the person who received the Profile of a Doctor and accept/reject the registration.
* He is the person who receives the Complaints from the Patient and redirects to respective Doctor for response.
* He has a facility to communicate using chat, email facility with other stakeholders.
* He can take care of Backup of Patient, Doctor details and maintain history.
* He can able to add Rooms availability and Ambulance details into the site for each Hospital.
Another tasks done by the administrator is he can generates reports, log files, backup, and recovery of data any time.
* He is able to see a Patient's appointment details on a particular date.
* Also if the Patient is already visited, able to see the previous Prescription given the Patient, Disease History, Visiting details, etc.
* They are able to see the Feedback given by the Patient.
* They are able to see the Complaints given by the Patient and must provide the Response for that.
* They have a facility to communicate using chat, email facility with other stakeholders.
Â· They have a facility to register to the site with their Personal data along with Health details Height, Weight, Family inherited Diseases, Blood Group, etc.
Â· Being a Patient (after registration) should able to take an Appointment of a Doctor visit.
Â· They have a facility to give Complaints about Kiosk Manager or Doctor Service.
Â· They are able to Search for a Doctor and can see the Doctor's Profile for an appointment.
Â· They are able to book Rooms or make request for an Ambulance to Kiosk Manager
* He is able to provide an Appointment of a Doctor to a Patient on request (based on Doctor's available timings).
* They is able to see the Complaints given by the Patient and must provide the Response for that.
* He has a facility to communicate using chat, email facility with other stakeholders.
* They have a Search facility to find a Patient or Doctor and can check their Profile or History details.
* He can receive the Rooms Booking or request for an Ambulance of a particular Hospital and make arrangement/approve the same for a Patient.
* General Public (i.e. Guest visitors) are able to access the site Home page, Registration Page, etc. common pages of the site.
* This user can able to see the Doctors Schedules, Contact details, Specialization details, etc.
* They are able to Search for a Doctor.
* They are able to see the Rooms available, Ambulance availability of a particular Hospital.
The system has a process of registration. Every User need to submit his complete details in the form of registration. Whenever a User registration completed automatically he/she can get a user id and password. By using that user id and password he/she can log into the system.
This system provides search facility to the patients. Patient can search for Doctors and their available timings for take appointments
Different kind of reports is generated by the system.
* Patients History and prescriptions
* Doctors list
* Lab reports
* Daily & Monthly Reports, Appointment list of Patients for Kiosk Managers
Authentication is nothing but providing security to the system. Here every must enter into the system throw login page. The login page will restrict the UN authorized users. A user must provide his credential like user Id and password for log into the system. For that the system maintains data for all users. Whenever a user enters his user id and password, it checks in the database for user existence. If the user is exists he can be treated as a valid user. Otherwise the request will throw back.
INPUTS AND OUTPUTS
The major inputs and outputs and major functions of the system are follows:
* Admin enter his user id and password for login
* Admin accept the Doctor registration.
* User enters his user id and password for login.
* Patient registers for the Appointment.
* New user gives his completed personnel, address and phone details for registration.
* Administrator gives information to generate various kinds of reports.
* Admin can have his own home page.
* Admin get all Doctors details.
* Admin can view all Patients details.
* Users can have their own home pages.
* Admin will get the login information of a particular user.
* The new user's data will be stored in the centralized database.
* Admin get the search details of different criteria.
* Different kind of reports is generated by administrator.
This document play a vital role in the development of life cycle (SDLC) as it describes the complete requirement of the system. It means for use by developers and will be the basic during testing phase. Any changes made to the requirements in the future will have to go through formal change approval process.
SPIRAL MODEL was defined by Barry Boehm in his 1988 article, "A spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement. This model was not the first model to discuss iterative development, but it was the first model to explain why the iteration models.
As originally envisioned, the iterations were typically 6 months to 2 years long. Each phase starts with a design goal and ends with a client reviewing the progress thus far. Analysis and engineering efforts are applied at each phase of the project, with an eye toward the end goal of the project.
The steps for Spiral Model can be generalized as follows:
* The new system requirements are defined in as much details as possible. This usually involves interviewing a number of users representing all the external or internal users and other aspects of the existing system.
* A preliminary design is created for the new system.
* A first prototype of the new system is constructed from the preliminary design. This is usually a scaled-down system, and represents an approximation of the characteristics of the final product.
* A second prototype is evolved by a fourfold procedure:
1. Evaluating the first prototype in terms of its strengths, weakness, and risks.
2. Defining the requirements of the second prototype.
3. Planning an designing the second prototype.
4. Constructing and testing the second prototype.
* At the customer option, the entire project can be aborted if the risk is deemed too great. Risk factors might involved development cost overruns, operating-cost miscalculation, or any other factor that could, in the customer's judgment, result in a less-than-satisfactory final product.
* The existing prototype is evaluated in the same manner as was the previous prototype, and if necessary, another prototype is developed from it according to the fourfold procedure outlined above.
* The preceding steps are iterated until the customer is satisfied that the refined prototype represents the final product desired.
* The final system is constructed, based on the refined prototype.
* The final system is thoroughly evaluated and tested. Routine maintenance is carried on a continuing basis to prevent large scale failures and to minimize down time.
The following diagram shows how a spiral model acts like:
* Estimates(i.e. budget, schedule etc .) become more relistic as work progresses, because important issues discoved earlier.
* It is more able to cope with the changes that are software development generally entails.
* Software engineers can get their hands in and start woring on the core of a project earlier.
Input design is a part of overall system design. The main objective during the input design as given below:
* To produce cost-effective method of input
* To achieve the highest possible level of accuracy.
* To ensure that the input is acceptable and understood by the user.
The main input stages can be listed as below:
* Data recording
* Data transcription
* Data conversion
* Data verification
* Data control
* Data transmission
* Data validation
* Data correction
It is necessary to determine the various types of input. Inputs can be categorized as follows:
* External Inputs which are prime inputs for the system.
* Internal Inputs, which are user communications with the systems.
* Operational, which are computer department's communications to the system?
* Interactive, which are inputs entered during a dialogue.
At this stage choice has to be made about the input media. To conclude about the input media consideration has to be given to:
* Type of Input
* Flexibility of Format
* Verification methods
* Rejection rates
* Ease of correction
* Storage and handling requirements
* Easy to use
Keeping in view the above description of the input types and input media, it can be said that most of the inputs are of the form of internal and interactive. As input data is to be directly keyed in by the user, the keyboard can be considered to be the most suitable input device.
Outputs from computer systems are required primarily to communicate the results of processing to users. They are also used to provide a permanent copy of the results for later consultation. The various types of outputs in general are:
* External Outputs, whose destination is outside the organization,.
* Internal Outputs whose destination is within organization and they are the
Â§ User's main interface with the computer.
* Operational outputs whose use is purely within the computer department.
* Interface outputs, which involve the user in communicating directly with User Interface.
The outputs should be defined in terms of the following points:
* Type of the output
* Content of the output
* Format of the output
* Location of the output
* Frequency of the output
* Volume of the output
* Sequence of the output
It is not always desirable to print or display data as it is held on a computer. It should be decided as which form of the output is the most suitable.
* Will decimal points need to be inserted
* Should leading zeros be suppressed.
In the next stage it is to be decided that which medium is the most appropriate for the output. The main considerations when deciding about the output media are:
* The suitability for the device to the particular application.
* The need for a hard copy.
* The response time required.
* The location of the users
* The software and hardware available.
Keeping in view the above description the project is to have outputs mainly coming under the category of internal outputs. The main outputs desired according to the requirement specification are: The outputs were needed to be generated as a hot copy and as well as queries to be viewed on the screen. Keeping in view these outputs, the format for the output is taken from the outputs, which are currently being obtained after manual processing. The standard printer is to be used as output media for hard copies.
N-Tier Applications can easily implement the concepts of Distributed Application Design and Architecture. The N-Tier Applications provide strategic benefits to Enterprise Solutions. While 2-tier, client-server can help us create quick and easy solutions and may be used for Rapid Prototyping, they can easily become a maintenance and security night mare
The N-tier Applications provide specific advantages that are vital to the business continuity of the enterprise. Typical features of a real life n-tier may include the following:
* Availability and Scalability
* Easy Maintenance
* Data Abstraction
The above mentioned points are some of the key design goals of a successful n-tier application that intends to provide a good Business Solution.
Simply stated, an n-tier application helps us distribute the overall functionality into various tiers or layers:
* Presentation Layer
* Business Rules Layer
* Data Access Layer
* Database/Data Store
Each layer can be developed independently of the other provided that it adheres to the standards and communicates with the other layers as per the specifications.
This is the one of the biggest advantages of the n-tier application. Each layer can potentially treat the other layer as a 'Block-Box'.
In other words, each layer does not care how other layer processes the data as long as it sends the right data in a correct format.
1. The Presentation Layer:
Also called as the client layer comprises of components that are dedicated to presenting the data to the user. For example: Windows/Web Forms and buttons, edit boxes, Text boxes, labels, grids, etc.
2. The Business Rules Layer:
This layer encapsulates the Business rules or the business logic of the encapsulations. To have a separate layer for business logic is of a great advantage. This is because any changes in Business Rules can be easily handled in this layer. As long as the interface between the layers remains the same, any changes to the functionality/processing logic in this layer can be made without impacting the others. A lot of client-server apps failed to implement successfully as changing the business logic was a painful process.
3. The Data Access Layer:
This layer comprises of components that help in accessing the Database. If used in the right way, this layer provides a level of abstraction for the database structures. Simply put changes made to the database, tables, etc do not affect the rest of the application because of the Data Access layer. The different application layers send the data requests to this layer and receive the response from this layer.
4. The Database Layer:
This layer comprises of the Database Components such as DB Files, Tables, Views, etc. The Actual database could be created using SQL Server, Oracle, Flat files, etc.
In an n-tier application, the entire application can be implemented in such a way that it is independent of the actual Database. For instance, you could change the Database Location with minimal changes to Data Access Layer. The rest of the Application should remain unaffected
Performance is measured in terms of the output provided by the application. Requirement specification plays an important part in the analysis of a system. Only when the requirement specifications are properly given, it is possible to design a system, which will fit into required environment. It rests largely in the part of the users of the existing system to give the requirement specifications because they are the people who finally use the system. This is because the requirements have to be known during the initial stages so that the system can be designed according to those requirements. It is very difficult to change the system once it has been designed and on the other hand designing a system, which does not cater to the requirements of the user, is of no use.
The requirement specification for any system can be broadly stated as given below:
* The system should be able to interface with the existing system
* The system should be accurate
* The system should be better than the existing system
The existing system is completely dependent on the user to perform all the duties.
Preliminary investigation examine project feasibility, the likelihood the system will be useful to the organization. The main objective of the feasibility study is to test the Technical, Operational and Economical feasibility for adding new modules and debugging old running system. All system is feasible if they are unlimited resources and infinite time. There are aspects in the feasibility study portion of the preliminary investigation:
* Technical Feasibility
* Operation Feasibility
* Economical Feasibility
The technical issue usually raised during the feasibility stage of the investigation includes the following:
* Does the necessary technology exist to do what is suggested?
* Do the proposed equipments have the technical capacity to hold the data required to use the new system?
* Will the proposed system provide adequate response to inquiries, regardless of the number or location of users?
* Can the system be upgraded if developed?
* Are there technical guarantees of accuracy, reliability, ease of access and data security?
Earlier no system existed to cater to the needs of 'Secure Infrastructure Implementation System'. The current system developed is technically feasible. Thus it provides an easy access to the users. The database's purpose is to create, establish and maintain a workflow among various entities in order to facilitate all concerned users in their various capacities or roles. Permission to the users would be granted based on the roles specified. Therefore, it provides the technical guarantee of accuracy, reliability and security. The work for the project is done with the current equipment and existing software technology. Necessary bandwidth exists for providing a fast feedback to the users irrespective of the number of users using the system.
Proposed projects are beneficial only if they can be turned out into information system. That will meet the organization's operating requirements. Operational feasibility aspects of the project are to be taken as an important part of the project implementation. Some of the important issues raised are to test the operational feasibility of a project includes the following: -
* Is there sufficient support for the management from the users?
* Will the system be used and work properly if it is being developed and implemented?
* Will there be any resistance from the user that will undermine the possible application benefits?
This system is targeted to be in accordance with the above-mentioned issues. Beforehand, the management issues and user requirements have been taken into consideration. So there is no question of resistance from the users that can undermine the possible application benefits.
The well-planned design would ensure the optimal utilization of the computer resources and would help in the improvement of performance status.
A system can be developed technically and that will be used if installed must still be a good investment for the organization. In the economical feasibility, the development cost in creating the system is evaluated against the ultimate benefit derived from the new systems. Financial benefits must equal or exceed the costs. The system is economically feasible. It does not require any addition hardware or software. Since the interface for this system is developed using the existing resources and technologies. There is nominal expenditure and economical feasibility for certain.