Study About A Client Server Network Computer Science Essay

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Client/server networking grew in popularity many years ago as personal computers (PCs) became the common alternative to older mainframe computers. Client devices are typically PCs with network software applications installed that request and receive information over the network. Mobile devices as well as desktop computers can both function as clients.

2tier architecture is type of client server network. In Two-Tier model, you will have two separate layers namely Client & Server. The applications developed using the two-tier application programming model has a user-friendly interface. These applications can support only a few users and allow data to be shared within a homogeneous environment.

In 3-tier architecture, there is an intermediary level, meaning the architecture is generally split up between: A client, who requests the resources, equipped with a user interface (usually a web browser) for presentation purposes. The application server (also called middleware), whose task it is to provide the requested resources, but by calling on another server. The data server, which provides the application server with the data it requires.

Thin client server depends primarily on the central server for processing activities, and mainly focuses on conveying input and output between the user and the remote server.

Implement client sever network for any organization provide a lot of benefits such as including flexibility, scalability and ease of feature development. The client sever which implemented for M&S Company provide a lot of benefits such as easy and fast communication between all the branches and stores overseas just on time (JIT) and it will manage their business efficiency and accuracy. By using client server network the M&S Company will get a lot of benefits and more profit.

1.0 Introduction

(Bradley M) The term client-server refers to a popular model for computer networking that utilizes client and server devices each designed for specific purposes. The client-server model can be used on the Internet as well as local area networks (LANs). Examples of client-server systems on the Internet include Web browsers and Web servers, FTP clients and servers, and Domain Name System (DNS). The client-server model was originally developed to allow more users to share access to database applications. Compared to the mainframe approach, client-server offers improved scalability because connections can be made as needed rather than being fixed.

(Bradley M) The client-server model also supports modular applications that can make the job of creating software easier. In so-called "two-tier" and "three-tier" types of client-server systems, software applications are separated into modular pieces, and each piece is installed on clients or servers specialized for that subsystem. Client-server networks have two basic components: a client and a server which are connected over a local area network or internet.

(Archived J, 2005) A client is a computer that uses the network to connect to the server and get data to view or edit. A client typically requests a service to be performed. A service might be to run an application such as word-processing software, query a database, or save data. Whatever the request may be, the server is the resource that processes the client service.

(Archived J, 2005) A server is a powerful computer that has a high capacity disk (or disks) used for storage and a back-up tape system to ensure data is not lost. This type of system is designed to store and manage resources for users. Depending on the configuration (set-up) of the server, it is possible to undertake some of the processing work either on the client computers or centralized on the server.

(Bradley M) Client-server is just one approach to managing network applications The primary alternative, peer-to-peer networking, models all devices as having equivalent capability rather than specialized client or server roles. Compared to client-server, peer to peer networks offer some advantages such as more flexibility in growing the system to handle large number of clients. Client-server networks generally offer advantages in keeping data secure.

2.0 Server

A server is simply a computer that is running software that enables it to serve specific requests from other computers, called "clients." For example, you can set up a file server that becomes a central storage place for your network, a print server that takes in print jobs and ships them off to a printer, as well as a multitude of other servers and server functions as showing in figure1.


2.1 Server Benefits

(Archived J, 2005) A server provides many benefits including:

Optimization: Server hardware is designed to serve requests from clients quickly.

Centralization: Files are in one location for easy administration

Security: Multiple levels of permissions can prevent users from doing damage to files.

Redundancy and Back-up: Data can be stored in redundant ways making for quick restore in case of problems.

Characteristics of the Server

Service: The server process is a provider of services. The client is a consumer of services.

Shared Resources: A server can service many clients at the same time and regulate their access to shared resources.

Asymmetrical protocols: Servers are passively awaiting request from the clients. In some cases a client may pass a reference to a call back object when it invokes a service. This lets the server call back the client. So the client becomes a server.

Transparency of location: The server is a process that can reside on the same machine as the client or on a different machine across a network. Client/Server software usually masks the location of the server from the clients by the redirecting the service calls when needed. A program can be a client, a server, or both.

Mix-and-match: The ideal client/server software is independent of hardware or operating system software platforms. You should be able to mix-and-match client and server platforms.

Message-based exchanges: Clients and servers are loosely coupled systems that interact through a message-passing mechanism. The message is the delivery mechanism for the service request and replies

Encapsulation of services: The server is a specialist. A message tells a server is requested; it is then up to the server to determine how to get the job done. Servers can be upgraded without affecting the clients as long as the published message interface is not changed.

Scalability: Client/Server systems can be scaled horizontally or vertically. Horizontal scaling means adding or removing client workstations with only a slight performance impact. Vertical scaling means either migrating to a larger and faster server machine or distributing the processing load across multiple servers.

Integrity: The server code and server data is centrally managed, which results in cheaper maintenance and the guarding of shared data integrity. At the same time, the clients remain personal and independent.

2.3 Basics Server Hardware

(Tom J and Russ K, 2003) Any normal desktop computer could act as a server, but typically you want something much more robust. Standard server hardware includes:

hot-swappable drives (drives that can be replaced while the computer is running) to speed adding or replacing hard disks

the ability to support multiple processors

support for larger amounts of RAM

faster input and output

fast network cards

redundant components, such as hard drives and power supplies, to cut down on the chance of the computer failing

2.4 Basics Server Software

(Tom J and Russ K, 2003) Server software comes in two categories, operating systems and applications:

Network operating systems

There are many different operating systems for servers just like there are many different operating systems for desktop computers. Windows Server (NT, 2000, and 2003), Linux, and Novell Netware are the three main network operating system competitors.

Server applications

Server applications can be designed for nearly every purpose imaginable, from fax servers to remote access servers. Every application will have specific server requirements, and will be typically designed to run on Windows NT/2000, Linux, or Netware. Many servers often run multiple applications (like e-mail and faxing) to serve a variety of needs. There are some common types of server application:

File and Print Servers

(Elliot H, 2008) File and print servers are typically combined on one server and perform as part of the network operating system. File and printer servers manage the storage of data and the various printers on the network. These servers regulate and monitor access to these resources.

Groupware and Mail Servers

(Elliot H, 2008) Groupware servers commonly incorporate different tools for helping users collaborate, including email; managing calendars and contacts; group meeting scheduling; and other operations. When used to manage email, groupware servers manage both local (within your network) and global (Internet-wide) electronic messaging.

List Servers

(Elliot H, 2008) While many groupware servers offer the capability to serve an email listserv or mass email distribution, there are some servers that handle these tasks exclusively.

Fax Servers

(Elliot H, 2008) Fax servers manage fax traffic in and out of the network, allowing multiple users to send and receive faxes without a fax machine.

Web Servers

(Elliot H, 2008) Web servers allow Internet users to attach to your server to view and maintain Web pages. Web browsers such as Netscape and Internet Explorer request documents from the Web server using standard protocols, and the Web server retrieves the requested documents and forwards them on to the browsers. Web servers support a variety of technologies including Active Server Pages, and secure connections to extend the power beyond the basic HTML code.

Database Servers or Database Management Systems (DBMS)

(Elliot H, 2008) Though not exactly a server, DBMS systems allow multiple users to access the same database at the same time. While this functionality is typically built into database software (ex. Microsoft Access allows concurrent connections to its databases), a larger database or a database with many users may need a dedicated DBMS to serve all the requests.

Terminal Servers or Communication Server

(Elliot H, 2008) Generally, a terminal server refers to a piece of hardware that allows devices to be attached to the network without a need for network cards. PCs, "dumb" terminals supporting just a mouse and monitor, or printers can all be attached via standard ports, and can then be managed by the network administrator.

Microsoft Terminal Server - included in Windows 2000 operating systems (both client and Server versions) or later versions of Windows provides the graphical user interface of the Windows desktop to user terminals that don't have this capability themselves. The latter include the relatively low-cost Net PCs or "thin clients" that some organizations may purchase as alternatives to the autonomous and more expensive PC with its own operating system and applications.

Proxy Servers

(Elliot H, 2008) Proxy servers act as intermediaries between your network users and the wide world of the Internet. Proxy servers perform a number of functions:

Masks your network users' IP addresses.

Strengthens security by only allowing certain requests to come through and by providing virus protection.

Caches Web page data for a given period of time to allow for more rapid access.

3.0 Client

The client is a process that sends a message to a server Process (program), requesting that the server perform a task (service). Client programs usually manage the user-interface portion of the application, validate data entered by the user, dispatch requests to server programs, and sometimes execute business logic. The client-based

Process is the front- end of the application that the user sees and interacts with. The client process contains solution-specific logic and provides the interface between the user and the rest of the application system. The client process also manages the local resources that the user interacts with such as the monitor, keyboard, workstation CPU and peripherals. One of the key elements of a client workstation is the graphical user interface (GUI). Normally a part of operating system i.e. the window manager detects user actions, manages the windows on the display and displays the data in the windows.

3.1 Client Requirements

1. Windows 95/98/NT/2000/ME/XP

Minimum Recommendations Hardware

400 MHz Pentium

128 MB RAM

Sound Card with Full-Duplex Audio Support


Video Camera

Software Recommendations

1. Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.01 or later (preferred) Netscape Navigator

2. Solaris1

Minimum Recommended Hardware

1. Ultra-1

2. 128 MB RAM

3. Sound Card with Full-Duplex Audio Support

4, Microphone

Software Recommendations

Java Enabled Web Browser Netscape Navigator 6.0 or later.

3. Linux1

Minimum Recommended Hardware

1. 400 MHz Pentium

2. 128 MB RAM

3. Sound Card with Full-Duplex Audio Support

4. Microphone

Software Recommendations

1. Netscape Navigator 6.0 or later

2. Mandrake, Redhat, Caldera or Suse Linux

4. Mac1

Minimum Recommended Hardware

1. 350 MHz G3

2. 128 MB RAM

Software Recommendations

1. Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0 or later with MRJ

2. Mac OS X or later

5. SunRay1

Minimum Recommended Hardware

1. Sound Card with Full-Duplex Audio Support

2. Microphone

3.2 How the Client Function

The client's responsibility is usually to:

Handle the user interface.

Translate the user's request into the desired protocol.

Send the request to the server.

Wait for the server's response.

Translate the response into "human-readable" results.

Present the results to the user.

Characteristics of Client

Service: The client/server is primarily a relationship between processes running on separate machines. The client is a consumer of services. In essence, client/server provides a clean separation of function based on the idea of service.

Asymmetrical protocols: There is a many-to-one relationship between the clients and the server. Clients always initiate the dialog by requesting a service. In some cases a client may pass a reference to a call back object when it invokes a service. This lets the server call back the client. So the client becomes a server.

4.0 Client server Architecture

(John G, 1995) When considering a move to client/server computing, whether it is to replace existing systems or introduce entirely new systems, practitioners must determine which type of architecture they intend to use. The vast majority of end user applications consist of three components: presentation, processing, and data. The client/server architectures can be defined by how these components are split up among software entities and distributed on a network. There are a variety of ways for dividing these resources and implementing client/server architectures. This paper will focus on the most popular forms of implementation of two-tier, three-tier and thin client/server computing systems.

4.0 Two-tier Architecture

Two tier software architectures were developed in the 1980s from the file server software architecture design. The two-tier architecture is intended to improve usability by supporting a forms-based, user-friendly interface. The two-tier architecture improves scalability by accommodating up to 100 users (file server architectures only accommodate a dozen users). It also proves flexibility by allowing data to be shared, usually within a homogeneous environment. The two-tier architecture requires minimal operator intervention, and is frequently used in non-complex, non-time critical information processing systems.

SQL, File I/O


GUI and Application DBMS, Legacy and other resource


Tier 1

Example: File Servers, Database Servers with Stored Procedure.

4.1.0 Components of 2tier

Two tier architectures consist of three components distributed in two layers: client (requester of services) and server (provider of services).

The three components are

User System Interface (such as session, text input, dialog, and display management services)

Processing Management (such as process development, process enactment, process monitoring, and process resource services)

Database Management (such as data and file services)

The two-tier design allocates the user system interface exclusively to the client. It places database management on the server and splits the processing management between client and server, creating two layers.

The application logic may be present at the client side within a user interface or it may be present within the database on the server or on the both. It is most popular because of its simplicity. These applications can be quickly built by using and visual builder tools; which can be used for developing applications for decision support system of small-scale groupware or you may build a simple web publishing applications.

But the real problem arises only when you deploy them beyond the departmental LAN. Typically the applications that worked perfectly well in prototypes and small installations failed for large-scale productions. It actually went through a transition phase, where it grew beyond the departmental LAN's.

4.1.1 2tier Client/Server in Large Enterprise Environments

(George S) What typically happens with client/server in large enterprise environments is that the performance of 2-tier architecture deteriorates as the number of on-line users' increases. The reason for this is due to the connection process of the DBMS server. The DBMS maintains a thread for each client connected to the server. Even when no work is being done, the client and server exchange "keep alive" messages on a continuous basis. If something happens to the connection, the client must go through a session reinitiating process. With 50 clients and today's typical PC hardware, this is no problem. When one has 2,000 clients on a single server, however, the resulting performance isn't likely to be satisfactory.

The data language used to implement server procedures in SQL server type database management systems is proprietary to each vendor. Oracle, Sybase, Informix and IBM, for example, have implemented different language extensions for these functions. Proprietary approaches are fine from a performance point of view, but are a disadvantage for users who wish to maintain flexibility and choice in which DBMS is used with their applications.

The industry's response to limitations in the 2-tier architecture has been to add a third, middle tier, between the input/output device (PC on your desktop) and the DBMS server. This middle layer can perform a number of different functions - queuing, application execution, database staging and so forth. The use of client/server technology with such a middle layer has been shown to offer considerably more performance and flexibility than a 2-tier approach.

 All of this complicates implementation of two-tier systems - migration from one proprietary technology to another would require a firm to scrap much of its investment in application code since none of this code is portable from one tool to the next.

Advantages and disadvantages of 2tier client server.

As you can see, there are some advantages and disadvantages for 2tire client server architecture which can gives point of view to see the benefits for this architecture and to decide when this architecture can implement it.

Advantages of 2tier client server

Fast application development time

Available tools are robust and provide fast prototyping.

Disadvantages of 2tire

Cannot provide flexibility after the applications is developed and not easy to movie or spilt some of the program functionality from one server to another.

Not suitable for heterogeneous environments with rapidly changing business rules.

The performance for 2tire architecture will not be satisfied by using large number of clients more than (50 clients).

2tier architecture does not have middle tier, between the input/output device (PC on your desktop) and the DBMS server which can offer considerably more performance and flexibility.

4.2.0 3tier Client/Server Architecture

The three-tier software architecture emerged in the 1990s to overcome the limitations of the two-tier architecture. The third tier (middle tier server) is between the user interface (client) and the data management (server) components. This middle tier provides process management where business logic and rules are executed and can accommodate hundreds of users (as compared to only 100 users with the two tier architecture) by providing functions such as queuing, application execution, and database staging.

The three tier architecture is used when an effective distributed client/server design is needed that provides (when compared to the two tier) increased performance, flexibility, maintainability, reusability, and scalability, while hiding the complexity of distributed processing from the user.

4.2.1 How 3tier architecture function

They are also easy to manage and deploy the network and most of the code runs on the server. The protocol of interaction between the client and the server is as follows:

The client calls for the business logic on the server, the business logic on the behalf of the client accesses the database.

The 3-tier substitutes a few server calls for many SQL queries and updates so it performs much better than 2-tier. A three tier distributed client/server architecture includes a user system where user services (such as session, text input, dialog, and display management) reside.

The middle tier provides process management services (such as process development, process enactment, process monitoring, and process resourcing) that are shared by multiple applications. The third tier provides database management functionality and is dedicated to data and file services that can be optimized without using any proprietary database management system languages.


Tier 1

Tier 2

Dbms, Legacy and other resource managers

Tier 3

SQL data access

3-tier Client/ Server Architecture

4.2.2 3Tier and the Future

(George S) By now the point is made. Client/server architectures are flexible and modular. They can be changed, added to, and evolved in numbers of ways. All of the above described 3-tier approaches could be mixed and matched in various combinatorial sequences to satisfy almost any computing need. As the Internet becomes a significant factor in computing environments client/server applications operating over the Internet will become an important new type of distributed computing. (This is probably an understatement, since the use of Internet and intranet based applications will very shortly dwarf all of the distributed computing initiatives of the past)

The Internet will extend the reach and power of client/server computing. Through its promise of widely accepted standards, it will ease and extend client/server computing both intra and inter-company. The movement in programming languages to the technology of distributed objects is going to happen at light speed - because of the Internet.

4.2.3 Advantages and disadvantages of 3tier architecture

As you know, there are some advantages and disadvantages of 3tier client server:

Advantages of 3tier architecture

The application and databases reside on the same host computer and the user interacts with the host using an unfriendly and dump terminal.

Complex application rules easy to implement in application server

Business logic off-loaded from database server and client, which improves performance

Changes to business logic automatically enforced by server - changes require only new application server software to be installed

Application server logic is portable to other database server platforms by virtue of the application software.

Disadvantages of 3tier architecture

More complex structure.

More difficult to setup and maintain.

There is more processing on the web server.

It does not interact with the WMS server directly.

More difficult to setup and maintain. The physical separation of application servers containing business logic functions and database servers containing databases may moderately affect performance. (Blog A, 2007)

4.2.4 Compare between 2tier and 3tier architectures

Compare name

2 tier

3 tier

System administration

Complex (more logic on the client to manage)

Less Complex (the application can be centrally managed on the server - application programs are made visible to standard system management tools)


Low (data-level security)

High (fine-tuned at the service or method level)

Encapsulation of data

Low (data tables are exposed)

High (the client invokes services or methods)


Poor (many SQL statements are sent over the network; selected data must be downloaded for analysis on the client)

Good (only service requests and responses are sent between client and server)


Poor (limited management of client communications links)

Excellent (concentrates incoming sessions; can distribute loads across multiple servers)

Application reuse

Poor (monolithic application on client)

Excellent (can reuse services and objects)

Ease of development


Getting Better (standard tools can be used to create the clients and tools are emerging that you can use to develop both the client and server sides of the application)

Server-to-server infrastructure


Yes (via server-side middleware)

Internet support

Poor (Internet bandwidth limitations make it harder to download fat clients and exacerbate the already noted limitations)

Excellent (thin clients are easier to download as applets or beans; remote service invocations distribute the application load to the server)

Legacy application integration


Yes (via gateways encapsulated by services or objects)

Heterogeneous database support


Yes (3-tier applications can use multiple databases within the same business transaction)

Rich communication choices

No (only synchronous, connection-oriented RPC-like calls)

Yes (supports RPC-like calls, but can also support connectionless messaging, queued delivery, publish-and-subscribe, and broadcast)

Hardware architecture flexibility

Limited (you have a client and a server)

Excellent (all three tiers may reside on different computers, or the second and third tiers may both reside on the same computer; with component-based environments, you can distribute the second tier across multiple servers as well)


Poor (can't fail over to a backup server)

Excellent (can restart the middle tier components on other servers)

4.3.0 Thin client-server technology (TCST)

(Archived J, 2005) This type of client-server network adopts a structure similar to that of the mainframe system. In a thin client-server system, all the client machines are compact in design, with no hard disks, floppy drives or CD-ROMs. The concept of this system is that it has the ability to display remote applications and data that run on the server and not on the client.

(Archived J, 2005) The desktop computer has a part to play in processing the system and application files. Any client machine that runs a program or part of the application is not a thin client. With the thin client technology, all of the processing is managed by the server; only keystrokes and mouse clicks are transmitted and/or received between the thin client (dumb terminals) and the server.

All of the major hardware is now located in a single location and the software is accessed by dumb terminals. As a result, this makes management more central and secure.

(Archived J, 2005) The main benefit of using thin clients is the ease of maintenance. (With desktop machines, more administrative effort is required when installing new software or to modify client-side configuration options.) The computers used by the staff are also much cheaper to purchase.

4.3.1 Start-up Process

(2008, SPEED website) A typical thin client only needs enough memory to power its display and a network card to communicate with the server. Most computers manufactured since 1998 are Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) capable, meaning that they can use their network card as a boot media, similar to starting up from a CD or hard drive. The server is set up to recognize the PXE start-up signal and will send enough software to allow the computer to act as a thin client. Once fully booted, users can log into the thin client, and can use the Operating System and Applications installed on the server.

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Thin clients will usually be set up on their own private network, separate from other machines. One network card of the server will be on the thin client network, and the other network card will connect to the regular network as usual. It is important that the two network cards are not switched; the card on the private network will have usually had a DHCP service running, which will interfere with the regular network which will already have DHCP service.

4.3.2 Resource Utilization

(SPEED website, 2008) All of the computing power, memory, and hard drive space are on the server side. These resources will be shared among all thin clients. These resources are easier to allocate due to their centralized location.

On a thin client server, programs only need to be loaded into memory once, regardless of the number of people using the program at the time. A web browser in operation on 16 different workstations will have a total memory footprint of 16 times the ordinary amount since it was loaded in 16 different locations. If this same web browser were on a thin client server, the program itself would only be in memory once, only requiring additional space to hold user specific data. Similarly, other resources such as the CPU can be more fully utilized when all of the power is in a central location.

4.3.3 Data Centralization

(2008, SPEED website) The server will have direct access to all hard drives in the system. Instead of having data spread among a number of workstations like in the traditional computing model, all user data will be stored on the server. This makes the process of finding and making backup copies of the data much simpler, improving data integrity. If any single workstation's hard drive fails in a traditional computer lab, data loss is much more likely since workstations are not backed up as often as servers. A server can survive such an incident through redundant hard drives (RAID arrays) and automated backups, both of which are easier to implement in one location than in many.

If a hardware failure occurs on a thin client, no saved data is lost; the client can easily be replaced with another machine set up for network booting. In the meantime, the user can log into another thin client and be able to access the same environment they had on the previous machine.

4.3.4 Hardware Costs

(2008, SPEED website) A good server can easily cost about six times as much as a typical workstation, but that cost includes multiple CPUs, along more ram and hard drive space than any workstation. However, with these resources, a thin client server can serve more clients for less total cost than buying each workstation separately. This is made possible due to the economy of scale provided by resource centralization.

The thin clients, due to the low hardware requirements of terminal software, can be machines near the end of their life cycle that are unable to comfortably run modern software. With no hard drive required for these operations, it is not necessary to trust aging hard drives with important data. Ideally suitable thin clients will already be on hand, making the cost of redeployment very low. The largest expense for these workstations will probably be a new monitor if needed.

4.3.5 Advantages and disadvantages of thin clients

There are some advantages and disadvantages of thin client architecture:

Advantages of thin clients

Lower IT administration costs. Thin clients are managed almost entirely at the server. The hardware has fewer points of failure and the client is simpler providing protection from malware.

Easier to secure. Thin clients can be designed so that no application data ever resides on the client

Lower hardware costs. Thin client hardware is generally cheaper because it does not contain a disk, application memory, or a powerful processor.

Less energy consumption. Dedicated thin client hardware has much lower energy consumption than typical thick client PCs.

Easier hardware failure management. If a thin client fails, a replacement can simply be swapped in while the client is repaired.

Less network bandwidth. Since terminal servers typically reside on the same high-speed network backbone as file servers, most network traffic is confined to the server room.

Lower noise. The aforementioned removal of fans reduces the noise produced by the unit. This can create a more pleasant and productive working environment.

Less wasted hardware. Computer hardware contains heavy metals and plastics and requires energy and resources to create. Thin clients can remain in service longer and ultimately produce less surplus computer hardware than an equivalent thick client installation because they can be made with no moving parts.

Disadvantages of thin client server

Thin clients do not support multimedia-rich applications, like video gaming. Multimedia-rich applications require a significant amount of bandwidth to function to their maximum potential

Thick clients also while working on other tasks

Thin clients make allowing background data transfer difficult to track individual user behaviour, which is often analysed to provide more customized responses to frequently asked requests.

There are also some problems with certain software titles that have a tendency to grab as many resources as possible. When you are sharing the resources with 30 or so other users, everybody will experience a performance hit.

5.0 Implementation Client Server Network

As you can see, the implementation for client server network will be implementing in Marks & Spencer Company.

5.1 Case Study

Marks & Spencer (M&S) ( is a UK-base, upscale, global retailer known for its high-quality, high-price merchandise. M&S is an international retailer with 718 locations across 34 countries. The group sells clothing, footwear, gifts, home furnishings and foods under the St. Michael trademark in its chain of 294 stores in the United Kingdom. Approximately half of the group's overseas stores are franchised to local partners. Direct mail helps M&S meet the core objective of providing customers with wider, easier access to their products such as home furnishings, flowers, hampers and wine.

The company was always considered to have a great Information technology management support that helped in its growth. But the last years, M&S's managers seem to fail on their strategic decisions, leading the group to lower and lower sales and profits. The share price is also dropping and shareholders feel insecure for the future.

5.2 Solution

M&S realized that in the digital era survival depends on the use of information technology in general and implement WAN network between their branches to provide high performance and fast communication for the company. In addition, the network will connect all the branches and stores in all the 34 countries in one network.

Client server network will be implementing in this company to manage, support and provide fast communicate between all the stores with different areas. Each country has its own network and all stores are connecting to the main store in UK. As a result, there are some requirements (hardware, software) should be provide and connect together with each other to implement client server network.

5.2.1 Type of client server architecture Implemented

As you can see, we will implement 3tire architecture for this company. Which separated application components into three logical tiers: the user interface tier, the business logic tier, and the database access tier? In this type of system, the user interface tier communicates only with the business logic tier, never directly with the database access tier. The business logic tier communicates both with the user interface tier and the database access tier. For this model:

The user interface tier is a client (workstation) only, in that it only makes requests to the business logic tier.

The database access tier is a server only, in that it only responds to requests from the business logic tier.

The business logic tier acts as both a client and a server: a server relative to the user interface tier, because it process its request, and a client to the database access tier, because it sends a request to it.

5.2.1 Requirements Hardware

There are some requirements for the server and the client should be provided. Server: The requirement servers which will be implemented in this company will be describing as a follow:




Application server

An application server is a component-based product that resides in the middle-tier of a server centric architecture. It provides middleware services for security and state maintenance, along with data access and persistence.


Database Server

is a computer program that provides database services to other computer programs or computers, as defined by the client-server model.


Web server

At its core, a Web server serves static content to a Web browser by loading a file from a disk and serving it across the network to a user's Web browser. This entire exchange is mediated by the browser and server talking to each other using HTTP.


Mail server

Move and store mail over corporate networks (via LANs and WANs) and across the Internet.


Backup server

Allows you to select entire folders on your computer (or network) and back all their files into one neat compressed zip file. You can then copy the zip file across your network to another computer or drive, or you can even automatically upload it with built in ftp function to your own server for safe off site storage, as part of your scheduled backup.

PowerEdge T610


Intel®  Xeon®  processor 5500 series

Quad-Core Intel®  Xeon® 

Dual-Core Intel®  Xeon®  Specifications - Processor


Up to 96GB1 ECC DDR3

Maximum Internal Storage

Up to 8TB


Tower or 5U rack-mountable Client

There are minimum requirement for the client (workstation) as a follow:





400 MHz Pentium


Operating system

Windows, Mac or Linux





Hard Disk

80 GH


Sound Card

Full-Duplex Audio Support

5.2.2 Requirement Software

There are some software requirements will be implemented to function the hardware in the network. Server software




Operating system

Microsoft Windows Server 2000



Oracle, My SQL or SQL Server


Web Browser

Internet explorer, Google Chrome or Brevet


Microsoft office

2003, 2007



Kaspersky , Norton Antivirus or AVG Client software

There is some minimum requirements software for clients.




Operating system

Windows, Unix or Mac


Web browser

Internet explorer, Google Chrome or Brevet



Kaspersky , Norton Antivirus or AVG


Microsoft office

2003, 2007

5.3 Connection

According to M&S case, we implement some servers which will manage files and data for the company. The server manages files, software, printers, and other shared hardware on behalf of all client computers on the network. The server is configured so that each user has access to their own directory, along with public directories where applications are stored.

By centrally managing access to the network, the server can provide strict control over which staff or client is allowed access to the sensitive data and shared resources that reside on the network. A firewall system should be considered. Firewalls would ensure that hackers could not gain unauthorized access to the Local Area Network (LAN), particularly for areas that may have wireless networks, where security risks can be higher.

As you can see, we establish some servers for M&S Company to provide fast connection between all servers and clients in different countries. Each server has a specific job to do. All servers in each country are connecting with main company compose servers over the internet in the UK as showing in figure1. All stores in each country are connecting with some servers in the same country as showing in figure3 and all the servers in the same country is connecting with the main branch in UK.

There are some purposes for each server in M&S Company willed been explaining as a follow:

Web server

When a customer wants to buy products from M&S website, he or she selects products from the website and send the request to the web server. The web server will connect with the database servers and will send request again to the client over the internet to show the products which selected by the customer. Also, the clients and the web server communicate by using a protocol called HTTP, which defines a simple set of commands, parameters which are passed as strings, with no provision for typed data.

Database Server

It is the location for data storage. In M&S Company the client passes the SQL requests as messages to the database server; the result of each SQL command is returned over the network to the client. The server uses its own processing power to find the requested data back to the client, instead of passing all the records back to the client.

Application Server

M&S Company will share some software by using application server. The client can send request to the application server to use some software such as Microsoft office or any other software.

Email server

Email server is allowing the clients or the staff in M&S Company to share some email over the network. In addition, Email server provides managing calendars and contacts group meeting scheduling and other operations which will help the M&S clients to communicate fast and manage their work accuracy.

Proxy Server

Proxy sever will provide more security for M&S company. Also, it catch all the website pages which opened by the M&S staff and clients.

Backup Server

Backup sever will provide a lot of benefits for M&S Company by backup all files and data in the company. It is a secondary storage if any server down or shut down it will work and provide service for the clients. Also, the backup server will be located out of the organization to be more security. In addition, it will backup the files each 24 hours.

5.4 Diagram

5.4.1 Main Servers Network Diagram

Figure 1: main network diagram for M&S client server network

5.4.2 Servers Connection Diagram

Figure 2: main server's connection diagram.

5.4.3 Branches Network Diagram (34 country)

Figure 3: Branches network diagram for each country.

5.4.4 Stores Network Diagram (718 Stores)

Figure 4: stores network diagram for each store.

5.5 Limitation

The benefits of a client server computer network are substantial, but there are some limitations.

A server based computer network is more expensive to implement. Server computers are powerful machines with built-in redundancy and other hardware to provide data safety. Hence, they cost much more than a simple desktop computer.

The server network software is also much more powerful, complicated, and must be installed correctly to run all of the required tasks, and so the cost is higher for both the software and installation charges.

The server is a critical point of failure. If it goes down, the entire network comes to a halt. This drawback can be minimized with the installation of redundant drives in the server (so that if one fails, the others will still be working), and even a second server that can take over if the primary server fails completely. Cost then becomes the only issue. As established in (Sensible Computer Help, website)

5.6 Conclusion

As you can see, Client server networks have many advantages for large and small organizations.  As we explain previous, 3tier architecture is the best solution to implement for M&S Company. It allows you to separate the workload better for developers and makes an application more readable and its components more reusable.

The client server network will benefit M&S Company by providing fast communication between all branches and stores overseas. In addition, using client server will help M&S Company to share files, information and application between their branches easily and fast. On the other hand, M&S will reduce a lot of loses by using this technology.

In summary, Client server network is the best solution for M&S Company which will manage and organize their business. Also, it will provide the company more benefits and profits.