Study On Multimedia Database Management Systems Computer Science Essay

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Nowadays many people collect data about various things. But managing those collections is the hard thing to do. So people came up with solutions for managing those collections in an easier way. And one solution for that is making a database. In definition database is a shared collection of logically related data (and a description of this data), designed to meet the information needs of an organization.

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So now we know what database really is. But to define, create, and maintain a database we need some kind of software solution. And this is how Database Management Systems (DBMS) came in to the play. DBMS enables users to define, create, and maintain the database and also it provides a controlled access to the database. Controlled access to database can include a security system, an integrity system, a concurrency control system and a recovery control system.

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A database can be a personal, workgroup, departmental or enterprise. And a database management system environment is consist with hardware (collection of physical devices on which a database runs), software (DBMS, operating systems, User Interfaces), data, procedures (rules, instructions which should be used to controlled databases) and people (end users and practitioners).

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Database management systems can be mainly categorized in to two sub types called relational databases management systems and object oriented databases management systems. An object-oriented database management system (OODBMS) supports the modeling and creation of data as objects while relational data base management systems relies on a collection of tables that store particular sets of data as records. When we talk about multimedia databases this object oriented database approach will play an important role.

\section{What are multimedia data?}

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When we consider about database management systems we should know what does "Data" exactly means. Any representation of facts, concepts or instructions in a formalized manner, designed to communicate, interpret or process can be consider as real life Data. It can be a text, color, symbol, shape, graphic, image, audio, temperature or a video. From these, text, images, video, audio and graphics can be considered as multimedia data types.

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A multimedia document or presentation containing one or more multimedia data can be recognized as a multimedia object. When it comes to multimedia object, it got a different capturing method for data retrieval such as image processing. It takes large amount of storage space while retrieval and transmission and can be very critical when retrieving information from video or an audio source. Also multimedia data object can automatically be extracted and indexed. And feather more time constraint like streaming make multimedia data objects more significant than other data object types.

\section{What is a Multimedia Database Management system (MMDBMS)?}

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In previous section we came to know that what multimedia data are referred to. And now let's moves to talk about multimedia database management systems. In abstract Multimedia Database Management System (MMDBMS) is a software which is specially designed for support multimedia data types other than providing facilities for traditional DBMS functions like database creation, data modeling, data retrieval, data access, data organization, and data independence. Technically multimedia database is a database which contains one or more multimedia object.

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In other forms multimedia database management system is a system that allows the user to utilize information in any form. It can be a retrieval of text, image, audio, video and further more it can be a data derivation from a standard database. Multiimedia data can be content or concept retrieval.

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Let's have look at these concepts about multimedia databases in depth.

\chapter{Need of Multimedia Database Management Systems}

\section{Why we need multimedia database management systems?}

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It is says "A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words". Just in that in real world we face to lots of situations in where we need to manage collections of multimedia data such as images, videos, audios etc. But as these data types take a huge storage space, having different type of data retrieval methods than traditional once and so many other problems people needed some kind of extended version of traditional database management systems. So finally with a new object oriented approach to database management systems, Multimedia database management systems were introduced to the world.

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Let's see what type of multimedia data are mostly use in modern systems.

\begin{itemize}

\item Text - can be formatted or unformatted. Standards like SGML and HTML are used to improve the ease of parsing structured documents.

\item Graphics - Any drawing or an illustration which is encoded using some descriptive standards such as postscripts.

\item Video-collection of sequenced photographic data for presentation I specified rates

\item Audio - collection of sequenced audio components process according to note, tone and duration,

\item Images - Anything like a drawing, photograph which is encoded in standard formats like MPEG,JPG or bitmap.

\item Animations- Temporal sequences of image or graphic data.

\end{itemize}

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Also all the above media data types can be categorized further in to 3 major media types as below

\begin{itemize}

\item Static media (time-independent, i.e. images and handwriting)

\item Dynamic media (time-dependent, i.e. video and sound bytes)

\item Dimensional media (i.e. 3D games or computer-aided drafting programs- CAD)

\end{itemize}

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These types of multimedia data can't be divided into sub components easily. Hence querying them by content is really hard thing to do.

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Just like traditional database management systems, multimedia database managements systems also should support functions like data integration (removing duplication of data items in different programs), concurrency control (allowing concurrent access to transactions) and data independency (separation of applications from database and allows them to run independently).

\section{Fetures of Multimedia Database Management systems}

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\begin{itemize}

\item It has a large object size

\item It provides a Synchronous delivery of multimedia objects

\item It supports for most suitable storage management

\item Multimedia objects may have embedded timing constraints

\item It has Information retrieval capabilities

\item Multimedia object composed of multiple components

\item MMDBMS Support for all kind of multimedia data types

\item It has the capacity to handle many multimedia objects

\item It supports for most suitable storage management

\item It includes traditional Database capabilities such as transaction, concurrency control, and integrity.

\item It has Information retrieval capabilities

\end{itemize}

\chapter{Designing process of multimedia database management systems}

\section{Multimedia database design issues}

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When we consider the futures of multimedia databases we can assume that designing process of multimedia database management systems should be really complex and complicated. When designing this kind of a database system we must consider the major database issues like data persistency, privacy, Integrity control and query support.

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Multimedia data structures are normally completely different from standard database structures. As an example multimedia data structures do not provides facility to content-based searching of data easily. Also as multimedia data are really large in size it may swamp other data.

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Physical and logical level data independency is another main issue while designing an mmdbms. Also manipulating multimedia data and making it content searchable for search engines is really hard thing to do.

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When storing multimedia data base objects we have to think about the most eligible way to composite and decompose Multimedia objects. And concurrency control is another major issue.

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In addition, after all multimedia databases should

\begin{itemize}

\item Support to simultaneously manipulate different media sources and conduct classical database operations (Should have query support)

\item Support to retrieve media objects from a local storage device in a smooth way (should have storage support) \item Support to deliver the final presentations in a user satisfactory way (should have 1presentation, delivery support)

\end{itemize}

\section{Designing process}

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In previous section we consider some of the major design issues that we face when designing multimedia database management systems. So now let's see how we can design our database to face those issues. There can be several approaches to face these issues. Let's look at some of those and there eligibility for the situation.

\begin{itemize}

\item Object oriented database approach - Binary Large Objects (Example -Jasmine)

\item Relational database approach -No Content-based indexing or query support (Example - Access)

\item Object relational database approach - (Example -Oracle)

\end{itemize}

\paragraph{}

Object oriented databases store everything as classes of objects. Data in such databases are components of objects. A collection of these objects are knows as classes and these classes are more extensible. In such database, data is related by object references

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In relational database management systems everything is stored in first normal form in database tables. All of these data are atomic and stored individually in database tables. ) In such database data can only be related if they are stored in one or in two records connected by a common value (foreign key)

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In object relational database management systems, data are normally stores as relations but not in first normal form. The values in cells can be object references or atomic values

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So considering these characteristics

\begin{itemize}

\item If you use a relational database approach for multimedia database designing - You can have

different domain types for large objects

\item If you use an object oriented database approach for designing - You can have specially designed classes for multimedia data

\item If you use an object relational database approach - You can have uniquely designed types for multimedia data

\end{itemize}

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According to these reasons to design multimedia databases object relational database approach can be used as a better solution.

\chapter{Advantageous of Multimedia database management systems }

\begin{itemize}

\item Flexibility of scripting language

\item Reuse of Multimedia objects again and again

\item Physical and logical data independency

\item Reduce of data duplication (data redundancy)

\item Improve content Search and Retrieval speed.

\end{itemize}

\chapter{Future trends of multimedia database management systems}

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Nowadays capabilities of multimedia data are improving continually and it has become more economical and more usable in modern databases. At the moment authoring, production and distribution of multimedia data has become easier. As with many information systems efforts, the challenge remains with the deployment of multimedia databases, in terms of hardware, skills and procedures. High-capacity, secure servers and connections can defines a successful effort of deploying multimedia database management system. In order to manipulate and control multimedia data successfully each Individual must understand the ambiguous nature of multimedia data types. As summery well-defined procedures for the distribution and maintenance of a multimedia data over a desired architecture must satisfy the above efforts and must be handled by the system to achieve the desired performance levels.

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The future of multimedia databases are relies in this concept. The capabilities can be depend in various data types of media, querying techniques and indexed aspects for continued addressing of those data.

\chapter{Conclusion}

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According to the information that has been found in this literature survey we can come into following conclusions.

\begin{itemize}

\item A multimedia database management system plays an impotent role in modern world as in present most of data types that we tend to utilize, falls into multimedia data types.

\item As multimedia data objects got huge storage space and highly structured as composite data objects content search of multimedia data and storage of those is really complicated.

\item Also as multimedia database management system should adhere to all other traditional database concept, designing process of multimedia database management system is somewhat similar to design traditional dbms but in more advance.

\end{itemize}

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So traditional database approaches like objects oriented or relational database approach isn't sufficient to design multimedia database designing process. Hence we need a hybrid design process such as object relational database approach to design multimedia database in a comprehensive way.

\chapter{References and publications}

\begin{enumerate}

\item V.S. Subrahmanian. Multimedia Database -

\url{http://www4.comp.polyu.edu.hk/~cstyng/cyberu.02/MMDB.ppt}

\item Ryan Hurd.Multimedia Databases - \url{http://www.nd.edu/~gmadey/db04/Notes/Ryan_Hurd_Multimedia%20Databases.ppt}

\item Sanghyun Park.Multimedia Databases- \url{http://embio.yonsei.ac.kr/files/container/2/45/multimedia-dbms.ppt}

\item Eran Stiller,Omer Gertel.Multimedia Databases - url{}

\item Mark Stopyro,Puthyrak Kang.Multimedia Database Management System MDBMS -\url{http://www.roch.edu/people/gstroebel/cs485/MMDBMS.ppt}

\item Multimedia Databases \url{http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/aSGuest40654-349688-lecture-3-multimedia-databases-entertainment-ppt-powerpoint/}

\item Dr. Jeevani Goonetillake.Introduction to Databases

\item ARJEN P. DE VRIES.CONTENT AND MULTIMEDIA DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS - \url{http://doc.utwente.nl/66252/1/phdthesis.pdf}

\item Harald Kosch and Mario Döller.Multimedia Database Systems: Where are we now?

\url{http://www-itec.uni-klu.ac.at/~harald/MMDBoverview.pdf}

\item Theresa M. Vitolo.E-Learning and Multimedia Databases

\url{http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/6598/E-Learning-and-Multimedia-Databases.html}

\item B. Prabhakaran

Multimedia Database Management Systems

\url{http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=523956}

\item E. Bertino,A. Heuer,T. Ozsu and G. Saake

Multimedia Database Supportfor Digital Libraries

\url{ http://www.dagstuhl.de/files/Reports/99/99351.ps}

\item Ajit Burad

Multimedia Database

\url{http://www.aburad.com/acads/multimediadb/mmdbppt.pdf}

\item Bhavani Thuraisingham,Kingsley c Nwosu And P Bruce Berra

Multimedia database management systems

\url{http://books.google.lk/books?id=7c8I-OJ3Re4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=future+of+multimedia+databases&source}

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