Study On Internet Population Measurement Techniques Computer Science Essay

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The essay internet population gives the brief explanation regarding the internet and its usage. We are also going to examine about the internet protocols IPv4 and IPv 6. Internet is defined as the interconnection of networks, allowing millions of people to share information all over the globe. It can be accessed by any number of users for any application.

A network that links computer networks all over the world by satellite and telephone, connecting users with service networks like e-mail and world wide web is called global computer network.

Internet is a world wide system of computer networks which consists of large number of smaller household, intercontinental, business, intellectual, government networks etc, which all together carries various information interweaved together for sharing the information and includes the services like e-mail, file transfer and other web pages.

As the internet usage is increasing there is an address shortage. The problem of the IPv4 can be solved by the new version IP version 6.

This essay also deals with the crisis of IPv4, the drawbacks of IPv4 and also the population of the internet.

The benefits of the new version IPv6 is explained indepth and the termination of the methods accessible for the evolution of IPv6.

INTERNET POPULATION:

Internet population is defined as the number of users around the internet which also includes the web traffic related to world wide web(www) and also due to other uses of internet such as peer to peer networks, e-mails, file transfers etc.

Internet population is very tough to define as it is still growing to a good rate day by day. Today almost three million community members have opted to share the information like the web pages. These users surf the different websites, take the

information and transfer it through the net. As the usage of the internet is increasing, its price is decreasing in parallel. The growth rate of the internet is increased because of the broadband development. The internet population is measured by using different methodologies. Many efforts are being made every year to measure the internet population as it changes frequently.

The analysis is made in many different ways like comparing the percentage of users in different countries, comparing the regions of the world etc.

The internet users in the world according to the world regions surveyed in June 30 2010 is shown in a pie diagram as follows.

This is varied from the past years. There are some coutries which depend on the internet to the maximum extent. The top 20 countries with highest number of internet users is mentioned in the below figure.

The most recent user information comes from data published by Nielsen//Net ratings. CHINA stands in number 1 position with 1,330,141,295 internet users in the world. POLAND stands in the least position with 38,463,689 internet users in the world. When compared to the past years there is huge increase in the internet usage. According to this information China, India, Brazil and Russia are expected to report for most of the growth.

The internet has begun in 1969 with four host computer systems which has grown to hundreds of millions.

The internet users in the world by geographic regions is shown below:

INTERNET POPULATION MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES:

The measuring methods of the internet population are:

Active measurement

Passive measurement

Hybrid approach

Active measurement:

The network properties is directly probed by injecting packets required to make the measurement network. But this cannot be used always as there is a disadvantage with this measurement. The measurement packets may have a negative impact on the performance received by other kinds of traffic.

Passive measurement:

In this measurement, the monitor network traffic is dependent on the presence of the suitable network traffic. If in case there no suitable traffic on the network, the monitor network doesnot work. Sometimes it is very difficult or impossible to extract.

Hybrid measurement:

Hybrid measurement is a combination of both active and passive measurement.

The internet is an obliging facility available to millions of people global. It is a world wide publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard internet protocol(IP).

The process of internetworking can be explained in three layers of protocols. They are

IP protocol

TCP and UDP

Application protocol

By the resources of the packet switching device, the IP protocol is used to transfer the data. According to internet world statistics people are using internet. Every computer has its own IP addresses which are fixed by the IP protocol.

IPv4 is the first version of protocol to be widely deployed. The IPv6 deployment is still in its infancy. On the basis of the IP addresses, the internet addresses is classified.

In a class system, IP addresses are grouped in to one of five different classes:

Class A

Class B

Class C

Class D

Class E

Each of the four octets of an IP address represents either the network portion or the host portion of the address, depending on the Class A, B, C, D, E addresses are shown as follows.

Fig 1: IP address formats

(Source from www.ciscopress.com)

Class A address:

The address is a Class A address if the first octet's first bit of an IP address is a binary 0. With the first bit of the first octet being 0, the lowest number that can be represented is 00000000, decimal 0. The highest number can be 011111111, decimal 127. An address can be called a Class A address if its value is between 0 and 127 in the first octet. The two numbers 0 and 127 cannot be used as network address and these two numbers are reserved.

The Class A address was proposed to accommodate very large large networks, only the first octet is used to represent the network number. Class A with 24 can with hold 16,777,216 feasible addresses. While building routings an ID number is necessary which is used to refer to the entire range range of hosts, here the network number is an ID number. By getting the first octet we can know the network and the class of IP address. Network numbers look very much like IP addresses , but the two should not be confused. For example the address which contains all 0's in the host portion portion is used as the network number and cannot be used as address, an individual node 128.0.0.0 is a Class A network number. In general, a network address uses the left most byte of its host's addressing if the hosts fall within the Class A range. The algorithm is applied in practice through the use of a network mask.

There are about 17 million host addresses available, Class A provides too many possibilities for one company. Even though it is likely to have massive amounts of the nodes in the network, the hosts cannot work in the same group, so the subnet mask allows sub netting, which breaks the large group of addresse in to smaller groups called as sub networks. Without sub netting it can be waste of having available addresses, so the whole Class A is sub netted.

Class B address:

Starting with binary 10 in the first octet is called the Class B address. Hence, in the Class B address the lowest number is represented as 100000000, decimal 128. The highest number in the Class B address is represented as 10111111. This binary number is the decimal 191. An address can be called as a Class B address if it lies between 128 and 191.

The Class B address supports up to 65,534 hosts. The medium size networks are represented by the Class B addresses. In this the first two octets represents the network number, to load the host portion there are 16 bits.

Class C address:

Starting with binary 110 in the first octet is called the Class C address. Therefore, in the Class C address the lowest number is represented as 1100000000, decimal 192. The highest number in Class C address is represented as 11011111. This binary number is the decimal 223. An address can is called as Class C address if its value lies between 192 and 223.

The smaller networks are represented by the Class C address, ther frist three octets are used to correspond to the network address and the last address for the hosts. Class C address supports only 254 addresses. The Class A address and Class B address are ready to exhaust, Class C address are left over to be assigned for the IP networks.

Class D address:

Starting with the binary 1110 in the first octet is called the Class D address. Therefore, in the Class D address the lowest number can be represented as 11100000, decimal 224. The highest number in the Class D address is represented as 11101111, This binary number is the decimal 239. An address can be called as Class D address if the address lies between 224 and 239. The Class D addresses is also called as Melticast addresses.

Class E address:

The address is said to be Class E address if the first octet of an IP address starts with 111. The lowest decimal in Class E address is 240. The highest number in the Class E address can be represented with the decimal 255. An address can be called as Class E address if it lies between 240 and 255. The Class E addresses are not used to address the hosts.

As the internet usage is increasing the address traffic has been increased more. Because of this the sub netting task is introduced which makes the large group of networks in to smaller sub networks.

Subnet task:

The sub net task acts as a counter part to the IP address. The IP address consists of a 32-bit number that ranges from 0 to 4294967295. This means that the internet can contain approximately 4.3 billion unique objects. To make such a large block easy the 32-bit numbers is divided in to 4 parts of 8-bit numbers each. This 8-bit number is also called as an 'octet'. The octet contains the numbers ranging from 0 to 255. Instead of 32 binary base-2 digits it is converted in to 4 base-256 digits.

IP address:

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