Specification For A Database Computer Science Essay

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School administrators in a number of changes in the administrative decisions, and even change the face of the past operation of the mechanism or mode of old, the heart has a central standing committee, as described in the article the problem is the "value of the event, because we long to do, or there is clear evidence of its value. "

The core issues related to the decision to determine the direction, strategy development and follow-up of a series of actions, and even affect the final result, the saying goes: the direction is more important than the effort! ! In this sense.

Data collection in many schools because of a teaching method, in the past, focus on the entire surface of the information, such as the number of students in schools, gender, class size, hardware and other information, such as teaching and other administrative acts, but this information only provide a rough description of the school, for in-depth classes, teachers, teaching, students, parents and the appearance of such micro-perspective, rather than enhance understanding and discussion. If the school is a core function of teaching and learning, then he is obviously clear that the data will not be able to achieve these goals, the school in the realization of the demand generated by the process.

Educational environment, the quality of performance trends response initiatives, and school-based management, enhance the development of excellence in management responsibility, people think that school principals must face the correct data collection problems and the establishment of a genuine concern for the school library; the importance of database development and necessity, both in knowledge management, total quality management or learning organization should be able to get permission.

Practitioners in the field point of view, fully applicable to the establishment of databases in order to improve the quality of school education, school-based principals to promote the establishment of a database, you can be a number of the total quality management concepts into the construction work of the following databases:

First, the concrete implementation of the concept of full participation: sources of data collection should come from all directions, each member school may participate in data collection, such as teachers, students gather information, such as classes, school administrators, to a wealth of information.

Second, the continuous improvement of data collection systems: data collection systems and methods (methods) should be with the school, students, teachers, parents, or policies of such factors, continuous improvement or upgrade in order to provide schools with the times to the needs of the development process.

Third, the concept will be implemented in advance to prevent the use of the database: the database of information collected must be used for promoting school, it can play its original value. Therefore, when the exchange to the information in the database should be taken to prevent spots to promote the work of the classification in the school, planning and improvement, and help the integrity of pre-work planning, successful completion of the feedback after the improvements.

Fourth, to establish customer satisfaction as the purpose of library databases: the core functions of teaching and learning in schools, the purpose of the database should be set as a goal, rather than fall into the non-educational ideas, such as putting on a show, special effects and so meaningful. Therefore, the database content and collection methods should also be teaching and student learning as the main axis in order to improve the implementation of school education. .

Fifth, the members were concerned about the development of training: professional development of members of the future development is beneficial, especially in the database construction process, the only member of the study data collection and information related to the use of knowledge and skills. In order to truly be effective in the database and use value. These developments in the form of training activities can be seminars, group meetings, observations, and other types of field trips or workshop.

1.2 Scope

This database is used for student achievement school student information database query results into Chinese, English and mathematics. It can calculate the average student scores and total score, ranking, etc.It can help teachers in the ranks of a few.

1.3 System Overview

System Overview provides a brief description as a reference point, the rest of the file. In addition, include the following:

* Systematics

- Main purpose: it gives office staff into the school student information database system

- General support system: provides general ADP or network support for a variety of users and applications

1.4 Project References

L development project related documents before

L on the project file

L HUD standard procedures documents

1.5 Abbreviations

DB database

Dam Monitoring database activity

ODBC Open Database connection

Dopamine Database Management

Comprehensive database of CD-ROM

JDBC, Java Database Connectivity

DBA database administrator

CCR Central Contractor Registration (DoD contractor / vendor database system)

Database Management Database Management

UV universe (Lie / VMark post-relational database management system)

MDB's Microsoft Access Database (file extension)

SPD security policy database

DS database server

Conserved domain database CDD

DBMS database management system

DSN Data Source Name (database source)

DBA Database Architect

WDS Wireless Distribution System (Joint Common Database)

BGAFD British Girls Adult Film Database

LIDB Line Information Database

Cambridge Structural Database CSD

NPD nuclear protein database (UK)

High-functioning autism health for all (health statistics database; Copenhagen, Denmark)

PDBA political database Americas (Georgetown University, Washington, DC)

NADRA National Database and Registration Authority (Pakistan)

IMGT Immunogenetics Database

NT National Transit Database

DIAS database introduced aquatic species (FAO)

ITRD International Transport Research documentation (online database)

Network Global Command and Control System (GCCS) Requirements Database

ODBMS Object Database Management System

Australian Bird Image Database Abid

CNDDB California Natural Diversity Database

DPD drug product database

Kid Child Inpatient Database

WDPA World Database on Protected Areas

AOEDE Art Online Education Database

NDNQI national database of nursing quality indicators

NTAD National Transportation Atlas Database (U.S. DOT)

Database write dbwr (Oracle database software engine components)

DB database manager

HMDB historical marker database

Australian Database Conference ADC

FDB forwarding database report

MMPND plant name database languages Multiscript

SIMAP similarity matrix of proteins (database of protein sequence similarity)

Next Generation Internet Next Generation Identification (FBI database)

Relational database management system RDMS

Big comic book database, GCD

AUTHDB authentication database (security)


2.0 Identification and description of the database

2.1 Naming Conventions

Determine the relationship between

Entities in the real world relationships with other entities. For example, customer orders, customers living in the part of the project address and the order line. Square, lived in, and all part of the terms, is to define the relationship between the entities. The relationship between entities is the same concept of the relationship between the (association) between the objects.

Logical data model (information engineering symbols).


You also need to determine the relationship between the base and optional (UML combines the concepts of choice and the concept of diversity as a single base.) The concept of the base, said, "how much", while the optional concept that "no matter what you must." For example, it is not enough to know the customer orders. How much can customers place orders? None, one or a few? In addition, the relationship is two-way street: not only do customers place orders, but orders placed by customers. This leads to the question: How many customers can order in any given admission, and may have first-order customers not involved?

Although the UML distinguish between different types of relationships - association, inheritance, aggregation, composition, and dependency - data modeling is often not because of interest in the problem, because mostly as an object modeling. Sub-type, an application of inheritance, is often found in the data model, an example project and it is a relationship between the two "fruiting body" services and products. Aggregation and composition, is rare and usually must be implied from the data model, as you can see part of the Bank's role and needs of the project order. UML dependency relationship is a typical software architecture, it will not appear in the data model, unless of course this is a very, very detailed physical model to show how views, triggers or stored procedures on other aspects of the database schema.


2.2 Database Identification

Reproduce the definition of abbreviated terms

Shorten the abbreviated form of ABV written word or phrase is used instead of whole.

Age length of time what already exists.

AMT value of a monetary amount, it could be used to perform mathematical operations.

ANGL measuring the rotation angle between two lines and / or aircraft, the differences from a common point and / or lines.

Designated areas of the two-dimensional surface measurement units square.

Code A code of one or more combinations of numbers, letters, and / or special characters, submitted a specific meaning.

Coordination CRDNT set point position value of an identity.

Carbon count is the sum of a value occurred.

Date of a specific symbol for some time.

Day after day, a number of 24-hour period to one week, a month or a year sub.

Description DSCRPTN interpretation of events or objects.

Victoria DMNSN one-dimensional, linear measure the surface (length, width, height, radius, altitude, altitude, depth, diameter, distance of the vertex.)

Identifier id combination of one or more numbers, letters or special characters to specify a particular event the object / entity.

Identify existing indicators INDCTR matching conditions. For example, Y and N is the number 1 and 0 for off.

The quality of quality measurement of an object inertia.

One month MNTH second division, as determined by the calendar year.

The name of a specific object / entity represents a word or phrase.

A number of NMBR number sign number sign, or a combination of events to identify a specific object / entity. Note: The identifier is the preferred term to distinguish a class of the occurrence of an entity from another; numbers using only the numeric identifier, which is the term commonly used to distinguish the name.

Percentage of the PCT as part of a per cent of the overall expression.

The time interval between the Pearl River Delta is a start and end marks.

Number of number of non-monetary value, it could be used to perform mathematical operations.

Quantitative expression of redemption, that the relationship between the two figures measure units (miles per gallon, the dollar per square foot).

Semi-quantitative RT than the proportional relationship between the two numbers level.

This measure temperature TMPRTR the heat in an object.

Text Text usually in the form of an unformatted string of words.

TIME time a symbol at the specified time period.

VLM's a measure of the volume of space occupied by three-dimensional map.

Rial some time this year is about equal to 12 months or 365 days.

2.3 The system uses the database

Microsoft Access is used to create a simple database solution. Access table field types support multiple standards, indexing and referential integrity. Access also includes a QueryInterface method in the form to display and input data, and report printing. The underlying Jet database, which contains these objects is to identify and deal with multi-user record locking and referential integrity, including cascading updates and deletes.

Simple tasks can be automated through a macro point and click options. Microsoft Access is a popular non-programmers who can create visually pleasing and relatively advanced solutions themselves. It is also very easy to put a database and have multiple users on a network share and update data without overwriting each other's work. Data is locked in a record level, significantly different from Excel to lock the entire spreadsheet.

Microsoft offers a wide range of templates in the database program, and from their website. These options, you can start to access, and allows users to quickly use to improve the pre-defined database tables, queries, forms, reports, and macros. Hot template, including track access, assets, issues, events, projects and tasks. Template does not contain the VBA code.

Microsoft Access also provides the ability for programmers to create solutions using the programming language Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), which is similar to Visual Basic 6.0 (vitamin B6), and use the entire program such as Microsoft Office, Excel, Word, Outlook and PowerPoint. Most of the VB6 code, including the use of Windows API calls that can be used VBA.Power users and developers can extend the basic end-user solution, with a professional solution with advanced automation, data validation, error trapping, multi-user support.

Database solution created in Microsoft Access, is entirely suitable for individuals and working groups on the network. The number of concurrent users, you can depend on the amount of data support, is implementing the task, the level of use, design and application. Generally acceptable solution, the limit is 1 GB or less of data (Access support for up to 2 GB) and 5 or fewer simultaneous users. This is the appropriate solution, working groups and departments in the number of users is less than the total number of ten.

Application, simply view the data, or simple data entry can support a considerable number of users. Application to run complex queries or analysis of large data sets, the natural need for greater bandwidth and memory. Microsoft Access is designed to scale to support more data users to link to multiple Access databases or use the backup enddatabase such as Microsoft SQL Server. The latter design, data volume and users can be extended to enterprise solutions.

Microsoft Access, Web Development in the 2010 version of the role is limited. Access user interface features such as forms and reports, only Windows. Microsoft Jet database engine, the core to the Access, through technologies such as ODBC or OLE DB. The data (ie, table and query), can access Web-based applicationsdeveloped in ASP.NET, PHP or Java.

2.4 The relationship between other databases

No database with our database.

2.5 schema information

Information Architecture is an ANSI standard set read-only views, information, all of the tables, views, columns, and procedures in the database. It can be used as source information database, so that some can be non-standard commands, such as MySQL, the command SHOW, DESCRIBE command, Oracle, and the \ d command in the PostgreSQL

 2.5.1 Description

Light rain - the fork is located in the network infrastructure and cloud computing market. The development of products described as "smaller, thinner, (hopefully), a faster version of MySQL". Therefore, the program has spun off many common features of MySQL, including stored procedures, query cache, the preparation of reports, views and triggers. This is a complete rewrite of the server does not maintain compatibility with MySQL.

MariaDB - Ministry of Community Development MySQL database as the driving force, in order to maintain their social status, rather than MySQL's GPL license of any state of uncertainty in accordance with its existing Oracle. The aim is to maintain a higher fidelity and MySQL, to ensure that the "plug" and replace the binary storage capacity and congruent with the MySQL API and matching orders. It includes XtraDB storage engine as an alternative to InnoDB.

Percona Server - a fork, including XtraDB storage engine. This is an enhanced version of MySQL, it is fully compatible, to minimize the deviation from it, while also providing a useful new features, better performance, analysis and improvement of equipment, performance, and usage.

OurDelta - The best feature is the compiled binary as the source of various patches, including patches from MariaDB, Percona, and Google.


2.5.2 Physical Design


This is the school's student database. There are three themes in the school.


This is the student's personal information. It has student_no, name, sex phone, date of birth and address.


This is a mathematics student marks.


This is the mark of the English language.


This is the mark of the Chinese language.



The student was born 1990/01/01 world. Only in this case, the four students.

Select [Student Information]. student_no, [Student Information]. Name, [Student Information]. Gender, [Student Information]. Telephone, [Student Information]. Birthday, [Student Information]. Address

From [Student Information]

One ,((([ student news]. Birthday)> "1990/01/01"));


The records show that all the marker where the subject of the students. It can also be the sum of the average scores and the courts.

Select chinese.student_no, chinese.name, chinese.chinese, english.english, maths.maths, [Chinese] + [English] + [math] to [places], [summary] / 3, the average

From (Inner Mongolia, China to participate in English on the chinese.student_no = english.student_no) to add math to open (english.student_no = maths.student_no) items and (chinese.student_no = maths.student_no)

Order from the [Chinese] + [English] + [mathematics] in reverse order;


These students are 70 points higher than China. Only four people can be higher than 70.

Select chinese.student_no, chinese.name, chinese.chinese

From Chinese

Where, (((chinese.chinese) "70));


This is a special year. This case to the lower of 70 math and English then 50, only Peter on it.

Select english.student_no, english.name, english.english, maths.maths

INNER JOIN from English Mathematics english.student_no = maths.student_no

Where, (((english.english) "50) and ((maths.maths)" 80));


This is the total score for all students.

Select chinese.student_no, chinese.name, chinese.chinese, english.english, maths.maths

From (Inner Mongolia, China to participate in English on the chinese.student_no = english.student_no) to add math to open (chinese.student_no = maths.student_no) items and (english.student_no = maths.student_no);

2.5.3 Physical Structure


This is a Chinese, English and Mathematics.

2.6 Data Dictionary

Data dictionary is a collection of data objects or items described in the data model of the benefits and programmers and others who need to refer to them. The first step in the analysis of system and user interaction object is to determine each relationship between objects and other objects. This process is called data modeling and results in the relationship between image objects. In each data object or item is given a descriptive name, their relationship is to describe (or part of it, a number of structures, implicitly describe the relationship), the type of data (such as text or image or binary value) Description may be predefined value, and a brief text description provided. This collection can be organized into a book, called the data dictionary for reference.

Procedures used in the development of data models, data dictionary views, in order to understand the data items consistent with the structure, what values it may contain, basically what it means to the data item in the real world. For example, the bank or banking group model of data objects can participate in consumer finance business. They can now provide a data dictionary bank programmer. Data dictionary will describe each item in its personal financial services data model (for example, "account holder" and "" Available Credit ").

Data dictionary and its reference as an appendix attached to this document.

2.7 Special Note

Should follow the instructions to determine who the officers will help to generate the database and who use it for testing and running purposes. The instructions may include:

* Identify any specific standard input data into the database.

Identify the source file the rules and procedures to be followed in the submission of data into the database.

Determine the source file to run the machine instructions generated, modify, update, or otherwise use the database. In very large systems, the details, such instructions are extensive reference section of other documents, this specific information may be found.

3.0 Database Management Information

3.1 Responsibility

A system administrator, system administrator or system administrator, is a person employed to maintain and operate computer systems and / or network. Information technology systems administrator may be members of the (IT) or electronic and communication engineering.

System administrator in a wide range of responsibilities, and are very different from one organization to another. Usually the system administrator responsible for installing, supporting and maintaining servers or other computer systems, and planning and response to service interruptions and other issues. Other duties include scripting or light programming, project management, systems-related projects, supervision and training of computer operators, and as a consultant, computer problems beyond the knowledge of the technical support staff. In order to carry out their work, the system administrator must prove that the integration of technical skills and responsibility.

A database administrator (DBA) is a person responsible for the design, implementation, maintenance and repair organizations database. They also know Titles database coordinator or database programmer, is closely related to the database analysis, database modeling, program analysts and system administrators. Roles, including database development and design strategies to monitor and improve database performance and capacity, and planning for the future expansion needs. They may also plan, coordinate and implement security measures to protect the database. [1], the employer may require a degree certificate or a database administrator, database system (for example, Microsoft Certified Database Administrator).

Computer security is a branch of computer technology known as information security, applied to the computers and networks. Its objectives include protection of computer security information and property theft, corruption, or natural disasters, while enabling access to information and property of the continuous and effective user. The term refers to the computer system of collective security mechanism, process and sensitive and valuable information and services, protection, publishing, tampering or unauthorized activity or the collapse of personal trust and unplanned events, respectively. Strategies and methods of computer security is often different from most other computer technology, because it is a somewhat elusive objective behavior, prevent unnecessary computer, not the computer's behavior.

3.2 System Information

The definition of a CMDB text in the upper and lower specification is described under the definition of IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL): a database to track and record the configuration items associated with IT infrastructure and the relationships between them. Strictly speaking, is the ITIL CMDB contains a record of the expected configuration of the IT environment, through the authority and control of change management and configuration management processes. CMDB Federation, on this basis, extends the definition of this specification compliant federate to any management information models, models and interfaces, such as found in the actual situation, in addition to the expected state. Typically, the administrator selects the data contained in the CMDB in the configuration tool, to achieve the CMDB's.

CMDB Federation, described in this specification is a collection of services and data repositories that contain configuration data, records and other relevant resources. The term "resources" including the allocation of the project (for example, a computer system, application, or router), processing artifacts (eg, record or change an event record), and the relationships between configuration items and processes of cultural relics. The architecture describes a logical model and does not necessarily reflect a physical manifestation. CMDB Federation to support the following scenario. (However, a joint support for CMDB scenarios entirely to the discretion of each implementation.)

L to maintain an accurate picture of the IT inventory information from the portfolio (financial) and deployment / configuration information

L reflect the changes in IT resources, including asset and license data, in all the libraries and data sources

L compare the expected and actual configuration configuration

L enabled version of the understanding, such as the following example:

- Coordinating project configuration changes

- Track change history


L-related configuration and asset data with other data and data sources, such as incident, problem, and service levels. Here are some examples:

- Integrated change management and incident management and monitoring information

SLA event analysis, information desk and events through the use of correlation analysis in both configuration and change records

3.2.1 database management system (DBMS) configuration

Description of the activity database tuning and performance optimization of a set of homogeneous database. It usually overlaps with the query adjustment, but to the configuration file of the database, database management systems (DBMS), and the operating system and hardware running the database management system.

Our goal is to maximize the use of system resources to perform the work efficiency, and as soon as possible. Most systems design and management efficiency, but may greatly improve performance by customizing the setup and configuration database and the database management system is adjusted.

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I / O optimization: I / O optimization is the database transaction log files and temporary work space, table and index file storage optimization and balance, read and write these files. I / O is usually the most expensive operation of the database work, often the bottleneck in database performance.

Hardware and software configuration of the disk subsystem Review: RAID level and configuration, block and stripe size distribution, configured disk, controller cards, storage cabinets, and external storage systems, such as a SAN. Transaction logs and temporary space is a heavy consumer of I / O performance and impact all users of the database. And appropriate placement is crucial.

Often attached tables and indexes are placed so that they were asked to file storage, you can retrieve them from different disks in parallel. Frequently accessed tables and indexes on different disks to balance the I / O and prevent the reading queue.


DBMS adjustment: adjustment refers to adjustment of the database management system database management system and configuration of the computer memory and processing resources to run the database management system. This is usually done by configuring database management system, but the sharing of resources involved and the host system.

DBMS can adjust the settings involved in the recovery interval (the time required to restore state data to a specific point in time), distribution in parallel (that is, to break a single query from the work of the task assigned to different processing resources), and the network protocol used consumers in the database.

Memory is allocated to the data, implementation plans, procedures, caching and working space. This is faster than data access memory, data storage, so to maintain a large cache data, so that the implementation of activities faster. The same consideration is given to the work space. Cache implementation plans and procedures, which means they are reused, rather than need to be recompiled. It is important to memory as much as possible, while leaving enough to use other processes and operating systems without excessive paging of memory storage.

Sometimes dealing with the allocation of resources to specific

Activities to improve concurrency. Server

8 processors, can be retained for six months of the database management system

To maximize the available processing resources database.

3.2.2 Hardware configuration

Computer hardware configuration management is a process, create and maintain a registry of all the latest records of the infrastructure components, including the relevant documents.

It uses two-dimensional rows and columns to store data.

Trading Mechanism


Round-trip time in milliseconds to seconds, about:





When you use the

The same.