State Of The Art Virus Protection Computer Science Essay

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Computer Virus lead the largest threat in the computer world .Anyone who use the computer in anywhere at any time he/she has a huge possibility to prey in computer viruses. So users must aware to prevent from viruses and almost they should have better knowledge about computer viruses in the current world. In this document describe what is the computer virus?, how they behave? Computer infections of when the virus gets attacked. Furthermore this document describe what are the latest technologies use both virus programs and antivirus programs. In the bottom part describe what are the basic steps can follow to block viruses infecting your computers.

\end{abstract}

% introduction of report

\section{Introduction}

Before preventing computer viruses we should aware about these simple things. What is virus?, how it likes to behave?, possible areas it can harm and types of viruses. In this section describe what are the basic types of viruses are and how they perform.

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% what is computer virus

\subsection{What is a Computer Virus?}

Main focus under this topic is to identify the definitions available for viruses and to extract key concepts which are behind viruses.\\\\

There is more than one definition for viruses because the behaviors of viruses differ from each other. According to the similarities in core behaviors of viruses there are some definitions defined for computer viruses.

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Different definitions available for computer viruses.

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{\bf Fred Cohen is a person who defines word 'computer virus' first in 1983. He define computer virus is a program that can infect other programs by modifying them to include a possibly evolved copy of itself.} \cite{FredCohen}

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{\bf A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer.} \cite{wikipedia}

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{\bf A computer virus is a computer programming code that is executed on ones' computer without the explicit knowledge of the user.}

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According to the definitions available for viruses and the behavior of viruses, I would like to define a virus as below.

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{\bf A computer virus is an executable code which is capable of reproducing itself without any permission or knowledge of user and it may be capable to piggybacks on real program or execute alone.}

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After analyzing the definitions we can extract key concepts behind computer viruses. Those are.

\begin{itemize}

\item An executable program code which can copy itself.

\item Computer virus should be able to run without explicit knowledge of the user.

\item A virus may piggyback on real programs or run as a separate program.

\item While executing or after executing a virus may produce results which are different from the expected results.

\end{itemize}

% end of what is computer virus

% start of the history of computer viruses

\newpage

\subsection{History of the computer virus}

History of the computer virus goes to the mid of 1940's. At that time there was no term called {\bf 'computer virus'} instead of that they used a word called {\bf 'bug'}.

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In 1945 Rear Admiral Grace Murray Hopper discovered a month trapped between relays in a navy computer.

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Above mentioned is the first bug discovered by a computer operator. After computer became popular and after the introduction of internet, number of viruses in the computer world grown rapidly year by year.

\begin{itemize}

\item In the year 1982 released first microcomputer virus. This virus was written for Apple II systems by a 15 years old student named Rich Skrenta. He had written this virus to spread via floppy diskettes. Elk Cloner was an 'in wild virus' but it didn't arise very harmful effects to PC. \cite{antivirusworld}

\item In the year 1986 two brothers from Pakistan developed the boot sector virus called 'Brain'. Like Elk Cloner this virus too spread via floppy diskettes but this virus affected only MS-DOS systems.

\item In year 1986 release first Trojan horse called PC-Writer.

\item In year 1987 released first File Infector virus was released.

\end{itemize}

Thousands of viruses are being released to the computer world year by year. In the present, 65\% of PCs in the world are affected by some viruses or possession to unauthorized access.

% end of history of computer viruses

% end of introduction

% start of Types of viruses

\newpage

\section{Major types viruses and behaviors}

According to the purpose of developing viruses we can divide those in to two categories.

\begin{enumerate}

\item Viruses for research:

\par{These types of viruses are developed only for research purposes. Those are not released to the public.}

\item In wild viruses:

\par{\indent These types of viruses are released to the public and those viruses affect PCs and arouse very harmful effects.}

\end{enumerate}

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When we consider the infection strategy of a virus we can divide viruses in to two different types. Those are.

\begin{enumerate}

\item Non ' resident viruses:

\par{\indent These kinds of viruses load in to the main memory and then it replicate to another host program or host file. Non ' resident viruses are not planted in the main memory by itself until kill or shutting down of the PC, instead of that it infects other targeted programs again and again and then using those infected programs it executes in the main memory.} \cite{PeterSzor}

\item Resident viruses:

\par{\indent Most of the times these viruses use a single host program or constant number of inflected files to plant itself in to PC. Once the virus loads in to the main memory it establishes itself in main memory and executes till the kill of that process or shut down of the computer. Memory resident viruses don't do anything immediately; they load themselves in to memory and wait for triggering event that will cause to act. Most of harmful viruses fall in to this category.} \cite{PeterSzor}

\end{enumerate}

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When considering the infrastructure and behavior of the viruses we can divide those in to 3 major categories.

\begin{enumerate}

\item Boot Sector Viruses

\par{\indent Some times called as boot sector infectors, system viruses or boot viruses. That kind of viruses would affect to the boot sector of the storage media like hard discs or other storage devices. Master boot record (MBR) or DOS boot record is often targeted by these viruses.}

\par{\indent The specific virus program establishes itself in the boot sector of the disc. When the computer boots from an infected disc, virus starts to execute with the operating system and it get the control of the system from operating system. Most of that kind of viruses are developed using assembly language or high level languages which can be translated to machine language. All of the boot sector viruses are capable of executing themselves along with the operating system.}

\item File viruse

\par{\indent This type of viruses use host files (the particular file may be in the PC or unique file which attach with the virus) to infect the computer. File viruses use different ways to infect and use stealth techniques to hide their presence.}

\par{\indent These viruses directly attack the system files and then modify those targeted files. In the past this type of viruses overwrote the targeted file and executed those. This method was not successful because overwritten program didn't perform the intended functionality well so antivirus programs could easily detect the infected file and remove it from the system. Nowadays virus programmers use very sophisticated methodology to embedded virus code or program to the targeted file. The virus inserts their own code segments to the target file and be careful in not changing the original source code of the target file. When executing that kind of infected files their functionality appears normal but virus code executes with the program. So due to that reason some of antivirus programs or any other virus finding programs may treat those viruses as a useful program.}

\par{\indent After loading itself in to the memory, it may infect other programs as well but when users browse infected file or directory it will hide evidences of the infected file such as changing the last modified date to the previously modified day before the infection has occurred, size of the file, extension of the file etc.}

\item Macro Viruses

\par{\indent Macro viruses are the latest virus type and most viruses in the computer world belong to that type. Macro language is the most powerful language which comes with modern high level languages or with some applications. Using macro languages developers would be able to write executable codes with the pure data. First time user manipulates data in the file the macro virus establishes in the PC and affects the system.}

\par{\indent The main difference between ordinary viruses and macro viruses is, ordinary viruses were written using low level languages but macro viruses were written using high level languages. Due to that difference most macro viruses do not affect the boot sectors of the disc drivers but macro viruses are capable in providing harmful effects to the operating system or network.}

\par{\indent Most of antivirus programs detect macro viruses through binary scan of the data file otherwise there is no standard methodology to detect macro viruses because most of macros viruses are embedded with the useful data.}

\par{\indent Macro virus's threat exists in the network or internet because most of macro viruses create extra payload on network or attack internet browsers via popup on messages or downloading unnecessary data to the PC etc.}

\end{enumerate}

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There are more than 10 types of viruses but major types are boot sector, file and macro viruses rest of others rarely infect the system. Following list contains some of other virus types and a short description about each type.

\begin{itemize}

\item Cluster viruses/ Directory viruses:

\par {\indent After the run, virus affect the target directory and change the directory information (e.g. path of directory, visibility of directory etc.) but not change the content of the infected directory.}

\item Companion viruses:

\par{\indent This type of virus doesn't change the target file but create a bogus file which is similar to the target file and plant the virus on it. When system executes the specific file it will be executing the virus on the bogus file. This type of viruses belongs to the residential viruses.}

\item Worms:

\par{ \indent Worm is some kind of network virus because worms use security holes in network and weaknesses of the network to replicate itself to the system. Through network worms spread and plant in every machine on the weak secured network. Structure and behavior of the worm is similar to the virus so due to this reason worm is categorized under the virus as a sub class of viruses.}

\par{\indent If worm is planted in the computer network it controls the entire network and resources. Most of worms affect the network and arouse more network problems. Some of them are listed below.}

\begin{itemize}

\item Create heavy network traffic.

\item Deny access to the network.

\item Create security weak points in network and then plant new worms in the machine.

\item Increase the excessive usage of internet.

\end{itemize}

\par{\indent Antivirus softwares detect most worms after monitoring the network usage of the system.}

\item Trojan/ Trojan horses:

\par{\indent Trojans are not categorized under virus because Trojans have no way to replicate automatically. Most Trojans infect the PC without being notice by the user. Most of Trojans are harmful to the system or affect the valuable data in the system.}

\par{\indent Most Trojans change or delete the information in the system but some Trojans transfer most valuable or personal data (passwords, credit card numbers etc.) to another person.}

\par{\indent Latest Trojan in the computer world mainly affects the antivirus software and break the firewall and then it changes or deletes the data in memory or transfers highly sensitive data which is stored in the machine to another person. Final result of this, may be that other person will get the control of the infected computer. In hackers world Trojan is the most widely used malicious software to hack another PC.} \cite{whatisvirus}

\end{itemize}

% end of virus types and behaviors

% start who programs viruses and why

\newpage

\section{Who programs viruses and why?}

To write a virus program, a programmer must be a skilled person in the relevant programming language and must have the sound knowledge about target. Programmer should do research about following key areas, architecture of targeted operating system and weaknesses in it, how antivirus programs act against viruses, weak areas of those antivirus programs and the soft way to spread virus.

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There are two main reasons to program viruses. First one is for research purposes. This type of viruses are programmed to study how those affect the computers and how to prevent those kind of attacks. Antivirus software companies, also program viruses to study how antivirus program face that kind of viruses. Other reason is to release a virus program to the public world. But sometimes some useful programs can act as virus because of the bugs in that program. \cite{Wahshat2007}

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Programmers program viruses to achieve one or more purposes which are listed below.

\begin{enumerate}

\item Programmers write viruses to become famous.

\item Some viruses are written to crash targeted system or PC. This kind of viruses are developed due to the anger issues of the developer.

\item Some programmers code viruses for fun.

\item Hackers write viruses or any another malicious software to find out personal or more secured data of the user (e.g. credit card numbers, passwords etc.).

\item Security crackers write virus programs to destroy the shield against the virus in the system and then do some unethical stuff.

\item Some Programmers code viruses or worms to earn money.

\item Some write viruses or other type of malicious software to sell their products (e.g. antivirus company release viruses to prove virus guard is best and promote it.).

\item Some viruses are written by programmers due to some political issues.

\end{enumerate}

These are the major reasons to write 'in wild' viruses but there may be thousands of reason to write viruses.

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There is another story to developing viruses some programmers write viruses to recover the infected system or PCs. This kind of viruses should be able to get control back from the previously planted virus and remove previously infected files or repair infected files. After the successful recovery of the system they destroy themselves by themselves. That kind of viruses are more sophisticated and do some positive work than other viruses. But unlucky this concept is not implemented yet somehow researchers try to develop that kind of viruses and they have already developed that kind of viruses up to certain extent.

% end of who programs viruses and why

% start How Spread Viruses

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\section{How Spread Viruses}

Computer viruses usually spread in one of the four ways which are mentioned below.

\begin{enumerate}

\item Storage media

\item Network

\item Softwares

\item E-Mails

\end{enumerate}

\subsection{Spread viruses via storage media}

This is the most basic way to transfer viruses from one PC to another. In the past most viruses replicated via floppy diskettes but in present USB mass storage devises, hard discs, memory cards, mobile or smart phones are being used as the media to spread viruses. Most of boot sector viruses and file inflection viruses, transfer via storage media.\\ \cite{spreadviadiscks}

\begin{figure}

\centering

\includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth]{Elk_Cloner_Spread}

\caption{How spread Elk Cloner via floppy diskettes}

\end{figure}

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\subsection{Spread viruses via network}

Internet and any type of computer network is a very easiest way to spread viruses. Worms and Trojans widely use network to spread quickly due to the security weaknesses in the network. Virus can planted in to one of the hosts and through that it infect other systems or PCs.

\newpage

\subsection{Spread viruses via software}

This is the modern concept of spreading viruses. Developers insert the code of virus or infected file with the software. After installing and running the program specific virus will run with it. Most free softwares include those viruses or act as malicious software. So users must be careful in finding out details about vendors of free softwares and get only the trusted softwares from trusted vendors.

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Virus developers use crack or patch programs to spread viruses in the black software market. There are available cracks or patch programs to crack trail versions of proprietary softwares.

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Most of crack and patch programs include the viruses while executing or running program virus will infect the host computer. So before using crack or patch softwares users must ensure those softwares does not contain viruses.

\subsection{Spread viruses via E-mails}

This is the most widely used spreading methodology,which is specially used by macro viruses. It's almost impossible to transmit viruses using plain- text emails but most of viruses spread via attachments. There is a another technique programmers use to spread virus using emails, programmer creates email with a link to the specific virus program and send it to the target person. If user clicks on that link then that action will automatically download the virus to user's PC. \cite{virusspread}

\newpage

\section{What is a Signature of a Virus?}

Signature of a virus is the sequence of binary pattern of the machine code. The signature of the virus can be considered as a fingerprint of the virus. Any antivirus program can uniquely identify the virus via its signature. The signature of a virus is generated using various algorithms but sometimes the numeric value of the snippet code of signature may equal with another virus. But developers try to develop viruses with unique signatures to fool the protection shield of the antivirus programs.

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\section{How to prevent virus}

\subsection{What a virus does?}

Computer viruses are a major concern for anyone using computer. If a pc is infected by viruses finding those viruses may not be easy because virus programs try to hide themselves. Most of the infected computers start to misbehave as result of virus infection. Some of the viruses are harmless and simply make the computer to do something slightly annoying but some are harmful and those are deliberately designed to damage files or interact with the computers operations and crash those operations. Viruses can't damage the hardware but some viruses can burn the hard drive, Ram or any other storage media.

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The following are some of the primary indicators that a computer may be infected but some symptoms may occur due to other computer related issues and not a virus. So before finding the virus user must know the capability of his computer and what are the reason tasks done using computer.

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Effects and Symptoms of Computer Virus

\begin{itemize}

\item Delete, corrupt, overwrite or infects the critical system files and folders or format hard disks.

\item Change Volume labels.

\item Replace the MBR with own code and user will not be able to boot the machine.

\item Some sophisticated and powerful viruses clear the CMOS memory or corrupt the BIOS of the computer.

\item The computer runs slower than usual.

\item The computer restarts in every few minutes.

\item Application software do not work properly.

\item Disk drivers or any other storage media deny the access.

\item Can see unusual error messages.

\item Disable antivirus programs and it cannot be updated, activated or installed.

\item Decrease the memory of the hard disks.

\item Decrease the internet connection speed and overall system performance.

\item Destroy the protection shield of the computer or destroy the firewall and create security holes to infect other viruses.

\end{itemize}

There are only few symptoms listed above but there are hundreds of other symptoms to detect viruses.

\subsection{What is antivirus software?}

We can define antivirus software in simple terms like this. Antivirus software is a program which is capable of preventing, detecting and removal of malwares. It is also capable of scanning the entire computer and network connections of the computer.

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Most of the users install antivirus softwares to protect their computers from malwares but some latest antivirus softwares provide more enhanced features to users one of such is, users can run suspected program or software in the safe virtual environment (sandbox). If it contains viruses antivirus program will notice it to user and prevent the infection.

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Any antivirus software has its own strengths and weaknesses. So due to that reason there is no best antivirus program in the world but there are some good antivirus softwares. There may be a virus which is detected by one antivirus software but not by others due to this reason some users install and use more than one antivirus program. \cite{wikipediaantivirus}

\subsection{Techniques used by antivirus programs to detect viruses}

There are several techniques used by antivirus softwares to detect viruses. There are four major detection techniques used by antivirus softwares. Those are,

\subsubsection{Scanning}

Most of viruses have virus signatures but some viruses don't have signatures. Scanning process, matches the signature of a suspected virus program with the signatures which are in the signature database of the antivirus software. This methodology is very common and a traditional way to detect viruses which is used in most of the antivirus softwares. \cite{PeterSzor}

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This scanning process and detection of viruses rely on the number of virus signatures in the signature database. There are some advantages and disadvantages in this scanning technique.

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Advantages of scanning process are.

\begin{itemize}

\item Scanners can detect viruses before executing.

\item Scanners can efficiently detect viruses if signature is in the database.

\item Scanners are able to scan critical areas of hard discs while booting. So scanners are good in detection of resident and boot sector viruses.

\end{itemize}

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Disadvantages of scanning process are.

\begin{itemize}

\item Scanners fail to detect the newly created viruses due to the fact that those signatures are not available in signature database.

\item Scanners fail to detect viruses which don't have signatures.

\item Database of signatures must be updated frequently.

\item Most of the viruses disable the scanner in the infection step.

\item Some scanners do not detect some kind of viruses as the result user must use more than one scanner if user is highly depended on virus scanners.

\item If scanner misses the virus in memory, the scanner will wind up spreading the virus rather than detecting.

\end{itemize}

\newpage

\subsubsection{Heuristics}

This technology detects viruses by their behaviors. All virus programs tend to perform certain actions that legitimate programs would never perform. Antivirus scanners can detect the viruses by those behaviors.

Using this technique scanner is able to detect families of viruses. Because by considering the behaviors of viruses we could find some similarities among them. So based on those similarities antivirus programs are able to detect those viruses.

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Advantages of Heuristics are

\begin{itemize}

\item Antivirus programs can detect newly created viruses without considering the signature.

\item Through this technique antivirus programs can detect viruses in the execution phase.

\end{itemize}

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Disadvantages of Heuristics are

\begin{itemize}

\item Less efficient.

\item This technique detects viruses in execution phase so if virus damages the antivirus program before detecting it, it will infect the computer.

\item This technique is more complex to implement.

\end{itemize}

\subsubsection{Emulation}

This technique is similar to the heuristics but there are some differences between these two techniques. This technique use a virtual operating system (virtual environment) called sandbox to detect malwares. Antivirus program executes suspected program in the sandbox and inspect the behavior of that program then based on those behaviors and after analyzing it antivirus program can conclude that program is a virus or not. This technology is not widely used because it consumes the system resources heavily, less efficient and fails to detect boot viruses. But some of the antivirus softwares provide this feature to users to explicitly detect viruses. Emulation can be used to detect newly created viruses or viruses which don't haven signatures.

\subsubsection{System Monitoring/ Interceptors}

In this technique antivirus softwares continuously monitor the system and the network. If one of those processes try to consume the available recourses and execute in nasty way then the antivirus software will block that program and check weather that program is a virus or not. If one of those programs request operating system to allocate resources for that program or to modify system files interceptor can block that kind of request. After blocking it will display a popup and ask user to allow this request or not, according to the user's choice antivirus software can block the request or allow the request. If antivirus program use this kind of a technique it will increase the interaction between user and the system.

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That monitoring technique is more risky than other techniques because most of the viruses disable the monitoring system of antivirus software and then execute and use resources freely. There is another weak point in this technique that is it may be popping up messages frequently so it will be annoying to use that technique to detect viruses. A user who doesn't have a sound knowledge about viruses will allow viruses to use the system resources due to his/her poor knowledge, so that is a another disadvantage in this technique. If user has a sound knowledge about viruses then this technique is very useful. This technique can be used to detect resident viruses in the PC but it may fail to detect boot viruses.

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There are main technologies which are used in antivirus softwares to detect viruses but with the use of new hiding technologies or use of weaknesses in detecting technologies viruses may infect the computer. Under the following topic I discuss how virus hides their identity from antivirus softwares.

\subsection{Avoidance from detection}

Virus developers have become more creative and they have developed more sophisticated viruses that would hide from antivirus programs and infect the target. There are various ways to hide viruses from users and virus detection softwares. In particular; newer viruses get smarter and smarter in avoiding detection. Some of major techniques and methodologies that developers use are: \cite{Chess1987}

\subsubsection{Stealth}

This is a key concept in virus developing. Virus should be able to execute without user permissions, hides the changes it made, should not appear to user and it must provide sufficient time to complete its required tasks. Those are the key concepts behind the concept of stealth.

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If developer uses this technique he should develop the virus program to execute without interrupting the users' regular programs (with or without antivirus programs) and it should not display the error messages or void displaying any other clue about the virus. If operating system or antivirus program requests the infected file then the virus should be able to return an uninfected version of the file.

\subsubsection{Avoid bait files}

Most of antivirus softwares keep some bait files which looks like system file. If virus try to infect one of bait files antivirus can tackle that virus. Virus developers try to develop viruses to avoid bait files and infect the real system files.

\subsubsection{Polymorph viruses}

Polymorph viruses are encrypted viruses which are developed with polymorphic engine and decryption module. This type of viruses infects files with an encrypted copy of itself and while executing, it decrypts the encrypted virus code using decryption module. The special feature of this technique is infected files are different from each other so it is more difficult to detect these viruses by antivirus softwares. The duty of polymorphic engine is to encrypt the virus body in various ways so that it is very difficult to detect signatures or any other identical characteristics of those files. The duty of the decryption module is to decrypt the encrypted virus which is in the infected file.

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Most antivirus softwares use emulators to decrypt the encrypted virus body and to detect the behaviors of this virus. After analyzing virus body and it will detect other infected files.

\subsubsection{Metamorphic code}

Metamorphic viruses should contain metamorphic engine to rewrite the virus by themselves. This technique is used to avoid virus detection methodology called emulation.

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The main characteristics of this technique are, most of the viruses are able to rewrite the virus body themselves, very complex, too large and programmed to adapt to possible detection process.

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Those are the major and commonly used techniques to write a virus and avoid being detected by antivirus softwares. But antivirus software developers try to develop good antivirus programs to detect most of the viruses. There is a huge competition between virus developers and antivirus software developers. Due to this competition virus developers develop huge number of viruses and release day by day and antivirus software developers enhance their engines to detect all newly developed viruses and they release updates regularly.

\newpage

\subsection{Steps to protect your computer from viruses}

There are millions of computer viruses in the world. At anytime one of these viruses could infect the PC. Before worrying about the system after it gets infected we must prevent viruses before they infect the computer. To stop viruses we can follow the following steps.

\begin{itemize}

\item Install and use high quality antivirus software.

\item Regularly update the antivirus software.

\item Switch to more secure operating systems: There are more secure operating systems available (e.g.-UNIX, Ubuntu etc.) but few viruses are available to those operating systems too. But if a user uses antivirus software with that kind of operating systems it can enhance the security features of that kind of operating systems.

\item Before installing software get detail about it and try to install software which is developed by trusted vendors and should avoid installing software from unknown sources.

\item Disable the auto run feature in operating system: This helps to blocked viruses which come via storage media

\item Be careful in transfer of files by storage media: Before coping files to the computer scan the entire storage device.

\item User should make sure he has enabled the auto protect mode and virus protection options in the antivirus software.

\item Keep backups of essential data.

\item Never open emails with an unexpected attachments.

\item Set the security level of web browser to highest.

\item Be extremely careful in accepting programs or other files during the use of internet.

\item Change the passwords occasionally and never use same passwords for all user accounts.

\item When surfing internet keep a firewall.

\item Regularly clean the temporary files or folders in the system.

\item Don't visits unsecure web sites.

\item Keep important documents as archives because most of viruses do not affect archives.

\end{itemize}

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Simply following these steps computer users can block the ways how viruses get in to the system to up to some extent. But these steps will not 100\% protect your system from viruses. So users must gain knowledge on how to recover the system after a virus infect. To recover user should follow the major steps which are mentioned below

\begin{itemize}

\item Update antivirus software and perform an entire scan.

\item Change antivirus software.

\item Try to remove infected files or replace those files using original files. Most of infected files can't be removed or changed. So in that case user can boot the system using bootable device and then replace infected files.

\item Repair/restore the system.

\item Change user account.

\item Format hard disc as final step. If some viruses are planted in all volumes of the hard disc then user must format entire hard disc to remove virus.

\end{itemize}

\section{Future of computer viruses and prevention}

In near future every person who lives in this earth will own a computer. All of the people will be connected with each other through internet as result of world becoming a global village. In the global village computer and IT play a major role. In the future all of the tasks will be performed using the internet (e.g. e-commerce, e-banking etc.)

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Many technologies will be invented in the future, as result virus developers will become more creative and they will develop more complex and more sophisticated viruses which will be capable of destroying the shield against viruses. Every developer tries to develop self changeable viruses to attack any kind of system. Most of developers predicts, within the next few years a virus which is able to change main characteristics like behaviors, signatures etc by itself will be developed. That kind of viruses will behave in front of an antivirus guard in one way but the same virus will behave in another way when facing the operating system. That is the main goal of the virus developers who try to achieve within next few years. \cite{futureViruses}

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When analyzing the number of viruses released per year at present, within next few years the count may be increase rapidly. Internet will become more popular in future and then we can assume that it will increase the number of viruses and malwares which will spread via internet. In the economical world virus developers will program viruses, Trojans, worms or any kind of malwares focusing on economic purposes (e.g. write Trojans to steal the credit card numbers).

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When considering the types of viruses most researchers try to implement viruses which will be able to protect systems from other viruses (good viruses). This concept is not totally implemented yet but somehow they will hopefully create friendly viruses in near future.

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Previous paragraph describes how the future of the viruses will be. According to that there will be more enhancements and developments in virus prevention systems. Operating system developers will try to develop operating systems which have a good protection against viruses and also to use new technologies. Antivirus programmers may introduce more powerful antivirus softwares which will be able to detect most of viruses in the world.

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Based on the new technologies which will be introduced in future, research areas about viruses will expand than today. So researchers must discover new dimensions of viruses and how to prevent those viruses.

\newpage

\section{Conclusion}

A computer virus is a huge problem in the computer world. Computer virus can devastate the infected computer within a few seconds. One computer virus can crash entire system and do lot of damage to users, organization, whole country or whole world.

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Evolution of the computer viruses started from early 1980s but now a days there are more sophisticated computer viruses. In early 1980 virus developers programmed simple harmless viruses using low level languages but now virus developers' program very complex viruses and very harmful viruses using high level computer languages.

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There are various types of viruses in the world. Someone can categorize viruses according to their behavior, and another could categorize viruses based on infection strategy. Likewise there are more than one categorizing methods available.

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Programmers write viruses due to various reasons. One programmer may write virus programs to become famous; someone may develop viruses for fun. So there are various reasons to develop viruses. The mechanism of spreading viruses differs from each other. One type of viruses spread via network but another type spread via storage media.

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Most viruses have a unique sequence of bit pattern called signature. Signature is a finger print of the virus. Using signature we can uniquely identify the virus but unfortunately some viruses doesn't contain a signature.

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Some viruses are harmless but some are very harmful. Most viruses infect system files and host on it while executing in main memory they arouse huge critical issues to the system and as a result virus get the control of the machine.

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Antivirus programs are designed to prevent the virus infection but sophisticated viruses use advanced technologies and methods to hide from antivirus programs (e.g. stealth, polymorphic code, etc.). Antivirus programs are armed with new technologies and methodologies to detect viruses.

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After the infection of a virus to the system, it is useless to worry about that. So we must prevent the infection. So we can follow some routines to protect computer from viruses but we must know how to remove viruses and recover the system after an infect. There is a saying 'Prevention is better than cure'. So we must prevent viruses before infection. So we must learn the art of prevention which will go a long way in serving our purpose of having a hassle free user experience.

\newpage

\section{Acronyms}

{\bf PC}-Personal Computer

\\

\\

{\bf IT}-Information Technology

\\

\\

{\bf OS}-Operating System

\\

\\

{\bf e.g.}-example

\newpage

% This section is for the bibliography

\bibliography{Survey_07000707}

\end{document}

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