Software Design Of Root Locus Computer Science Essay

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The virtual strength and transitory operation of a control system of a closed-loop are associated directly to the position of closed -loop roots of the distinctive equation in the s-plane. To obtain appropriate location of root it often requires necessary changes to be done to the one or more parameters of a system. Hence it is advisable to ascertain how the distinctive equation of roots move around the s-plane as the parameters are different; that is, for different parameters it is very useful to ascertain the root locus in s-plane. In 1984 Evans introduced the method of root locus which has been utilized significantly and urbanized in the practice of control engineering. The practice of root locus is a graphical technique for sketching the root locus in the s-plane as parameter which is different. In detail the method of locus of roots give the engineer with degree of the sensitivity of the system of roots is considered with variation in parameters. The method of root locus may be used as a huge benefit in combination with the Routh- Hurwitz principle.

The method of root locus gives information graphically, and hence a fairly accurate outline can be used to gain qualitative information regarding the operation and strength of the system. Moreover the root locus of the distinctive equation of a system with multi-loop may be examined as quickly as a system with single-loop. If the root locus position is not suitable, the necessary changes made repeatedly can be determined quickly from the locus of root. (Richard C. Dorf, Robert H. bishop).

Basically the locus of root gives the information about the strength of closed-loop by showing the closed-loop position or the distinctive equation of roots of a control system of a closed-loop for a system with different values of parameter. The method of root locus was urbanized for both incessant-time structures described by normal differential equation and Laplace transforms with s as the composite variable and isolated-time structures described by normal differential equation and z transforms with composite variable as z. (Richard C. Dorf, 2005)

By using the locus of root method the designer can forecast the effects on closed-loop pole position of changeable obtain value or to ting up poles of open-loops or zero open-loops. Hence it is preferred that the designer should have excellent familiarity of the technique for generating the locus of root of the system of closed-loop, both physically and use of a MATLAB software program of a system. We locate that locus of root technique proves to be effective to certain extent in scheming a linear system of control, given that it indicates the method in which poles of open-loop and zero should be customized so that presentation requirements of system meets the rejoinder. The technique is mostly suitable for getting estimated consequences as swiftly as possible. Using MATLAB it is very easy to generate locus of root, one might imagine sketching the locus of roots physically is a time waste effort. Nevertheless practice in sketching the locus of root physically is important for interpreting root locus which is generated by computer, and also getting an approximate idea on root locus swiftly (Katsuhiko Ogata, 2009)

Locus of root is a graphical method used to explain the operation of a system of a closed-loop as different parameters are altered. The pole of closed-loop plots the relocate task as one profit in the task of relocation is changed. This yield is usually a direct yield even though there is difference in parameter in the place. The locus of root provides strength, correctness and is functional for computer analysis and deceitful. Mostly before explaining about the basics of root locus we first present composite numbers and their illustration as vectors. (Godfrey C. Onwubolu, 2005)

The locus of root is not only restricted to study of control system. In common the technique can be practical to the study of root performance of an arithmetic equation with one or more changeable in parameter. And also the engineer should know the information which is provided by locus of root certainly accurate and able to obtain important information from locus of root. (Kuo & Golnaraghi, 2009).


Literature Review

To advance the modern science, an automated system will play a prominent role. Here is the control system tool root locus which is helpful for the study of designing the automated system.

Now let us have the idea on the subject of the techniques of root locus, the general procedure sketching the plots roots locus and feedback system analyses by using this technique. Design problems when using this technology can be discussed from the following.

2.1 Control system

Controllers are the automatic system, which regulates the energy flow, matter, etc. Depending upon their function and purpose they vary from the difficulty, appearance and understanding. The two most important control systems are being categories either closed loop system and open loop system. Distinguish feature of these two systems of control system is used of comparison of feedback to the closed loop operation.

2.2 Open Loop System

In Open loop system when the Feed forward control system interact with the plant, the output of the controller will not have any signal feedback to the controller from plant even thought the interaction influences the plant. Most of the designers will use this open-loop system as it is very simple design and does not have any stability issues on the system.

2.3 Closed Loop System

The closed control system accurately derives the value of the input produces from the feedback comparison. When there is difference between the input and output a single proportion is derived by the error detector. The control system of closed loop derives the output until the output is equals the input and with zero errors. The control system of closed loop automatically corrects when the input does not matches to the output or when there is a difference in actual and preferred output. With well designed controller the system cam made free from the secondary input means like intensity of noise or the change in the characteristics of components.

Generally the closed loop system of characteristic equation is given by,

1+G(s) H(s) =0

2.4 Feedback

The feedback control system deals with the problem with the desired system output to follow the given system input.

To construct the root locus for the negative feedback the rule to be followed are:

Rule1: The number of the branches in the root locus should match with number of pole of open loop transfer function.

Rule2: When the root locus exists on portion where the total number of poles and zero to the right on real axis is odd number then the value of the K is positive. On other hand if the root locus exits on portion where the total number of poles and zero on right on real axis is even number including zero then the value then the value of the K is negative.

Rule3: When the open loop pole is zero (K=0), the root locus will start. If the open loop is infinite (K=±∞), the root locus will terminate.

Rule4: the branches of the root locus at the end of the infinity can determine by the angles of asymptotes is,

Rule5: Intercept of the real-axis of the asymptotes is

Rule6: The derivate of the loop sensitivity K with respective to the s will determine the breakaway points of the locus between the two pole or between two zeros of the real axis. Equating the above derivation to zero will result an equation. The breakaway point is the occurrence of root between the poles.

Rule7: At K>0, the complex pole of angle of departure is equal to the 180° minus sum of the other poles angles plus sum of the all zeros angles. For K<0 the angle of departure is 180° from the obtained for K<0.

At K<0, the complex of the angle of departure is equal to the sum of the all poles angle plus the other zero angle minus 180°.For K>0 the angle of departure is 180° from the obtained for K<0.

Rule8: Determine the imaginary line by setting the Routhain array from the polynomial characters of the closed loop. Equate the row to zero and row to auxiliary equation. The cross points of imaginary-axis is determined by auxiliary equation root.

Rule9: The dominate equation of the characteristic equation selections will be based on the specifications which provide the required performance of the system. This in turn determines the preferred dominate root location. The magnitude conditions are satisfied by the other remaining roots.

Rule10: Once the dominate root location has been determined, the rule sum of the closed loop roots is equal to the sum of the open loop roots,

Can be used find the two complex and one real roots. When the characteristics equations of the known roots are factorized, it simplifies the effort of finding the remaining roots (John Joachim D'Azzo, Constantine H. Houpis & Stuart N. Sheldon, 2003).

Positive feedback system is used to change the rule and to design the root locus in such way, that the problem which has been raised in the negative feedback can be defeat. To modify the root locus now we use positive feedback rather than negative feedback.

The following rules are to facilitate the root locus for the application. The rules are base on the angle condition interpretation and the characteristic equation analysis.

Rule1: Number of Branches of the Locus

The characteristic equation B(s) = 1+G(s) H(s) = 0 of degree n= m + u i.e., there are n roots. When k is varied from zero to infinity means when the system is in open loop, the root can trace the continue curves. So that the root locus will have the same number of curves or branches which is equal to n roots. Since the pole of the open loop will determine the degree of branches B(s), number of poles of open loop is always equal to the root's number of branches.

Rule2: Real-Axis Locus

If the angle of condition is applied on search point on real-axis, all poles and zeros contributes the angle on the root axis is zero to the left of this point. The complex-conjugate pole contribution of the angle to this point is 360°.So, finally the all poles and zeros contribution of the angle is equal to the 180° to the right of this point on root axis. The angle of G(s) H(s) at the is,

180°+0°+0°+0°+360°-0°-0°= (1+2h)180°

Here is the point on locus branch, likewise, show that is not the point on locus branch. The complex-conjugate contribute the 360° angle for all poles and zero at he left of this point on real axis, the odd multiple of 180° is not affected by the pole or by the zeros. So, to the search point of s on the real axis is odd, at the total number of zeros and poles where the point is on the locus.

Rule3: Locus End Points

The loop magnitude and which satisfies the condition of the has a general form is,

The poles and zeros can be located by the factors numerator and denominator in the above equation of the transfer function of open loop will have two conclusions:

The sensitivity of the loop K is zero if s= (the open-loop poles).

The sensitivity of the loop K is infinity if s= (the open-loop zeros).s=∞ and k is infinity when the above equation numerator is higher then that of denominator, which effects the equivalent to the zero.

Thus, from the above it can be concluded that the starting points of the locus and ending points of the locus are at open-loop poles where k=0 and at open-loop zeros where k=∞ respectively.

Rule4: Asymptotes of Locus as s Approaches infinity

Evaluating the asymptotes to various branch approaches will smooth the progress of the plotting of the locus, as the large values are taken by the s. when s approaches infinity take the limit of G(s)H(s),which gives the result,

The root locus asymptotes are n-w and their angles are given by,

The above equation derives that regardless of magnitude s, after the value reaching the sufficiently large the s arguments remain constant. The open loop and zeros will be appeared as they are twisted into a single point when the s search point reaches its sufficient large value. As a result the direction and slopes from the above equations makes the branches are asymptotes to straight line. Usually these asymptotes do not go through the origin. Asymptotes intercept of the exact real axis can be able to obtain from the Rule5.

Rule5: Real-Axis Interception of the Asymptotes

Theory of equation is applied to obtain the asymptotes of the real-axis crossing results as,

The locus might cross its asymptote as asymptotes are not dividing lines. It may give the information in which way the approach of the real axis asymptotes is. If the line of pole-zero is symmetric about the asymptotes line extends through the point, then the locus exactly lies along the asymptotes.

Rule6: Breakaway Point on the Real axis

The root locus branches starts at poles of open loop (K=0) ends at finite zeros open loop (s=∞).

The coincidence of break-away and break-in points occurs, when there is an inflection point on plot. If there is no indication of the point of inflection at the plot, it means there are no incidence of break-away and break-in points.

Rules7: Complex Pole (or Zero): Angle of Departure

To determine the direction of the locus there is a shortcut geometrical method where the locus leaves a complex pole and complex zeros. However sometimes if the complex poles are considered, it also contributes the complex zero result. If we take a small area from the complex pole the contribution of the angle from all the poles and zero expect that area is approximately constant. The values that determines can be considered as if the search points are from that small area. Applying the condition so of angle to small area yields,

Or the angle of departure is,

Similar manner the angle of approach of complex zero can be determine by,

When the locus directions lefts a poles and or approach a zero, determine by accumulation, according to the condition of angle, all the vectors of all angles of poles and zeros from all others and is subtracted from the above sum gives the direction which is necessary.

Rule8: Imaginary-Axis Crossing Points

The imaginary axis into the right-half s plane, where such cases the locus crosses the imaginary axis. These crossover points are determined by the Routhain method. For example, if the character equation of closed-loop is is of form,

The Routhain array is,

If is equal to zero and the undamped oscillation may occur. The auxiliary equation obtained for this condition from the row is,

And its roots are

The sensitivity of the loop K determined by setting row of to zero.

The oscillation for undammed gives natural frequency for K>0.This corresponds to the point where the locus crosses into the right-half s plane on imaginary axis. The s plan is divided into stable region and unstable region by the imaginary axis. K value from equation

is also determines the sensitivity of loop values at crossover points. The term in row of is negative for K>0, so that unstable response is characterized. For stable response the value limited such that,

Likewise, the crossover points can be determined for the higher-order equations of characteristic. Care must be taken for the higher order system to work out in analyzing all terms in the first columns which contains the term K, such that correct range of value for stability can be obtained.

Rule9: Intersection or Nonintersecting of Root-Locus Branches

The properties of complex theory are:

Value of s which satisfies the conditions of angle is a point on the root locus, so that there will be only one root locus branch that point.

When first y-1 derivates vanishes at a given root locus given point, then there are y branches approach and leaving this points, intersection of the root locus point occurs.

The two adjacent approach branch angle is,

Also the approach branch and the leaving branch angle is,

Rule10: Conservation of the Sum of System Roots

The technique to determine the general root locus describe by this rule aid. Consider the transfer function of general open loop is in the form,

For physical system, the denominator C(s)/R(s) can be written as

Where roots which root locus are describes.

From above two equation results

Expanding equation in both sides gives,

For transfer function of open-loop in which, by the equation coefficient the following is obtains,

If the m poles of open loop have the values of zero then,

Here are the all poles of open loops and roots of characteristic equation. This means when the system gain is varied from zero to infinity, the total sum of the root system is constant.

For a unity feedback system, poles and zeros of the closed loop shows the location of

Satisfy the relation.

Where q=1, 2, 3…., m-1 for m>1 that means foe higher system.

Rule11: Determination of Roots on the Root Locus

After plotting the root locus, the dominate roots are determined by the performance of the system specifications. The branches called dominate branches are closest to imaginary axis. Time response is influenced by the root. Selecting the dominant roots and applying condition of magnitude the required sensitivity of loop is determined (John Joachim D'Azzo, Constantine H. Houpis & Stuart N. Sheldon, 2003).

2.5 Transfer function

In the below figure the transfer function id G(s) of single input output linear system of time invariant and real number is K. The system of closed loop has the transfer function.



The root locus of standards applies to the case where G(s) is s rational function. That is,

Here polynomial of s is n(s) and d(s) with real coefficients, so that it can show

By equation G(s) open-loop system and by equation closed-loop system concludes that regardless of k value the, contain exactly the same zeros. The parameter k value varies in in complex plane the plot of the poles are the plots of root locus. For example, if


The G(s) poles are denoted byand is,

That is, it is straightforward that in a complex plan as the k ≥0 and can be plotted. And when k=0.As it is already known that the equations G(s) and contains same value when k=0 at closed loop poles are -1 and -3.These values same as the poles of open loop, when poles of open-loop of all root as the poles of closed-loop for k=0.

In transfer function the plot provides with useful information.

For every possible system of closed-loop, gives the location of poles which are created from the plant of open loop and the positive gain k.

The closed-loop meets the specification of design, if the points exist on the root pole. It simply corresponding k values is applied to complete the design.

To stability of the system can be achieved when the block diagram manipulates. Using the diagram manipulation, the standard root locus can be simply applied to control system of the non-unity feedback.

As the root locus standards depend on the polynomial properties it can be applied well in the system of discrete-time. The only change to be made that replacing G(s) by the transfer function of z-transform (W. S. Levine, 1996).

Time Response Analysis of a System

To design a system one should determine the desired specifications. Before that one should determine the preferred controlled variable time response, which can be obtained by deriving the various control system equations and by solving the various equations to get accurate solution for performance of the system. Design engineers prefer any method analysis which does not requires the actual solutions for various equation. Analysis should indicate in such a manner so that the system should be compensated to produce the desires characteristics of performance.

The following quantity evaluates the system performance:

Maximum overshoot, is the first overshoot magnitude can be expressed the final value in percentage.

Time to maximum, is the required time to reach the maximum overshoot.

Time to first error, is the required time to reach the first time final value, which often refers to as time of duplication.

Settling time is the required time for the first output response and thereafter remains within a final value prescribed percentage. The commonly used values for settling tine are 2% and 5% is applied to the wrappers the result.

Frequency of transient oscillations.

To compare the different systems it is essential to start with same standards initial conditions. Mostly the practical standards are started with the system at rest. Before settling down, the value of constant will oscillates when there is an undamped response to set input into a higher order system (Charles Lessard, 2009).

2.7 Concept of Stability:

To just find out the stability of the system, the root locus method is used. It only gives the outline information as it is applied to the stability at the point. The primitive form 1+GH gives the equation of characteristic is realized.GH=-1 for the s value and obviously the function of the system is infinity and 1+GH=0. If the parameter K (or other parameters) in GH function varies, then all the locations can be mapped in the s-plane (where K is real). The root locus results then nothing more path locus in s plane for parameter K value. For any K value the locations of pole can be produce in the right half plane, which lead to the instability of system. The most important thing is that with only transfer function of open loop one can determine the stability of the closed loop (Lincoln D. Jones, 2003).