Study On The Types Of Programming Languages Computer Science Essay

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JavaScript is not part of the Java platform; it does not create applets or standalone applications. Some of the main difference between them are Java is an Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) programming language while JavaScript is OOP scripting language. JavaScript can only run on the browser but Java can runs in virtual machine as well as browser. JavaScript codes are all in text while Java code needs to be compiled. Both JavaScript and Java needs different plug-ins respectively.

JavaScript is a scripting language that was designed to add interactivity to HTML pages. A scripting language is a lightweight programming language. JavaScript is usually embedded into HTML pages directly. Its official name is ECMAScript which is developed and maintained by the European Computer Manufacturer's Association (ECMA) organization. ECMA-262 is the official JavaScript standard. It was invented by Brenden Eich at Netscape and was used in all Netscape and Microsoft browsers since 1996.

(w3school, 2010)

Usage of JavaScript

JavaScript is used for it is rather simple to be used. It can read and write HTML elements. It can be used as a programming tool without the needs to learn complicated syntaxes for HTML authors are not usually programmers. Therefore almost anybody who has knowledge in computing can put small snippets of codes into their HTML pages. Besides that, JavaScript allow dynamic text to be inserted into an HTML page where dynamic means the ability to change instead of remaining the same which is static. Javascript can also be used as a reaction to certain events such as when a user clicks on an HTMl element.

(w3school, 2010)

Besides that, JavaScript can also be used as a validation of data's from forms and tables before it is submitted to a server which would reduce the server processing time. It also can be used to detect the visitor's browser and load another page specifically for that browser depending on the type of browser used by the visitors. JavaScript can also be used to create cookies which can store and retrieve information from visitor's computer.

(w3school, 2010)


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What is PHP?

Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) is an open source language used mainly for dynamic web content and server side applications. PHP is easy to learn because it s arrays are able to hold any type of object, its variables needn't be declares and its syntax is rather simple. Unfortunately, many PHP programmers know not about other languages.

(Brendan McGuigan, 2010)

PHP pages contain HTML with embedded code instead of a lot of commands to output HTML. The codes are executed on the server generating HTML which would be sent to the client who will receive the results of running the script. PHP can also configure the web server to process all the HTML files. It is simple to use for newcomers but yet it offers many advanced features for the more advance users or programmers. It can be used in all major operating systems and also supports most of the web servers. PHP are not limited to only outputting HTML but also images, PDF files as well as Flash movies generated on the fly. Outputted texts include XHTML and XML. PHP can also auto generate files, saving them in the file system and forming a server side cache for the dynamic content.

(The PHP Group, 2010)

Usage of PHP

PHP can be used as a server side scripting. This would enable access to the PHP program output with a web browser where the page is view through the server. Though to make this work a PHP parser, a web server and a web browser is needed. The web browser needs to run with a connected PHP installer. It can also be used as a command line scripting. PHP script can be run without any server or browser but only with the usage of the PHP parser. This script is usually used to execute Task Scheduler (Windows) or Cron (Linux). These scripts can also be used for simple text processing. Beside the two stated above, PHP can also be used as a writing desktop application. Even though PHP is not the best selection for creating a desktop application with a graphical user interface, it's advance features in the client side application such as the PHP-GTK can be used to write such applications.

(The PHP Group, 2010)


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What is HTML?

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is where Hyper means the opposite of linear, where the programs execute line by line not skipping even once but with HTML, this is not the case for it is able to go wherever and whenever according to the user wish. Texts which are words and characters which are readable by humans and encoded into formats that is for the computers to read. Markup is what to do with the text. Marking up the text is the same as in a text editing program with headings, bold text, and etc. Language is what HTML is for it uses many English words. Since HTML is a language, it makes it possible to present information on the internet. A page viewed on the browser is an interpretation of HTML.

(, 2010)

HTML is not a programming language for it is a markup language which is a set of markup tags. HTML markup tags are usually called as HTML tags. HTML tags are keywords with angle brackets such as <html>. It normally comes in pairs with an opening tag and a closing one such as <strong> </strong> which are also known as the start tag and end tag.

(w3school, 2010)

Usage of HTML

HTML is used for files that are posted on the internet and can be viewed by people using web browsers. It's easy to recognize for they contain the html or htm file extension. All the text, graphics and design elements of a web page are tagged with codes that instruct the web browser in displaying the files. HTML files also provide layout and formatting information and it is not case sensitive and are easy to update after being created. There are different codes for different types of formatting including bold, italics, tables, and paragraphs and so on. Although all web browsers use HTML but each interpret and displays the code in a slightly different manner.

(K. Waterman, 2010)


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What is CSS?

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) define the layout of HTML documents. Styles define how to display HTML elements and were added to HTML 4.0 to solve a problem. External style sheets save work load and are stored in CSS files. HTML was actually not for containing tags for formatting of a document but was for defining the content of a document. By adding font type tags and color attributes to HTML 3.2 specification, it makes the codes longer and more space is needed. In HTML 4.0, HTML document would not have this formatting for they are store in a separate CSS file. Now a days, all browsers support CSS. CSS can save work load for styles which are normally saved in external CSS files which enable the change in the appearance and layout of all the pages in a Web site, just by editing one single file.

(w3school, 2010)

Advantages of using CSS would be the ability to control many documents layout from one single style sheet, it have more precise control layout and is able to apply different layout to different types of media. It also contains numerous advance and sophisticated techniques.

(, 2010)

Difference between CSS and HTML

HTML is used to structure content while CSS is used for formatting structured content. Back when the World Wide Web was first invented, HTML was only used to add structure to a text. As the web grows, layouts are added to the online documents by the inventions of new HTML tags such as the <font> which would define layout and not the structure. Original structure tags are also used for layout although they are supposed to be for adding structured to text. Many new layouts tags invented were only supported by one or two types of browsers. Therefore, CSS was invented to solve this problem for it provides web developer/designers with sophisticated layout which are supported by all the different types of browsers. The separation of the presentation style of documents from the content of documents makes maintaining the site easier.

(, 2010)

Usage of CSS

A web developer/designer can control the site layout in three ways which are firstly inline for CSS code is placed right into the line of the site code. Using inline CSS makes changing the layout quick and easy. Besides that, a web developer/designer can use CSS to make rules for a single web page where the developer/designer would use the embedded CSS. This is usually placed at the of the web page's codes. This allows them to change the embedded CSS only once and if there are any changes he or she could only changes the embedded CSS and the changes would be done throughout the web page. Third would be external CSS. The code written here would affect the whole web site or multiple web sites. Therefore, these instructions cannot be use for a part of a page or even a page itself.

(J. S. Petersen, 2010)

Java Programming

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Java Programming is a high level object-oriented programming language influenced by C, C++, and other languages as well. Its syntax was designed for those who are familiar with the C language. It is the most popular general-purpose computing language in use now and the most widely used standard in enterprise programming as well as the language most used by projects by SourceForge which is the world's largest open source software development web site.

(Chris Adamson,2006)

Java Programming will be the language that will be used in this project. It will further be discussed in a later topic about the development tools and techniques.

Chapter summary

There are many languages use to develop a text-based RPG. This includes JavaScript, PHP, HTML, CSS and Java Programming. JavaScript is used in browser based text-based RPG for it can make the web page more dynamic for it is able to change the current page when it is loading or open which would depends on different situation such as time, or type of browser. Another thing is that in a game there's a need for counter which could be created using JavaScript.

PHP operates on the server side so its instructions are executed on the server and would then be return back to the client computer. It allows privacy and secrecy of coding for users are unable to see the code. This could include database connection for PHP is able to connect many different databases at once which store all the users and other information. It also allowed the game population to grow for more databases can be included.

HTML is a markup language not a programming language. It is the base when creating browser text-based RPG. HTML can be edited using just Notepad, but now there are many HTML editors out there that could make editing easier. An HTML file provides layout and formatting information and is not case sensitive, it also updates easily after creation.

CSS is a language specifically to make your HTML web page looks nice for it specialize in the styling of webpage which includes color, size, alignment and etc. Since HTML is a structured content and CSS is for formatting structured content. HTML code is not suppose to be used for formatting and CSS makes formatting much easier for a user can have the option of formatting the whole page through embedded CSS or the whole site with the external CSS.

Java Programming is object-oriented and is the most used programming language.