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JAVA is a programming language originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems in June 1991 and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems' Java platform.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE JAVA LANGUAGE:
Java is an object-oriented language, similar to c++, but more dynamic and simplified to eliminate possible programming errors. A java program is both compiled and interpreted (see Unit.24)
Java is multi-threaded, meaning a java program can have multiple threads(parts)- that is , many different things processing independent and continuously.
WHY IS JAVA POPULAR?
Most programmers like java because it allows them to write applets which make web pages more interactive and attractive.
The java Micro Edition platform (java ME) is used in mobile devices .if provides flexible tools to create applications that run on mobile phones.
Goal was to be portable, small, fast, and efficient.
ALTERNATIVES TO JAVA:
One alternative to java is Microsoft's C#, pronounced 'C sharp; a.NET language based on C++ with elements from visual basic and java.
Another competitor is Adobe FLASH technology, which supports graphics, a scripting language called action Script.
FLASH is used to create animations and advertisements, to integrate video into web pages, and to develop rich internet applications such as portals.
FLASH FILES: is a file format for multimedia, vector graphics and actions Script in the Adobe
APPLET: an applet is a program written in the java programming language that can be included in an html page, much is the same way an image is included in a page.
PLUG-IN: software enables enterprise customers to direct applets or bean written in the java programming language on their intranet web pages to run using Sun's java runtime Environment web (JRE), instead of the browser's default
Java is a programming language:
Contains extensive libraries (packages)
Can be used to create web-applications
Can be used to create desktop applications
Looks like c++ superficially
Underlying engine is like Smalltalk
HISTORY OF JAVA:
Initiated the Java language project in June 1991. Java was originally designed for interactive television, but it was too advance for the digital cable television.
Java was originally designed for interactive television, but it was too advanced for the digital cable television industry at the time. The language was initially called Oak after an oak tree that stood outside Gosling's office; it went by the name Green later, and was later renamed Java, from a list of random words. Gosling aimed to implement a virtual machine and a language that had a familiar C/C++ style of notation.
Sun Microsystems released the first public implementation as Java 1.0 in 1995. It promised "Write Once, Run anywhere" (WORA), providing no-cost run-times on popular platforms. Fairly secure and featuring configurable security, it allowed network- and file-access restrictions. Major web browsers soon incorporated the ability to run Java applets within web pages, and Java quickly became popular. With the advent of Java 2 (released initially as J2SE 1.2 in December 1998-1999), new versions had multiple configurations built for different types of platforms. For example, J2EE targeted enterprise applications and the greatly stripped-down version J2ME for mobile applications (Mobile Java). J2SE designated the Standard Edition. In 2006, for marketing purposes, Sun renamed new J2 versions as Java EE, Java ME, and Java SE, respectively.
In 1997, Sun Microsystems approached the ISO/IEC JTC1 standards body and later the Ecma International to formalize Java, but it soon withdrew from the process. Java remains a de facto standard, controlled through the Java Community Process. At one time, Sun made most of its Java implementations available without charge, despite their proprietary software status. Sun generated revenue from Java through the selling of licenses for specialized products such as the Java Enterprise System. Sun distinguishes between its Software Development Kit (SDK) and Runtime Environment (JRE) (a subset of the SDK); the primary distinction involves the JRE's lack of the compiler, utility programs, and header files.
On November 13, 2006, Sun released much of Java as open source software under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL). On May 8, 2007, Sun finished the process, making all of Java's core code available under free software/open-source distribution terms, aside from a small portion of code to which Sun did not hold the copyright.
Sun's vice-president Rich Green has said that Sun's ideal role with regards to Java is as an evangelist.
Following Oracle Corporation's acquisition of Sun Microsystems in 2009-2010, Oracle has described itself as the "steward of Java technology with a relentless commitment to fostering a community of participation and transparency
Since 1995, Java has changed our world . . . and our expectations..
Today, with technology such a part of our daily lives, we take it for granted that we can be connected and access applications and content anywhere, anytime. Because of Java, we expect digital devices to be smarter, more functional, and way more entertaining.
In the early 90s, extending the power of network computing to the activities of everyday life was a radical vision. In 1991, a small group of Sun engineers called the "Green Team" believed that the next wave in computing was the union of digital consumer devices and computers. Led by James Gosling, the team worked around the clock and created the programming language that would revolutionize our world - Java.
The Green Team demonstrated their new language with an interactive, handheld home-entertainment controller that was originally targeted at the digital cable television industry. Unfortunately, the concept was much too advanced for the them at the time. But it was just right for the Internet, which was just starting to take off. In 1995, the team announced that the Netscape Navigator Internet browser would incorporate Java technology.
Today, Java not only permeates the Internet, but also is the invisible force behind many of the applications and devices that power our day-to-day lives. From mobile phones to handheld devices, games and navigation systems to e-business solutions, Java is everywhere.