Human computer interaction (HCI) is the study of interface between user (people) and computers. It is often regarded as the intersections of science computer, behavioral sciences, create and understanding design and other purpose of studying field. Understanding the interaction between computers and peoples take place at the user interface, which operation include both software and hardware.
Human and computer starting to operate together, it draws by supporting information on both the computer and the human decision. On the computer view, techniques used in computer graphics, development environments, operating systems and programming languages are applicable. For the user view, graphic and industrial design disciplines, communication theory, linguistics, cognitive psychology, human factors, and social sciences are related while using the computer.
The reason of human-machine interaction is very important, because inadequately designed human-machine interface can direct too many unpredicted problems, for example, electronic fault, transport accident and industrial shutdown.
'It is easy to break into any account with a ``bad'' password. Such break-ins compromise the whole system, so all users must bear the responsibility of choosing good passwords'.
Explain in detail with points for choosing a good password?
ANSWER QUESTION 1
What is Password?
A password is a secret word of characters that is used for verification, to prove identity or allowed to gain access to a source. The password should be kept secret and confidentially anyone else from getting to access into personal data or information.
The password is now very commonly used a log in process that controls access to confined computer operating systems, mobile phones, and automated teller machines (ATMs). The password in ATM machines is called PIN (Personal Identification Number) created from 4-6 numeric numbers to get access. In computer, mobile and electronic devices, the user may require passwords for many purposes such as logging in to computer accounts; recover e-mail from servers, accessing programs, databases, networks, web sites, and even reading the morning newspaper online. Passwords are generally created short and to be easily remembered and typed.
Choosing a Good Password
'Better password keeps us from Danger', this may sound funny but it is true that password should be given top confidential from anyone else. There are many ways to choose a good password. From basics, we should choose a password that is at least six or more characters long. The passwords as long as possible keep discourage an exhaustive key search by the hackers. For example;'masyia1boleh, yuohsa23i'. The password is can be manipulate by mixing up upper and lower case letter and numbers. This type of password is difficult to be remembering, so it is common that people will wrote down this type of password, as long keep it safe. For example, 'mHHhgGgvG'. Adding up some punctuation letters in the password is a better way too, but certain security system doesn't allow this password because it can break easily or the system don't support. A system such as ATM is more preferring number (numeric) based as password. It is better to choose number by jumping or something that is easy to be remembered.
Best way to keep Password safe
Having a good password especially for e-mail, social networking, instant messaging (IM) and many more is a good purpose. Based on Microsoft Online Safety, more than 500,000 of user's password is been tracked down that braked by hackers. Microsoft Online Safety has created best way to keep the password safe. The principals are;
' Never provide your password in an email or in response to an email request.
Some Internet "phishing" or advertising ads look interesting and make user try to scams by fraudulent email messages to attract the user to reveal their user names and passwords.
' Do not type passwords on computers that you do not control, such as those in Internet cafes, computer labs, kiosk systems, and airport lounges.
These rules are highly recommended to the user that not to use public computer such as Internet cafes, computer labs, kiosk systems, and many more. In this place, cyber criminals can purchase keystroke logging devices from entrusted computer administrator, which gather information typed on public computers, including passwords. If there is urgent to check email from public computers, it is consider to use safer email service provider that has higher security, such as Window Live, that allow user to obtain a single use only code. The secret code will be sent through mobile phone. The user can only opt to use one time only. This method will give better secure to access personal email account at public computers.
' Don't reveal your passwords to others.
One of most important things is to passwords hidden from family members and friends. It is much better to keep password from letting children knows because they may tell someone else who is not trustworthy peoples. It is not wrong to let someone you trust such as spouse to know the password.
' Protect any recorded passwords.
If the password is very difficult to remember, and wish to record the password, don't store passwords on a file in electronic devices such as computer. It is because the hacker will know what file to look first that contains personal information and password detail. It is been advice to keep record of the passwords in a safe, protected place.
' Use more than one password.
The user is also recommended to use more than one password for each application, websites, and services. A same password for each thing may make easier to the criminal to hack by trying the password randomly. It is better to change the password simultaneously if suspected a sign of tracking into your personal document.
(Source: Microsoft Online Security,2005)
There is a new technology that is created to determine how strong the user's password is, called 'password checker or password rater'. Nowadays a lot of programs and website' security have started to use this password checker to make sure the user get confident to insert the password for their personal.
Figure 1: Password Cheaker,Yahoo.com
Things to be avoid
Most users will take easy way to choose password by following keypad order such as 'QWERTY'. This is not a good password because each letter is following key order. Another sample of choosing bad password is selecting specific information such as birthplace, important dates, word from dictionary and many more. The things that need to be also avoided s reversing the letters. For example 'CHONG' into 'GNOHC'. The username of accessing personal data shouldn't be same as password. This will also make sure there is no any hint of password is revealed.
Good vs. Bad
It is good enough to have more than one password. The bad thing is, using same password for many application. Besides it is better way to keep own password more secure. If there is a lot of password, and difficult to remember, there is two options that is either store it or try to create a relation with each passwords. Creating a relation between password mean that each password has one similarity each other that only you know.
Some organization computers will let the user to have their own password for their computer and some will not. It is recommended to store personal data in this type of public computer.
If your password is know by some entrusted people, there is many bad options can be done with it. For example, the hacker could steal your information and use it in negative way and finally it make the user suffer the results. The personal information also can be sold off to other 3rd parties. By finance, there could steal the money without noticing.
By conclusion, it is know how important is the password is. Password is one of commonly playing a role of self security. By advanced technology, advantages and disadvantages also takes place in personal security of password. For a better security, it is highly recommended to have a hard password system and apply encryption benefit that helps to provide extra protection against any endeavor security attacks.
1. Design the user interface based on given data (Cover page):
Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction, 5/E
ANSWER QUESTION 2
Figure 2: HCI Book Cover
By a conclusion, a human-computer interaction (HCI) goal is to make improvement of interaction between computer and people by making computers more usable and receptive to the user's needs. Particularly, HCI core is to make better methodologies and processes for designing interfaces, the methods for implementing interfaces(inter connection between software and hardware) , techniques that is used to evaluating and comparing interfaces while developing new interfaces and interaction techniques, developing expressive and prognostic models and hypothesis of interaction methods. Besides that, the objective of HCI is to design systems that minimize the barrier between the human's cognitive model, of what they want to achieve and the computer's understanding on the user's job.
In other word, most of professional practitioners in HCI are (designers) concerned with the practical application of design methodologies to real-world problems. Their work often revolves around designing graphical user interfaces and web interfaces. Nowadays researchers in HCI are more interested in developing new design methodologies, exploring new paradigms for interaction test with new hardware devices, prototyping new software systems, and developing models and theories of interaction.