Sports blogging system

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Sports have become a well known profession nowadays. People of different age groups are into sports. It is either an individual game or a team oriented sports. In both the cases they involve hard work, dedication, commitment and willingness. It has many benefits among people. Some play it just for fun and pleasure and some play it for fame and money. In any case it requires hard work.

People with an aim in mind start playing the sports from a very young age in order to become the best in the field and become successful in future. The aim in the mind of a committed sportsman is to set a target in his life and then to achieve that target. The target is to play at the highest level which is playing for the country and representing it gloably.but not everyone can play for his country, only few play at that level and the rest end up playing at the domestic level only. An example for this is India where the population is above 1 billion and cricket is very famous over there and most of the youth is playing it but only few ends up playing for the national team and the rest plays it on the domestic level.

Role of media

Media plays an important role in grooming and making a sportsman famous. We know a sportsman because of the media. We would never know a player if we don't see him on the TV or in the news paper. So media makes a good sportsman famous. An international player is known because he is on the media every day but nobody knows a domestic player as he doesn't get enough media coverage which is a problem area for them.

Domestic players also want to get famous and earn money to survive, for which they play the sports throughout the year in different countries where their related sports is being played. Like the league cricket in UK and Australia or many football leagues around the world.

Player usually deals with a club via an agent which is a middle man between the two parties. He usually charges both player and a club on a successful deal. So the player and the club both have to accept the agent's terms and conditions which sometimes are not very good from the player and the clubs point of view but they do it because there is no other way to deal with it. So in this way both player and the club were in loss and agent was earning money.

Statement of problem

  • A domestic sportsman is not getting the media coverage that he needs in order to be known all over the world or at least within his country .it has reduced his source of income and fame. On the other hand clubs have no other way but to be dependent on agents who charge money and provide them with good domestic players for the sports season.
  • A sportsman do not know what other sportsmen are doing .how are they performing, what standard they are playing. This is all because they are not in contact with each other or in other words there is no source of contact between them. People only know international sportsmen not domestic sportsman which is the main problem area.
  • People were usually following media to see what their teams are doing and they were not able to give their views or comments about the game or the players.

Proposed Solution

To solve the problem there should be an online system where a sportsman can communicate with other sportsmen. They will be able to create advertisements on the system with all the information they need in it. This advert will be published on the web so that other can view it.

Other users will be able to view all advertisements on the system and will be able to comment on them, and also will be able to contact the individual via email. The system can also be used as a platform where sports related good can be sold and sports companies can use it as a place for market advertisement.

Rational and significance

The creation of the system will test our management and programming skills which we have studied up till now. Technologies involved in the creation of the system are key technologies used in the computing world today. Therefore by using these technologies will help us gain experience which we can implement in our coming IT future.

On the other hand such a system is rarely seen on the web which makes it a new idea. So by making such a system will contribute a lot in reducing problems that the sportsman is facing also will be successful on the web.


The aim of the project is the production of a web based system called sports exchange which will be available to sportsmen to exchange their sports related information on the web. The initial part of the project is to conduct a literature review on the functionality and design of the web database application. This enables us to gain knowledge about the design and functionalities which are essential in the system development and also will give a broad knowledge about the technologies used in the development of the system.

Analysis will be carried out on the system requirements and specifications which are important for the system to perform the tasks which are given in the features below. After gathering the information and requirements, the actual system will be designed and constructed. Finally the project as a whole will be evaluated to check whether it delivers what it is meant to deliver and other aspects which include usability and maintenance.


  • Registration & Login Facility
  • Blogging Facility
  • Advertising a profile on the system
  • Deleting Adverts
  • Searching a profile under a specific sports category
  • Viewing a profile
  • Emailing facility


Key Objectives:

  1. To produce a report to understand the design and functionalities of the system and gain the knowledge about the technologies used in the system
  2. To design, implement and test a prototype of the system to see how the system will work in the real environment.
  3. To conduct a literature review and produce a report on the processes and technologies involved in the creation of the system.
  4. Test the final system and produce a report that will include the conclusions and launch the system in the actual environment and get the user feedback.

Research Objectives

  • Gathering information to understand the design and functionalities of the system and to gain the knowledge about the technologies used in the system
  • Conducting interviews with players of different sports levels and taking their views into account.
  • Visiting different sports web sites and getting the ideas of how the system will look like.
  • Understanding the configuration of the technologies which includes PHP, MYSQL and the apache server or (WAMP).
  • To understand HTML forms, how they are created and how PHP and MYSQL can work with them.
  • To understand the PHP programming techniques and PHP methods.
  • To understand MYSQL and execution of queries with PHP and html forms.
  • Understanding the following system designing tools
    • UMlet
    • MYSQL manager 2007
  • Understanding the Project Management aspects
    • Software project management
    • Project Planning
    • Risk Management
    • Milestones and Deliverables

Practical objectives

  • Requirement gathering and analysis by doing interviews and questionnaires
  • System modelling and prototyping
    • To create the logical design of the system using Unified Modelling Language
  • To design and create a user login system
  • To understand and design an interface where a user can create a profile by filling a form.
  • Designing an interface where the profiles of the players will be shown and can be searched by related sports category and date when they are published.
  • To design an interface where a user can reply to a profile by sending an email to the advertiser.
  • Testing and implementation
    • To test the system and ensure it works according to the requirement specification,

Method of Research:

The aim of the project is the production of a web based sports exchange system. To achieve the aim we go through different investigations. There are two main areas that we have to know about in order to build the system. First is to know about the system itself.

To find out about the system different requirement gathering techniques were used. Some research has been done on the internet on to different sports related web sites like (,, ) to see how a system interface will look like. As a sportsman myself I do have some knowledge about the sports and know certain people in different sports who work with the players, I have taken their opinion as well.

Secondly the research focus was how the system should be built. What technologies should be used in building the system? For doing the research three libraries were used .(LSC library, UEL Library, British Library).After doing some secondary research by reading books in the libraries and also by having some prior knowledge about technologies the following technologies are decided to be used in the system making. PHP,MYSQL, APACHE Server , Java Scripts, HTML.

In the actual building of the system help was taken from different IT web sites to know about the syntax of the coding and to know about some complex coding used in the system. The following are the websites from which help was taken.


Tools required

  • WAMP server
  • Dreamweaver (to create the GUI)
  • UMLet for UML diagrams (suggested by Tutor Nigel Kermode)
  • Adobe Photoshop. (for editing pictures)
  • SQL Manager 2007 for MYSQL (suggested by Tutor Mr Chandarana)
  • Macromedia Flash

Software Requirements:

Software requirements are divided in to user requirements and system requirements.

User requirements:

They are statements, in natural language plus diagrams, of what services the system is expected to provide and the constraints under which it must operate. User requirements are intended for use by people involved in using and procuring the system.

The user requirements are divided in to two parts i.e. functional requirements and non-functional requirements.

Functional requirements

Functional requirements specify what functions the system should perform, how the system should react to particular inputs and how the system should behave in particular situations.

  • The system should allow the users to make a user account and should allow the registered users to login to the system.
  • The system should allow the registered users to add an advertisement on the system by completing an advertisement form.
  • System should allow the users to view all the advertisements published on the system.
  • The system should allow the user to reply to advertisements.
  • The system should only allow the registered user to delete only his published advertisement.
  • The system should provide the registered user with the facility of sending emails to other users.

Non-functional requirements

Non functional requirements are the constraints on the services or functions offered by the system. They include timing constraints, constraints on the development process and standards. They often apply to the system as a whole.

  • Ease of use: The system should have a supporting GUI for the users. The user interface shall be implemented in simple HTML.
  • Speed: the system should react quickly to any of the user request. e.g. following the 3 second rule.
  • Robustness: if there is a system failure the system should be able to reboot itself quickly.
  • Security: the system should never allow an unregistered user to log on to the system and do unauthorized things.

System Requirements

They set out the systems functions, services and operational constraints in detail. The system requirements are often classified into functional and non functional requirements.

The system requirements for the sports exchange system are.

  • System should run on most of the internet browser I-e internet explorer. Mozilla Firefox, Safari
  • System should run on most of the operating systems i-e windows 98, windows XP, windows 2000, windows vista.
  • Minimum requirements for the monitor to view the system should be 800x600 resolutions, 256 colours.
  • The minimum disk RAM required to use the system should be 256 mb.

Iterative Development Model

In the creation of the system Iterative development model is used due to its flexibility and the ability to cover the weaknesses which are in the waterfall model. The advantage of this model is that the system is built in iteration steps. We did some research first then implemented that research and then tested it. After testing we go to next iteration and did related analysis and did coding on the basis of last iteration and so on. In this way we have advantage of testing the system and making changes to it at any time in the construction of the system which we cannot do in waterfall model.

Gantt chart of the system

The Gantt chart shows the activities, duration of the activities and their dependencies. For the development of the project iterative model have been used .there are seven iterations in the project.

  1. Iteration 1
  2. In iteration 1, the information about the system was gathered. Research was done on different technologies that are used in the development of the project. And in the end the Project research report was developed.

    No of Days taken: 56

  3. Iteration 2
  4. In iteration 2 , the tools that were decided to be used in the development of the system were installed on the system(WAMP, MYSQL manager 2007, Photoshop, Dreamweaver, Macromedia Flash, UMlet). Project Interim report was started.

    No of Days taken: 10

  5. Iteration 3
  6. In iteration 3, the actual system was designed (ERD, use case, sequence diagrams) .Research was done on HTML, PHP and the initial GUI for the system was developed using html and the initial Project interim report was developed.

    No of Days taken: 20

  7. Iteration 4
  8. In iteration 4, the first system testing of GUI from iteration was done .research on PHP and MYSQL technologies was done and database tables were built using WAMP and MYSQL manager 2007.the project interim report was updated.

    No of Days taken: 16

  9. Iteration 5
  10. In iteration 5, database connectivity between PHP and MYSQL was done using WAMP. Actual system coding was done using PHP and MYSQL and testing was done in iteration aswell.and the project interim report was updated as well.

    No of Days taken: 35

  11. Iteration 6
  12. Iteration 6 is the most important phase in the project in which the system developed so far was shown to the group mates and their feedback was taken in to account and then the required changes were done in the system design and the coding. Then the system was tested again and the project interim report was updated.

    No of Days taken: 31

  13. Iteration 7
  14. In iteration 7, the system was integrated and tested for errors. The interim report was finalized and feedbacks were taken.

    No of Days taken: 15

Entity Relationship Diagram

At this stage some of the relationships between the tables were established and their multiplicity identified. Data integrity constrains such as primary and foreign keys were implemented in order to permit referential integrity.

Use Case Diagram

Use case diagram is a part of UML.its purpose is to show the graphical overview, functionality of the system .its main purpose is to show what functions are performed by which actors. What are the roles of an actor in a system? It describes the system functionality as a set of use cases which represent discrete tasks.

The use case diagram for sports exchange system is built in order to understand what roles the actors can perform in the system. The UML of the system is showing the graphical overview of the functionality in term of actors (member, system) and any dependencies between the use cases.

Sequence Diagram

The sequence diagram of system is showing the interaction between the two actors (member, system) and also showing how process operates and in what order.

Literature review

Chapter 1

Introduction to the web

World Wide Web is a collection of hypertext documents which are accessed through a web browser on the internet. In the beginning the web was used to view pages that contained static text documents and simple graphics. It then went on to show some media contents but at the start the basic purpose of web was to help the scientific and academic community.

The Web is used to publish the information over the internet which makes the web to play the key role in making the internet popular. Web is an application built on top of the internet. Internet is made up of network of computers connected globally to each other whereas web is a service used for communication over the internet. "In the web environment everyone is a potential user with very little or almost no prior training each of us should be in a position to make use of its full potential"[Stefan et al.. ,2004]

Web applications

"The web is a compelling platform for the delivery and dissemination of data centric, interactive applications". The web architecture is designed in such a way that it has potential to significally lower the development and training cost. Organizations are building new applications to take advantage of the web as a strategic platform to implement business solutions. [Thomas & Carolyn, 2005].

According to Janet (2006) "An application is a program or a group of programs designed for use by an end user. If the end user interacts with the application via a web browser the application is a web based or a web application. If the web application requires the long term storage of information using a database, it is a web database application. [Janet , 2006]

Web application and client server architecture

A web user uses the browser to send a request for a resource from the web server and the web server responds with the resource. These requests are sent by filling forms or clicking or typing the URLs into the browser. Often the requested resources are static pages .The user cannot interact with the static information; He can either read it or save it. This is two tier client server architecture. "A two tier is an architecture where a web browser makes a request and the web server responds to the request"

A web server is not sophisticated storage software, complicated operations on data, done by commercial sites and anyone else presenting lots of dynamic data should be handled by a separate database. This leads to a more complex architecture with three-tiers: the browser is still the cline tier, the web server becomes the middle tier and the database is the third or database tier, and how the database and web server respond to the request. "A three tier is architecture where a web browser requests a resource, and a response is generated from a database" [Williams & lane, 2004]

Web database applications are built around the three tier architecture model. At the base of an application is the database tier, consisting of the database management system that manages the data users create, delete, modify and query. Built on top of the database tier is the middle tier, which contains most of the application logic that you develop. It also communicates data between the other tiers. On top is the client tier, usually web browser software that interacts with the application.

The three tier architecture is conceptual. In practice, there are different implementations of web database applications that fit this architecture. The most common implementation has the web server (which includes the scripting engine that processes the scripts and carries out the actions they specify) and the database management system installed on one machine. [H.E.Williams &D.J lane, 2004]

GUI Usability

Usability refers to the quality of the user interface as perceived by the user. A highly usable GUI allows the user to accomplish one or more specific tasks easily, efficiently and with a minimum numbers of errors. Extremely usable interfaces fade over time and enable the user to concentrate completely on the task at hand; this is referred to as transparency, an extreme example of transparency in action of a child playing a video game. A highly usable GUI is extremely easy to learn and once learned is easy to remember. The use and arrangement of the control colours and the layout of both large and small details, and the ability to customize the user interface all contribute to a sense of satisfaction, enjoyment and accomplishment.[Blanding S.F,1999]

Security concerns

Since the web is becoming the main information dissemination means for most organizations, an increasing number of applications at internet and intranet level need access control mechanisms enforcing a selective access to information retrieved /exchanged over the web. Using internet for transmission of data may bring security concerns when the data is transferred across the network.[Bhavani et al.. 2001]

It is not possible to design and build a secure Web application until you know your threats. An increasingly important discipline and one that is recommended to form part of your application's design phase is threat modelling". Identifying possible threats to the security of a web application will enable the formulation of solutions to counteract or avoid them and incorporate contingency plans. [Web. J.D. Meier et al, 2003]

In a web environment a proxy server is a computer that sits between a web browser and a web server. It intercepts all requests to the web server to determine if it can fulfil the requests itself. If not it forwards the requests to the web server. Proxy servers improve the performance and filter the requests. Firewalls are also designed to prevent unauthorized to or from a private network. They are used to prevent unauthorized internet users from accessing private networks connected to the internet. All the messages entering or leaving through the internet passes through the firewall, which blocks the messages which do not meet the security criteria.

Chapter 2 (Technologies)

Web forms

Web forms allow users to enter the data that they want to send to the server for processing. They are also used to query and display the existing data and avoid the problems like creating separate web pages for each record in a database.

Forms can be combined with client side and server side scripting languages for creating dynamic web sites. The client side scripting language for the web sites is java script and we can use java script with forms for the purpose of data validation before sending the data to the server, On the other hand the server side scripting languages are PHP, ASP. We use them to create dynamic websites, authenticating a login through and it can be embedded into html. PHP script can be used to post the data on the database. [Microsoft Corporation, 2009]

HTML form elements distinguish a web site from a web application. HTML form accepts the user input. The collection of fields allows users to enter text or to select from a list. In addition to text boxes, form fields can be rendered by buttons, check boxes, and radio buttons. If a web page has a form in it, the browser will render that page with the appropriate user interface controls and will allow the user to enter and to change its values. Most forms contain a special button that when clicked by the user submits the form and its contents to a web server as part of another web page request. The web server receives a request for a special web page, or an executable module, that is capable of reading the form field's values and processing them on the server. The ultimate result is new html page that is sent back to the requesting browser. [Conallen, J, 2002]


The system that is going to be built is a web database application and it is dynamic as well , which means a user will be able to interact with the system by entering data in to the forms .the data from the form will be stored into the database. So the use of forms is important in our system to make the system interactive for the users in order to get there information.

Html is been a part of our course as well, therefore some knowledge and skills about the implementation of the technology is already there , and not much research is needed to be done on this technology which will save our time and that time will be utilized into the other aspects of the system development


PHP is a web development language Witten by and from web developers.PHP stands for hypertext preprocesser.The product was originally named personal home page tools, and many people still think that what the acronym stands for, but as it expanded in scope, a new and more appropriate name was selected by community vote.PHP is a server side scripting language ,usually used to create web applications in combination with a web server ,such as apache ,PHP can also be used to create command -line scripts akin to Perl or shell scripts, but such use is much less common than php's use as a web language.[Steve et al.., 2009]


Our web database application will need a server side scripting language which will run on the server. PHP will be used to dynamically edit or change the web page and send the required information in reply to the query sent.PHP will sit on the web server and html will be on the client side and the database will be on the database server and they will all interact with each other on a request sent by the user. Another reason for using PHP is that it is a part of WAMP which brings all three technologies together to work at the same time. Another reason for choosing PHP is the previous knowledge that we got in the course of Server side web programming and by doing a couple of small projects .(using PHP in developing an online video rental system).


MYSQL is an open source DBMS .SQL relational database management system that is free for many uses. MYSQL occasionally faced opposition because of its lack of support for some core SQL constructs such as sub selects and foreign keys, ultimately ,however ,MYSQL found a bored, enthusiastic user base for its liberal licensing terms, perky performance, and ease of use,. its acceptance was aided in part by the wide verity of other technologies such as PHP ,Perl ,python and the like that have encouraged its use through stable ,well -documented modules and extensions. . [Steve et al.., 2009]


Its purpose was to provide a way in which the RDBMS could retrieve data in a declarative way. declarative "programming " was a way in which the RDBMS developers could specify what data would be selected ,inserted, updated or deleted without having to necessarily know where the data was or how it was stored, That was the job of the RDBMS. The major goals of MYSQL are.

  • Query the database to retrieve the data stored therein
  • Update existing data within the database
  • Insert new data into the database
  • Remove unwanted data from the database
  • Add permissions to RDBMS objects (database, tables, and so on)
  • Modify a database's structure
  • Change security settings

MYSQL has been a part of our course module in the college. And also it is recommended by Mr Chandarana (teaching us Oracle in semester 5).By doing research on the technology and some prior knowledge and skills of the technology, recommendations and also the solid advantages of the technology is the key for using this technology for the project development.

Java Scripts

A scripting language is somewhere between marks-up language, like HTML and full blown programming language, like java. With java script you can add extra functionality to website using short snippets of scripting code that has a syntax that is easy to understand. (Niederst, 2001)

Java Script is a client side scripting language that adds interactivity to web pages and lets designers control various aspects of the browser itself. With java scripts a lot of things can be done such as display additional information about links, create mouse rollover effects, change the contents of pages based on certain conditions, randomly display content on page, load content in new browser windows and frame, and move elements around the page.

The use of client-side scripting eliminates the problem by validating the form before it is sent to the server for processing. Java script is a client side scripting language which we are going to use for the client side data validation. In our system we will use java script to validate the data which is entered in to the forms to send it to the server for the appropriate action to take place on it.

From a private network. They are used to prevent unauthorized internet users from accessing private networks connected to the internet. All the messages entering or leaving through the internet passes through the firewall, which blocks the messages which do not meet the security criteria.

Chapter 3 (Tools)

WAMP Server:

WAMP Server is a Windows web development environment. It allows the users to create web Apache, PHP and the MYSQL database. It is a form of a mini server that can run on most of the windows operating systems. It is also compatible with MYSQL Manager 2007 to manage the databases. [WAMPserver]


WAMP Server is the only packaged solution that will allow you to reproduce your production server. Once WAMP Server is installed, you have the possibility to add as many Apache, MYSQL and PHP releases as you want.

One of the main reason for choosing WAMP is the package it comes in. (apache, PHP, MYSQL).apache is a web server which allows the users to browse the IE, Firefox etc to connect to see information on the web pages. MYSQL database manager that keeps the track of all the data in a highly organized way.php is used to manipulate information held in the database and generate web pages a fresh each time. [WAMP, accessed on 15, Sept 2009]

Adobe Photoshop:

Adobe Photoshop is a graphics editing program developed and published by adobe systems. It is basically a graphic tool which is used for editing purpose. It is a highly respected tool in the field of graphics and most of the editing of pictures is done with this tools.

WHY Adobe Photoshop?

The reason for choosing Photoshop is its ability to do so many things to an image. It is a program for modifying images, changing their colour, size shape, scale of graphics etc. it provides improved access to powerful tools through a more intuitive user experience, greater editing freedom, and significant enhancements. Secondly adobe Photoshop does thing which other programs like Paint can't do.


UMLet is an open-source UML tool with a simple user interface: draw UML diagrams fast, export diagrams to esp., pdf, jpg, svg, and clipboard, share diagrams using Eclipse, and create new, custom UML elements. UMLet runs stand-alone or as Eclipse plug-in on Windows, OS X and Linux.

WHY UMlet?

UMLet is a tool which provides a fast way of creating UML diagrams. UML elements are modified using text input instead of pop-up dialogs. Elements can be modified and used as templates; this way, users can easily tailor UMLet to their modelling needs. UMLet supports a variety of UML diagram types: class diagrams, use case diagrams, sequence diagrams, state diagrams, deployment diagrams, activity diagrams.

UMLet is open source software which is the main reason for using it. On the other hand Rational Rose is a better tool than UMLet but it's not free. UMLet is providing all the basic tools required for drawing the required diagrams and it's free. (Recommended my Dr Nigel). [UMLet, accessed on 10 Oct 2009]

MYSQL manager 2007

EMS SQL Manager for MYSQL is a high performance tool for MYSQLdatabaseadministration and development. It works with any MYSQL versions from 3.23 to the newest one and supports all of the latest features including MYSQL triggers, views, stored procedures and functions, InnoDB foreign keys, Unicode data and so on. SQL Manager for MYSQL allows you to create/edit all MYSQL database objects, design MYSQL databases visually, run SQL scripts, import and export MYSQL database data, manage MYSQL users and their privileges and has many other useful features for efficient MYSQL administration. SQL Manager for MYSQL has a state-of-the-art graphical user interface with well-described wizard system, so clear in use that even a newbie will not be confused with it.

WHY MYSQL manager?

  • Rapid database management and navigation
  • Simple management of all MYSQL objects
  • Advanced data manipulation tools
  • Powerful security management
  • Excellent visual and text tools for query building
  • Impressive data export and import capabilities
  • Powerful Visual Database Designer
  • Easy-to-use wizards performing MYSQL services
  • Connection to MYSQL Server through HTTP
  • Connection to MYSQL Server through SSH

Chapter 4 (Project Management)

Project Planning

A software process is a set of activities that leads to the production of a software product. These activities may involve the development of software from scratch .Software project management is an essential part of software engineering. Good management cannot guarantee project success. However, bad management usually results in project failure. The software is delivered late, costs more than originally estimated and fails to meet its requirements.

Software managers are responsible for planning and scheduling project development. Project planning is concerned with identifying the activities, milestones and deliverables produced by a project. A plan is drawn up to guide the development towards the project goals. The project plan sets out the resources available to the project, the work breakdown and a schedule for carrying out the work. The details of the project plan vary depending on the type of project and organisation. Project planning involves

  • Introduction: this briefly describes the objectives of the project and sets out the constraints (cost, time etc) that affect the project management.
  • Risk analysis: this describes possible project risks, the likelihood of these risks arising and the risk reduction strategies that are proposed.
  • Hardware and software resource requirements: If the hardware has to be bought then the price estimation delivery schedule may be included.
  • Work breakdown: this sets out the breakdown of the project into activities and identifies the milestones and deliverables associated with each activity.
  • Project schedule: This shows the dependencies between activities, the estimated time required to reach each milestone and the allocation of people to activities.
  • Monitoring and reporting mechanisms: This defines the management reports that should be produced.

Milestones and deliverables:

When planning a project, you should establish a series of milestones, where a milestone is a recognisable end-point of a software process activity. At each milestone there should be a formal output, such as a report that can be presented to management. A deliverable is a project result that is delivered to the customer. It is usually delivered at the end of some major project phase such as specification or design. Deliverables are usually milestones but milestones need not to be deliverables. Milestones may be internal project results that are used by the project managers to check project results that are used by the project manager to check project progress but which are not delivered to the customer.

Project scheduling:

Project scheduling is one of the most difficult jobs for a project manager. Managers estimate the time and resources required to complete activities and organise them into a coherent sequence. Project scheduling involves separating the total work involved in a project into separate activities and judging the time required to complete these activities.

Risk management:

Risk management is seen as one of the main job of project managers. It involves anticipating risks that might affect the project schedule or the quality of the software being developed and taking action to avoid these risks (hall, 1998, ould, 1999).the result of the risk analysis should be documented in the project plan along with an analysis of the consequences of the risk occurring. Effective risk management makes it easier to cope with problems and to ensure that these do not lead to unacceptable budget or schedule slippage.

Project risks are risks that affect the project schedule or resources. Whereas the product risks are risks that affect the quality and performance of the software being developed. Business risks affect the organisation developing or procuring the software.

Screen Shots

Main Page of the system

The main page of the system has got a system logo and the links to the other pages on the system.

Registration page:

The page is opened when the registration button on the index page is clicked and it then opens in to a new page which has got a user registration form. By filling that form a user will become registered with the system and will become a member of the website. After registration he will be able to add, view, and delete the advertisements.

To add an advertisement:

This page has got a form which is filled in order to add details to the system. This page is connected to the add_advert.php page which will add the details to the database tables.

To view the advert list

The page shows the list of all the adverts added in to the system. It shows the advert title, sports category, advertisers name, date on which it was posted and the no of replies to the advert. The page also got a link to add new adverts.

To display individual advert

When a user clicks a certain advert title on the advert page it takes the user to the show_advert.php page where the full advert published by the user is shown. Also this page shows the replies to the adverts or in other words it is the actual blogging page.


Project at Present

Sports exchange was started as a simple web database application whose purpose was to help the sports lovers to add or deleted their advertisements so that they can be aware of the domestic or international sports situation, game results, and player's performances and to show all this information to other web users. It was started by simply adding, viewing or deleting an advertisement on the system. But later on ideas came in to mind and it was expanded and the facility of commenting was introduced and it becomes a proper sports blog. Then the comment counting functionality was added on the system so that the user knows how much comments an advert have got on the system. And also the facility of emailing was added on the system.

The technologies used in the development of the project are PHP, MYSQL .PHP and is used as a server side language that sits on the database and acts upon a user request and retrieves the result from the database to the user. The user uses html forms to enter the data which is to be saved into the database. MYSQL is used for creating tables, inserting, viewing and deleting records from the database. These facilities could have been done by other languages but the reason for using PHP, MYSQL is that, they are the part of our course and I want to use these languages in my IT future.

Future Planning

The system is not finished yet and still need to cover few areas in it.

In the future the following are the features that are being looked at in order to enhance the system.

  1. Searching under sports categories
  2. The feature will give the user the ability to search the database for adverts under sports categories and display them on the display page.

    I have started working on this feature but it requires more research and I have to cover some topics in PHP and MYSQL.

  3. 20 results on one page
  4. This feature will display limited results on a single page.

  5. Saving pictures into the database
  6. This is another enhancing feature which will be the part of this system. When the users will add adverts they will be able to add pictures on the database as well.

  7. Saving XML reports into the database
  8. Users will be able to send reports and those reports will be saved onto the database and other people can access these reports.

What I get from this project:

Before the start of this project I was just a student who just read books and gives exams and then goes to higher level, and I realized that I was going nowhere. But after starting this project I felt like a new person with a better IT mind, and my ability to create new ideas has improved as well. Now I think as an IT developer and willing to develop better systems. The coding of the system has improved my PHP and MYSQL functions, syntax as well and I am now able to find errors in the system easier than I was before.

In the end thanks to Dr Nigel Kermode who really worked hard with us and made us do this project. Thank you Sir....!


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