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Setting Root Password - While installation of Linux, installer asked to supply the root user's password. Password will entered twice in to confirm that we did not mistype. We might run into a message that tells us that the password is too simple or too short. This security feature is designed to tell us of the importance of choosing a good password. Ungusseable passwords consist of numerals with upper and lower case letters and do not contain dictionary words. Like ABrc387vark or 440BmtN
Proceed to "NEXT" after setting the password for root user
The desktop environment is the most special characteristic of our O/S. With the help of desktop environment we have access the setting of display of icon, panels, menu and background. Desktop environment decide arranged the and how desktop behave With Linux Red HAT we have number of desktop environment. Desktop environment is including by the distributor. In Red Hat GNOME is the default desktop environment.
GNOME - In GNOME panel's panel is located top and bottom of the screen. It is use to launcher application, work with multiple virtual desktop. In GNOME the bottom panel having the 'HIDE DESKTOP' icon, a workspace switcher which help to manage the virtual desktop. And the other top panel is consist of menu buttons which contain Application, Places and System
KDE - In KDE panel provides quick tools for managing and launching applications on the system
In KDE we can adjust panel according to our needs. We can change the location of the panel, resizing it and adding tools on it.
GNOME - By Nautilus file manager accessing remote file and local. Use the cdda://cdrom protocol to analysis track information from an audio CD or gphoto2:// to access joined Digital cameras.
KDE - In KDE we have two File manager named Dolphin and Konqueror File Managers,. Dolphin is a streamlined file manager that is now used by default when we open a folder in KDE. Konqueror can handle a wide range of content from local files and folders to remote Web content. The features in Konqueror rival those that are offered by those user-friendly Desktop systems.
Figure 2.a Konqueror File Manager windows.
GNOME - GNOME 1.x required 256 MB RAM and 500 MHz CPU Speed, and GNOME 2.x required 384 RAM and 800 MHz.
KDE - KDE 3.x required 512 MB RAM and 1 GHz CPU speed.
GNOME - Meta city Keyboard Shortcuts
Window focus cycle forward, with pop-up icons
Alt + Tab
Cycle backward, with pop-up icons
Alt + Shift + Tab
Cycle forward, without pop-up icons
Alt + Esc
Cycle backward, without pop-up icons
Alt + Shift + Esc
Move to upper workspace
Ctrl + Alt + up arrow
Move to lower workspace
Ctrl + Alt + down arrow
Minimize/minimize all windows
Ctrl + Alt + D
Show window menu
Alt + Spacebar
Step through windows
Alt + Tab
Open Run Command box
Alt + F2
Close the current window
Alt + F4
Close another window
Ctrl + Alt + Esc
Switch virtual desktops
Ctrl+F1, F2, F3, or F4 key)
Open window operation menu
GNOME - IN GNOME Network Tools window have several tools.
To open the Network Tools window
ô€ƒ† System Tools
ô€ƒ† Network Tools
Eight tabs on that window let we perform many operations on our network.
If the GNOME Network Tools window is not available, we can install it as root user by typing
yum install gnome-nettool from a Terminal window. The Devices tab shows data about each of our network interfaces. It makes it easy to find the names and addresses associated with each of our network interfaces (IP addresses, broadcast, net mask).
KDE - If Computer is connected with Internet, Konqueror allow us to create links to files and to web pages also via FTP and HTTP respectably. Those Links of files and html pages appear as file icons in a Konqueror. When a link is opened it ask for permission.
Linux - NTFS, FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, ext2, ext3, ext4, ReiserFS, NFS, JFS, XFS, ZFS and others are supported.
Win -: NTFS, FAT, ISO 9660, UDF, and others; 3rd party drivers available for ext2, reiserfs, HFS, and others are supported.
FDefault file system
Linux- Linux file systems do not need defragmentation..
Win-Windows need defragmenting because the method Windows' file system NTFS works causes files to become fragmented, debasing the performance, and it requires regular defragmenting..
File system permissions
Linux- Linux has a fixed UNIX-like "user, group, other" come to file system permissions. This approach is extended by Access Control Lists on some file systems. Some distributions use them out of the box
Win - The DOS based Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows ME, and previous versions of non-NT Windows only operated on the FAT file system and did not support file system permissions. Windows NT and subsequent NT-based versions of Windows use NTFS-based Access Control Lists to administer permissions, using tokens. On Windows XP and prior versions, most home users still ran all of their software with Administrator accounts, as this is the default setup upon installation.
In Linux Operating System, grand hierarchy is managed. Files, directories and devices come under this hierarchy. Head of hierarchy is called root directory. To denote it symbol / is used. Subdirectory's name is denoted by concatenation of parent & child directory's name.
A subdirectory named usr under the root directory will be denoted by the full path expression /usr.
A subdirectory named local under usr will be denoted by the expression /usr/local
Tree diagram of hierarchy is given below:
Subdirectory and files inside the subdirectory have same names. Actually every directory is a kind of file which stores names and locations of files in it.
Listing the Contents of a Directory
ls command is used to view content of directory.
Output of ls command with the root directory (/) as its argument:
The ls command takes file or directory to be displayed as an argument. ls command displays the files in that directory.
Within this hierarchy of file system in linux, all the programs and data files on the system are organized into directories with the purpose of keeping related programs and files together.
At the time of system boot, kernel probes and recognises PCI cards, IDE drives and other hardware. Linux system detects, installs and mounts the files or folders of the USB devices such as cameras or pen drives.
The following section describes how to add and reconfigure hardware in Linux. This includes sections on checking hardware, using HAL (for detecting and configuring hardware) and commands for working with loadable modules when hardware isn't being detected and configured properly.
The Red Hat Linux installation process automatically detects the available hardware and configures it for use. But sometimes auto detection system does not works properly, in that case we have to do it manually.
Example to configure Sound Card
The sound card configuration command line is redhatâˆ’configâˆ’soundcard.
The menu shortcut is Main Menu > System Settings > Soundcard Detection.
Dialog box showing the sound card detecteion on the system and the kernel sound driver loaded will appear:
Test the sound configuration by using the Play test sound button.
Managing processes - To manage the resources of the desktop and control its property, it is main concepts behind processes running in the system. We can think of a process simply as an independent program entity, executing and using computer resources such as CPU time and memory. Any application that is executed is started as an independent process. An application may start its own child processes âˆ’ and indeed many applications like web servers and database servers have multiple processes to tend to the needs of different clients at the same time.
Managing Users - The task of adding, removing, and modifying user accounts on the system can be accomplished in a GUI by using the Red Hat user configuration tool âˆ’ redhatâˆ’configâˆ’users âˆ’ which can launch using Main Menu | System Settings | Users & Groups. The primary interface of this tool is shown in the figure below:
We'll need to provide the root password to use this utility. Using this interface we can add, edit, or modify users and groups.
The same operations can be carried out in the CLI too. The various tools for the job are described below:
Adding a user
Removing a user
Modifying user details
For now, the following screenshot demonstrates these programs being used to create, configure, and then delete a user called markm at the terminal: