Study On The Significance Of Web Standards Computer Science Essay

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This report elucidates the significance of web standard for web designing. A brief introduction depicts the requirement of web standard and further w3c consortium Standard has been discussed. The discussion then focuses on the different web standard Accessibility, Device-Independence, Backwards Compatibility, Web Interoperability and Web validation. The report critically evaluates the importance of web standard in potential use of web site.

The web was framed for the use of sharing knowledge among the internet users, the users could be from one continent to other with different geographical location and culture. For few years the website was just read only tool as the communication and social network webs development made the web applications attractive among the wide variety of users in the globe.

Web standards are set of rules and guidelines for web site designers or web standard form a road map for rational, sophisticated and cost effective web development [i]. Web standard confers various aspects of website e.g. coding, accessibility, platform independent, web crawler etc.

Web standard elucidates the coding of one webpage can be reused in webpage of other website by making different CSS(Cascading Style Sheet)as we do in HTML WebPages. The designing of style sheet separately irrespective of coding page increases efficiency of whole webpage. This helps to locate errors in coding very easy further more designing style sheet separate from coding takes less to download WebPages from internet, increase efficiency and flexibility. [ii]

Furthermore web standard also provides rules for easy accessibility of websites by every user; a user could be blind, deaf, motor impairment etc. Thus using web standard the websites need to be accessible by every user no mean whether the user is suffer from any disability.

Web standard also help the web designer to develop a web site where the web sites need not to be dependent on particular device. The web sites made under the guidelines of web standard run on every machine without any required compatibility.

Web site follows web standards also gets easily available on search engine. Designing of web site under the shadow of web standard ranks the websites on top of the search engine.

2.0 Web Accessibility:-

Web Accessibility removes the barrier for the person with disability to access or contribute to web.

Web accessibility means that people with disability can perceive, understand, navigate and interact with web. [iii]

The primary focus of web accessibility is the potential use of web site for people with disability impairment. Few users can't visualize the text unless it is large or high contrast colour, few can't move their hand to type text because of physical disability and few older people can't control mouse because of enough precision control. To encompass all these disabilities effects the web accessibilities, World Wide Web Consortium (W3c) introduced by Tim Berners-Lee the inventor of World Wide Web.

2.1 World Wide Web Consortium (w3c):-

World Wide Web consortium is an organization body provides web standard for web, the rules and specification designed for web. The consortium consist of international group of members, public web developer who work together to develop standard, guidelines to ensure long term growth of web. [iv]

W3c main approach is to provide a web site to every user whatever the hardware, software, network structure, geographical location, culture, language or the user having visual or physical disabilities impairments.

Web accessibility initiative:-

The web is designed for everyone whether they use different software, different hardware, different browser or the user troubles due to disability impairment.

Thus to reduce the communication barrier in between the web and user (provides equality for disabilities impairment) to use the web efficiently w3c recommended the web accessibility initiative.

3.0 WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines):-

Web content accessibility guidelines mainly focus on web users with physical disability (e.g. blind, deaf, motor impairment, photosensitivity, learning disability, speech disability and the people feels disability due to aging)

Principles of WCAG:-

3.1 Perceivable:-

The website contents should be perceivable to any user. Different guidelines under this principle are:-

Guideline 1:1:-The alternate to text is provided which could be the Braille, speech, symbol, large print so that every user can perceive the information of web as they requires according to their need.

Guideline 1:2:-This guideline depicts the alternate of text in form of pre-recorded audio or video who are having cognitive and learning disabilities.

Guideline1:3:-This guideline presents the content of web in simpler layout without changing of structure.

Guideline1:4:-Using this user can speech and hear to differentiate the foreground from background.

*3.2 Operable:-

The web interaction tools should be easily operated.

Guideline2:1:-The functionality of keyboard should be available without any keystroke time limit.

Guidline2:2:-Provide enough time for user to write in or to read the contents.

The main goal of this is to provide enough time for user to read the contents or fill the contents in the website without any limit of time and exception to those who don't have any disability impairment.

Guideline2:3:-The web should not be design in a way to cause seizure.

The web should not contain the 3 flash in a second who may cause seizure because of high threshold of flash.*

Guideline2:4:-Provides easy navigation of contents.

The main purpose of this guideline to enable user to link directly to the contents which he/she desires to and allow them to keep track of their current location.

*3.3 Understandable

The website information should be understandable to web users.

Guideline3:1:-The primary focus of this approach is the text contents should be understandable.*

Guideline3:2:-This guideline explains the web pages should be predictable to one each other in same website. Few users with disability get confuse if contents on one page is on different place in contrary to other web page.

Guidline3:3:-Input Assistance:-The user with disability usually creates more error in input rather than normal moreover it is also tough to recognize or find out the errors where the persons* is disable. Thus this guideline helps to reduce the number of errors users do and help to sort out the errors.

3.4 Robust:-

The content of web should be accessible to web user as technology advance.

Guideline4:1:-The primary concern of this guideline is to maximize the concern between the current and future technology so that the contents on the web should be accessible forever. [v]

4.0 Device Independent:-

Day by day enhancement in the technology introduces wide variety of devices to run huge amount of website with different resources. Device independent in web standard depicts certain guidelines to web designer so the web should have potential to run on any kind of devices.

The steadily increase of web accessibility in mobile, Personnel digital assistant (PDA), Interactive television system, voice response system, kiosk rather than to hang on desktop, this made important for web designer to refer different device independent guideline so the efficiency of web resources remain advantageous for different device users.*Further more in some countries because of legal concern the web accessibility needs device independence according to their use like people need voice interaction rather than text, alter of image with text etc.

The web in device independent follows the two aspect of communication. The communication could be from client machine to web server and from web server to client machine.

4.1 Intermediary Adaption

The communication between* source and destination through web server is also called as intermediate adaption. The intermediate adaption is limited known to content of web page and have limited adaption ability. Transcoding HTML to wireless Mark-up language (WML), Compact Hypertext Mark-up language (CHTML) for wireless devices is possible at intermediate adaption if the information about the capabilities of user devices is available.

4.2 *Client Adaption:-

The availability of web browser in Client machine makes more compatible representation of web resources. The adaptive code directly accesses the device capabilities. The web browser allows client side adaption to alter the screen size and text size.

However some client side adaption is based on the web contents. Using of CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) in XHTML (Extensible Hypertext Mark-up Language) changes the layout of presentation according to author desires. The CSS media type defines different device type like Braille, Projector, TV, PDA etc. [VI]

5.0 Backwards Compatibility:-

Backwards Compatibility is a feature that promises the function of previous version or standard with the new one. [vii] Backwards Compatibility has its major impact in the era of technology. The feature of compatibility made technology independent. Older software, older hardware device have great independence attribute help to be compatible with the new technology and protect to get obsolete.

*A plenty of applications is being introducing day by day and having impact in our daily life. Thus the feature of backward compatibility in operating system always cheered the computer user. Otherwise every time user needs to require installing new operating system as and when they run different kind of applications. Therefore the application should support non-traditional gadgets or devices and web enable mobile phones, so that the Braille reader or the people with other kind of disabilities can also use the application without any conflict more over cost of designing new version to run the particular application can also be reduced. Furthermore the web need to be designed in such way so the designed and built, works on today's ,tomorrow's standard and perform acceptably in older browser even they do not render pixel -for- pixel in the same way in older browser as they do in newer one[viii].

6.0 Web Interoperability:-

A web service is exchange of information between heterogeneous computers located in the globe with different operating system and different manufacturer. An Interoperable web service is which can work across platforms, languages, applications and with web services from different vendors [ix].

Objective of Interoperability:-

i) Decentralized and interoperable system of information.

ii) Better and more cost effective decision making.

iii) Multilanguage capability.

IV) International co-operation and sharing of technology, education, research and information interchange [x].

The fundamental requirement of interoperability is the system which provides cheap exchange of information and multiple vocabulary adaptation in widely separated computer systems.

The increase in connecting nodes on internet, the semantic and diverse format, secure and reliable exchange of information becoming challenge in coming days. The interoperability between the systems requires being fast, secure, cost effective and adaptable to change as the diverse recipient system requires.

The interoperability mainly works at the level of communication (Gateway works on various protocols), content (Semantic and structural diversity) and business process (Semantic consistency). [xi]

Web services are kind of software components follow some computational task (exchange information) through standard protocols. The interoperability works in web services now a day to overcome from old platforms (Common Request Broker Architecture), RMI (Remote Method Invocation etc. There are several Interoperability middleware languages and technologies are build to cater interoperability tier suiting the smart home requirement Microsoft Component Object Model(COM),.Net Frame Work, Sun's Java 2 Enterprises Edition(J2EE),Extensible Mark-up Language(XML). [xii]

7.0 Web Validation:-

Validation is the process of assuring data against the requirement or the standard. Whereas web validation is the check of accuracy of codes used to create a website follows the computer language specification. The accessibility of web application in different devices e.g. mobile, PDA increased the importance of web validation because valid code is easier to reinterpret to create different views of web page content. [xiii]

Web validation is an important aspect of web designing because the incorrect web code may render the web information in incorrect way. A valid web code does work on internet in better way because browser also works excellent for valid code. [xiv]

World Wide Web Consortium (W3c) provides Mark-up validation service to point out the error and the detail about the particular error line by line. When the web page display the contents in irrelevant way instead to locate error throughout the code page of web site W3c validation services saves time and ensure the easy track of error with suitable solution to fix the error.[xv]

8.0 Conclusion:

The website is a good information resource to share knowledge among the people across the world, having different culture or region. The accessibility of web site for disable people really shaped the new era of web technology. So easily available and long term visibility of web contents in lower cost, a web design need to follow web standard. Thus the web standard plays a vital role for good web site design or the potential mean of web for what the website is intended for! This report includes critically analyses of every aspect of web design. Without a good web accessibility approach the web site could be usable for normal people rather than the people suffer from disabilities. Further device independent and backwards compatibility, web standard also play crucial role for good presentation of web contents without the awareness of particular product compatible issue. Similarly web validation standard validates or checks the accuracy of web codes written for web page design. So the website should be accessible to other alternate devices (Mobile and PDA) rather than the desktop. The future of website accessibility can be assumed as the translation of text in form of symbol or sign for the peoples who is having learning disability.