Strata Title Is Form Of Ownership Computer Science Essay

Published: Last Edited:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Strata title is a form of ownership where it is planned for shared areas of horizontal subdivisions and blocks of multi-level apartment. The main reason for introducing strata title is to have a better management with the legal ownership of apartment blocks. Before strata title has been introduced, the only method used in order for dividing ownership was company title, where reluctantly grieved from several flaws, such as the difficulty of instituting mortgages. Other countries also apply the same principles of legislation but the definitions are different and their government used different kind of method and mechanisms.

Strata titles scheme are consists of individual lots and common property for example storerooms garages and apartments where each one of them are shown on the title as being owned by a lot owner. Common Property is defined as everything else on the parcel of land that is not comprised in a lot, such as common stairwells, driveways, roofs, gardens and many more. Strata title involved buildings on the land and vertical subdivision of land into common property and lots. What is call as common property is land above, below and around the building, as well as common facilities within the building for example foyers, elevators, stairs, landings, car park, and driveways. Meanwhile, lots consist of units or apartments. The lots are considered as parcels of 'airspace' usually bounded by floor, walls and ceilings just like in a plan drawn by a surveyor and registered in the local titles office. What are left after the lots have been taken out from the original land parcel is known as common property. However, most enabling legislation defines common property only as 'those areas not comprised in any lot'. This gives the developer flexibility in determining the common property. It means that in the absence of a specific definition, the developer can retain ownership of all the amenities and impose entry charges on the owners of the strata scheme for use of amenities such as swimming pools, tennis courts, etc. Strata title is a proof of ownership for the purpose of dealings. For example, transfer, charge, lease and small estate distribution.

A proprietor's certificate of title therefore comprises his lot together with his share entitlement of the common property. There is no separate certificate of title for the common property or interest in it. The effect of this is, first, that the share in the common property can only be dealt with as part of the title to the unit, ownership of a unit entitles a person to the appropriate share entitlement in the common property. Second, each proprietor's share is independent of the others, in that it can be transferred, inherited or dealt with in any other way without affecting the other shares.

A flat, a condominium or an apartment requires ownership status and the bindings of positives covenants on the other owner and their successor to the respective units, yet avoid the fragmentation of land into relatively tiny parcels. Strata titles accommodate such requirements. They provide for the subdivision of land in which there are one or more buildings into horizontal strata that each can be divided into two or more units. Each unit can then be granted with a separate title which mean also separately taxed and financed. The unit owner will not be liable of the default of another and he can dispose of his unit without affecting the units of other owners.

Strata scheme can be group into different type by:

Separate ownership of each unit and common ownership of the land and common parts of the building in shares proportional to the respective units' entitlement.

The existence of a body corporate made up of all the owner, and

A set of statutory provisions and by laws to govern the control, management, use and enjoyment of the common property.

Strata titles can operate on any type of user like commercial, residential, and industrial or any other purpose, including mixed used developments, and also car parks where each parking lot is issued with different certificate of title while the circulation area and the building structure remains the common property.

2.2 Strata Title Act 1985

Strata titles act provided with the information on land and building subdivisions. The act is under the jurisdiction of the Federal Departments of Lands and Mines (JKPTG) that are under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. Strata Title Act 1985 (Act 318) allows land to be subdivided into parcels or land parcels based on the area occupied.

2.3 Geographical Information System (GIS)

According to the definition that were defined by (Berry, 1996), GIS is generally a combination of computer hardware and software including the geographical data that were used to obtain, store, update, manipulate, analysis and to display all the information that are coincide with geography.

Other than that, there are other definitions of GIS by people that are differing according to their scope of work. According to (Microsoft Press, 1997) that define GIS as an application or a complete set of application that are function to display and produce map. Generally, GIS consists of a display system (sometimes user can display the map through web server), a condition to produce a map and a server to handle the data and map at real time.

Geographical information system is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographically related data. The simple way to define this is that GIS is the merging cartography, statistical analysis, and database technology. The other names for GIS are geographical information science, or geospatial information studies.

Initially, GIS is an information technology that is a standalone system. There are actually a high cost needed in order to provide the hardware and the software. Because of this high cost factor, a single individual are not capable to own the system by themselves. In education field, even the cost has been lowered down, the used of GIS is still low because the number of people who actually can operate this system is limited. Moreover, the time consumed for a person to learn or to teach a person about the GIS system is one of the factors why GIS is not being use widely.

2.4 Internet

Internet is a global web of computer network that can link millions computer from all around the world. Nowadays, internet is the biggest computer network in the world as an information that are working prototype of the information superhighway with the number of users exceeding 15 million people. (New Straits Times, 25th July 1994)

The internet has change the way people live nowadays. The internet make the work become faster and more efficient. The communication and interaction between human also has been rapidly increase with the development of internet. Moreover, internet helps in the searching of information where everything now can be easily found through the internet. What people need to do is type the certain things that they required to know and the information is there. The type of information provided throughout the internet covered every kind of aspects.

2.5 Web based System

A web based system is an application that is usable only with an active Internet connection and that uses HTTP as its primary communications protocol. It is also call as web based application.


Figure 2.1: Multilayer architecture for Web-based Application

As the internet has become more effective, the term 'web-services' has emerged, the concept behind which is the ability to access many services through the internet. Examples of web services are online stores, web-mail, search engines, web-based weather services, and many more. Since the introduction of high-speed internet, the web services concept can now be applied to engineering software for providing both application programs and computing resources to the public.

The rapid production of the Internet and the cost-effective growth of its key enabling technologies are revolutionizing information technology and creating extraordinary opportunities for developing large scale distributed applications. Typically, a Web-based application can be represented as three-tier architecture, depicted in the figure, which includes a Web client, network servers, and a back-end information system supported by a suite of databases.

In civil/construction engineering, the concept of web services has been adopted and applied in project management. Web based construction project management systems (WPMS), which focus on web services in data management and information exchange between parties, were proposed and developed by many researchers in late 1990s (Jung and Gibson 1999; O'Brien 2000; Pena-Mora et al. 1999; Rojas and Songer 1999).

Web services are a standardized way of integrating web-based applications using separate service communication interfaces that can be used by other web applications. They are primarily used as a means for businesses to communicate with clients and each other without exposing detailed knowledge of each other's IT systems. Communication is usually in XML, and not tied to any particular operating system or programming language. Web services do not require the use of browsers or HTML, and do not provide the user with a GUI.

2.6 GIS Internet (GIS Web)

According to Calkins, 1996, GIS Web is a method of displaying spatial data information on the internet. Other than that, Zhong-Ren Peng who is a user of GIS-Internet define GIS Internet as a special tool that use internet in order to send and to search for data, for analyzing and to perform GIS database (Peng, 1997). Other definition also stated that Web-GIS is a system consists of all or most of the functions that are already included in the GIS software but with additional function that use internet as an information sender (Callejas, 2000). The additional functions above including applications programs, data controller on internet and an interactive data on internet.

From the definition that has been mention above; we can conclude that the GIS Web is a display of information system in geographically that involved the process of delivery, manipulation, and the presentation of geography data interactively through web page. Sometimes, the process involved the analysis and data request from the users where as a result, the data presented need to be interactively manipulated.

The creating and building of the application has made a better result when generating the idea on how to inform people about the geographical information map through online services. In 1993, the employee in Troms University of Norway has built a map and generates it through web server for his country (Plewe, 1997). After that there are many more interactive map that been produced and using internet as the medium to distribute it.

In 1994, many agencies from the government and private sector from all over the world such as United States, Canada, Australia and United Kingdom have been making a prototype to distribute spatial data through the internet. One of the agency that been developing this kind of distribution of GIS information is National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) where the major thing that they highlighted is about effective data sharing within or outside the country, for general use and for any organizations involved.

The years upcoming after that, there are also third-party company that try to introduce the software that will make the distribution of geographical information to internet become easier. Many of the software vendor has been using internet as the medium as a long time agenda such as introducing a program that can connect web server to the software that they come up with. Some of the software vendor include ESRI, Intergraph, MapInfo, Bently, Genasys and many more.

From the development of the GIS Web that has been discussed above, it can be summarised that the distribution of GIS information in web page has been one of the issue that get the attention in the development of information technology currently. Before the introduction of GIS Web, the internet user at home didn't have the access to the to use GIS technology because of high cost and the maintenance of the hardware and software. However, with the development of GIS-Web it give access to the all internet user to get the GIS information that they needed only by online (Allen, 1996).

2.7 ArcGIS software

ArcGIS is a Geographic Information System software that for working with maps and geographic information. AcGIS is one of the products created and publish by Environmental System Research Institute or ESRI. Some of the function of this software are creating and using map, compiling geographic data, analyzing mapped information, sharing and discovering geographic information, using maps and geographic information in a range of applications, and managing geographic information in a database. The system provides an infrastructure for making maps and geographic information available throughout an organization, across a community and openly on the web. Some of the function in ArcGIS are ArcReader and ArcView.


Figure 2.2: ArcGIS 10 by Esri

ArcView worked with data in shapefile format. ArcInfo workstation covered coverages, which stored topology information about the spatial data. Coverages, which were introduced in 1981 when ArcInfo were first released, have limitations on how they handle types of feature. Some features for example roads with streets intersection or overpass and underpass should be carried out differently than other types of features.

ArcGIS is built in mean for geodatabase where object-relational database approach is used to store spatial data. The geodatabase is apparently a 'store' for keeping datasets; link together the spatial features with attributes. Topology information is one of the contain in geodatabase where it can model behaviour of features such as road intersection and how features relate to one another with rules. It is important to understand about feature class when working with geodatabase. Feature classes are usually a set of features represented with points, lines or polygons. When using shapefile, each file can only handle one type of feature. Within one file, a geodatabase can store multiple feature classes or type of features.

Geodatabase in ArcGIS can be stored in 3 different ways including as a 'file geodatabase', 'personal geodatabase', and 'ArcSDE geodatabase'. File geodatabase stores information in a folder named using .gtb extension. File geodatabase only supports a single editor, similar to the personal geodatabase but there is virtually no size limit unlike the personal geodatabase that has size limit. Any single table cannot exceed 1 terabyte by default but can this can be changed. Personal geodatabase store data in Microsoft Access files using a BLOB field to store the geometry data. This file type can actually be handle by OGR library where it can also converts it to other file formats.

ArcCatalog can be use to do the database administration tasks for personal geodatabase, such as managing users and creating backups. Personal geodatabsase which are based on Microsoft Access, run only on Microsoft Windows and have a 2 gigabytes size limit. ArcSDE is used to handle enterprise (multi-user) level geodatabase. ArcSDE also handle database management aspects which interfaces with high-end DBMS such as Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, DB2 and Infomix. Meanwhile, ArcGIS deals with spatial data management. Enterprise level geodatabase support database replication, versioning and transaction management, and are cross-platform compatible, where it is able to run on Linux, Windows and Solaris. ArcGIS also released the personal SDE database that use SQL server Express to operates. Personal SDE database support versioning and disconnected editing but do not support multi-user editing. Microsoft limits SQL Server Express databases to 4GB.


Figure 2.3: ArcToolbox

ArcReader is a basic data viewer for maps and GIS data published in the proprietary ESRI format using ArcGIS Publisher. Same basic tools for map viewing, printing and querying of spatial data also provided by the software. ArcReader is included with any of the ArcGIS suite of products and it is also available for free to download. However, ArcReader can only be use when working with preauthored map files, created with ArcGIS Publisher.

ArcGIS Online is a free web application that allows search of geographic information and sharing. Other than that, it can also search for content published by Esri, ArcGIS users and other authorized data providers. With this application, users can create and join groups and they can also control access to items shared publicly or within groups.

ArcGIS Web Mapping APis are APIs for several languages that allows users to deploy and build applications including GIS functionality and Web services from ArcGIS Online and ArcGIS Server. For applications that can be attached in web pages or launched as stand-alone web applications, Adobe Flex, JavaScript and Microsoft Silverlight are supported. Moreover, for desktop applications, Flex, Adobe Air, and Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) are supported.

ArcScene is one of the ArcGIS components that use as a tool to generate the 3D models. ArcScene is a 3D viewer that is very useful in order to generate perspective scenes that allow user to navigate and interact the 3D feature and raster data. ArcScene also supports complex 3D line symbols and texture mapping as well as surface creation and display of TINs.

ArcGIS 10 makes it simpler to put mapping and geospatial analytics into the hands of more people without requiring that they be GIS experts. One of the most important aspects of this release is that ArcGIS users can deliver any GIS resource, such as maps, imagery, geodatabases, and tools, as a web service.

2.8 Microsoft Visual Basic

Visual Basic is a computer programming system developed and owned by Microsoft. The initial purpose of creating Visual Basic was to make the work of writing programs for the windows computer operating system become easier. In an earlier programming language called BASIC that was invented by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz, professors of Dartmouth College was the basis of Visual Basic. Visual Basic is simply the most widely used computer programming system in the history of software. (


Figure 2.4: Microsoft Visual Basic

Visual Basic was one of the first systems that made it practical to write programs for the Windows operating system. This was possible because VB included software tools to automatically create the detailed programming required by Windows. These software tools not only create Windows programs, they also take full advantage of the graphical way that Windows works by letting programmers 'draw' their systems with a mouse on the computer. This is why it's called "Visual" Basic. Visual Basic also provides unique and complete software architecture. 'Architecture' is the way computer programs, such as Windows and VB programs to work together. One of the major reasons why Visual Basic has been so successful is that it includes everything that is necessary to write programs for Windows.

One of the big innovations introduced by Visual Basic was a way to split a program into two parts. One part is written by the programmer and does everything that makes that program unique, such as adding two specific values. The other part does all of the processing that any program might need such as the programming to add any values. The second part is called the runtime in Visual Basic 6 and earlier and is part of the Visual Basic system. The runtime is actually a specific program and each version of Visual Basic has a corresponding version of the runtime.

Visual Basic uses an internal programming language in many other systems such as Microsoft Office programs like Word and Excel. Many other companies in addition to Microsoft have used Visual Basic to add programming ability to their own systems. Visual Basic makes it possible for another system, like Excel, to run a program internally and provide what is essentially a custom version of Excel for a particular purpose. For example, a program could be written in Visual Basic that will make Excel create an accounting balance sheet using a series of accounting entries in a spreadsheet at the click of a button.

Visual Basic is still sold and supported by Microsoft and use as an internal component of Office programs. Microsoft is developing a completely .NET capability (called VSTO, Visual Studio Tools for Office) but Visual Basic continues to be used.