Software For 3d Gis Mapping Computer Science Essay

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Mapping usually refers to map-making where it representation of an area of land or sea showing physical features and it often used instead of cartography. Mapping term is sometimes used for geospatial data collection like remote sensing. There a many type of mapping for example topographic, bathymetric, cadastral, photogrammetric mapping, remote sensing, etc. From all type of the mapping, photogrammetric is the best mapping because it obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment. It can cover from large into small area.

Mapping also can be representing in 2D and also 3D. The photogrammetric technique is often used as data generation and also processing. For data generate will carried out two overlapping aerial photograph. Data processing will be carried out by software. In photogrammetric, 3D model can be generated using 3D stereo model and I also can be generated by various technique.

Some of photogrammetric software consist or provide a different accuracy of 3D model like Erdas Imagine, Topcon PI 3000 Image Master, Leica Photogrammetric Suit and others. However digital photogrammetry like software make the photogrammetric become easier, faster, simpler and also give a low cost. According to ERDAS (2002), this photogrammetric technique is closely integrated into remote sensing and GIS.

According to Anuar Ahmad, Digital photogrammetric method involves processing the digital images of aerial photograph using computer. The digital images can be captured directly using digital camera or scanned from aerial photographs. In digital photogrammetry, many tasks can be highly automated. In this study, there will be used two kind of digital photogrammetric software known as Leica Photogrammetric Suite (LPS) and PHOTOMOD.

LPS can be defined as a photogrammetric software application on imagery and it also used for extracting information from imagery. This imagery may be come from remote sensing, airborne/aircraft cameras, or ground-based cameras. For PHOTOMOD, it is intended for remote sensing data photogrammetric processing. PHOTOMOD also allows in exploring wide-ranging possibilities and performance. Next data will be used is ground control point which will establish using Global Positioning System (GPS).

By using photogrammetric software, it is to empower users to transform raw imagery into reliable data layers required for all digital mapping, GIS analysis and 3D visualization. This will evaluate for capabilities of selected software producing technique for 3D mapping. This study will be benefit for any application for example Location Based Service (LBS), Augmented Reality, 3D city model, etc.

Aim

The aim of this study is to produce 3D GIS maps and evaluate their accuracy using different photogrammetric software (LPS, PHOTOMOD, DVP etc.).

Objective

To conduct GPS survey for ground control points.

To produce digital GIS map using photogrammetric techniques and software.

To compare the capabilities of selected photogrammetric software for producing 3D GIS Map.

Scope of Study

This study will focus on comparing the capabilities of the selected photogrammetric software for producing 3D GIS map. For some reason, one of the software maybe users friendly, more accurate, give high resolution mapping or so on. Studies area will carry out on Shah Alam city and possible to cover around UiTM.

CHAPTER 2

PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SOFTWARE FOR 3D GIS MAPPING

Introduction

In this chapter describes the theory, application of GIS in 3D mapping by using photogrammetric software.

Mapping

Mapping usually refers to map-making where it representation of an area of land or sea showing physical features and it often used instead of cartography. Mapping term is sometimes used for geospatial data collection like remote sensing. There a many type of mapping for example topographic, bathymetric, cadastral, photogrammetric mapping, remote sensing, etc. From all type of the mapping, photogrammetric is the best mapping because it obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment. It can cover from large into a small area.

Photogrammetric mapping

Photogrammetric mapping can be described as a process of collecting geographic and information about physical ground features and the environment by recording, measuring and interpreting of aerial photographic images. Photogrammetric mapping also can be representing in 2D and also 3D. In photogrammetric, 3D model can be generated using 3D stereo model and also can be generated by various technique. To generate 3D model, it can be using aerial photogrammetry and close range methods. The photogrammetric technique is often used as data generation and also processing. For data generate will carried out two overlapping aerial photograph. The data processing will be carried out by software.

Photogrammetric Software

According to Anuar Ahmad (2011), Digital photogrammetric method involves processing the digital images of aerial photograph using computer. The digital images can be captured directly using digital camera or scanned from aerial photographs. In digital photogrammetry, many tasks can be highly automated. Some of photogrammetric software produce or provide a different accuracy of 3D model/map such as Erdas Imagine, Topcon PI 3000 Image Master, Leica Photogrammetric Suite (LPS) and others.

However digital photogrammetry like software make the photogrammetric become easier, faster, and simpler and also give a low cost. According to ERDAS (2002), this photogrammetric technique is closely integrated into remote sensing and GIS. In this study, there will be used two kind of digital photogrammetric software known as Leica Photogrammetric Suite (LPS) and PHOTOMOD.

Leica Photogrammetric Suite (LPS)

LPS can be defined as a photogrammetric software application on imagery and it also used for extracting information from imagery. This imagery may be come from remote sensing, airborne/aircraft cameras, or ground-based cameras.

PHOTOMOD

PHOTOMOD can be describing as intended for remote sensing data photogrammetric processing. PHOTOMOD also allows in exploring wide-ranging possibilities and performance.

CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

Introduction

There are several stages of methodological process that used in this project.