In simple words, software is that part of our computer system which we cannot see and touch. But it is not comprehensive to tell much about software. Software is actually the set of instructions and codes which are designed to interact the user and the hardware of computer system to let it work as they desire. Programmers design this software according to new technology/systems or on user demand. Without software, computer is just like a body with no life.
Software is set of basic programming instructions to computer hardware, forming a layer of programming code on which most other functions of computer are built. Computer hardware consists of physical device on the inside or outside of the computer such as the central processing unit (CPU), circuit boards, the monitor and key board and disk drives.
Application Software are those software which user uses for different purposes like making docs by Microsoft Word, surf Internet by a web browser and a lot more.
While the Operating System interfaces the user application software and computer's BIOS to allow the application to interact with the computer hardware. And here the examples of tasks perform by it.:
Handle input from the keyboard, mouse and other input devices.
Handle output to the monitor and printer
Handle communication using modem
Manage network communication such as for local network and the Internet.
(b) What are the computer security and data security? How can we secure the data in single (unshared) computer and shared computer?
Today security is the main concern in every aspect of life but also and most important in computer systems. Because computer is everywhere, we are using them for different purposes even PDA is a mini computer. So we store our private data in it like docs, images, videos etc and we always curies about it that nobody access it without their permission. There always computer security is remaining in discussion to provide and security and reliability to users of their data.
Computer security actually means the security of computer system and that is to prevent computer system from unauthorized access, viruses, malware etc. While data security means the security of any kind of data stored in your computer system or external drives.
Computer is a machine so everyone can use it according to it means computers can unshared and shared. Unshared computer means Personal Computer which is used by single person, no any access to any other. Data security matter is not no so serious on it because it is personal computer and obviously it is password protected so with entering right password no one can enter the computer and access the data which computer is secured if the password is strong and no simple 1234 word etc which mostly people use these type of password and many intelligent hackers can easily access the computer.
But on shared computer, secure the data is actually a task. In shared computer many people access your computer and mess up all things even your private data is in danger now. So first thing to do is to secure the data by encrypting it with password. Like make a password protested zip file (and then hiding it is also a better solution).
It is not necessary that a person using our pc can harm our data even viruses are very dangerous. They enter in system by internet or external drives and harm the whole pc by deleting and infecting the data. To solve such problems install a good antivirus program and keep it up to date.
Always make a backup of computer system and store it on CD/DVD and on system too, no matter whether the system is shared or not. This help to secure the data in any case.
(c) What are the network services? Describe the directory services and telecommunication services. Explain the rules of these services in operating system and networking.
Network services are very important for network computing environment. These services are configured on LAN for smooth data transfer and reliability. Services like DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol) which allows a host to obtain an IP address dynamically when it connects frequently, DHCP is contracted by sending a request and an IP address is requested. The DHCP chooses an address from a configured range of addresses called a pool and assigns it to client.
DNS (Domain Name System) is also a LAN services resolves the IP address into name and name into IP address like programs theoretically could refer to hosts, mailboxes and other recourses by their network(e.g., IP) addresses, these addresses are hard for people to remember. Also sending email to email@example.com means if Sara's ISP or organization moves the mail server to different machine with a different IP address, her email address has to change. Consequently, ASCII names were introduced to decouple machine names from machine addresses. In this way, Sara's address might be something like firstname.lastname@example.org .
Network file sharing and printing are also network services. Transfer of files with in or out the network is common and printer can be attached in network by which we can access them.
Directory services are like a large container of network data and resources such as computer printers, user accounts and user groups that provides a central listing of resources and ways to quickly find specific resources and provide ways to access and manage network recourses.
Q 1 Explain the networking operating system using examples. Describe the services in networking operating system and describe the risk related business issues using any example.
An operating system which allow file sharing and printing sharing in a network is called network operating system. Networks like local area network, Intranet and private networks. Apple talk, Novell Netware, Windows server, UNIX etc are examples of network operating system.
Services in network operating system are Printer sharing, File Sharing, Backup data and User administration.
Sharing files on network can include many risks like viruses and other unwanted software and files. Viruses can affect the computer and its performance and even corrupt the whole system. By unwanted files and programs space of hard disk is consumed much and we don't even know about it.
For example a organization have a small network which share printers and file to each other. Now user B sent file to user F and PC of user B in infected with a lot of viruses and they transfer with the file to user F, If user F don't have proper up-to-dated antivirus then he screwed up.