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Mobile phones technology in our time has become an integral part of our daily lives. It keeps us connected to other people such as families, friends and colleagues. The regular use of this technology brings challenges to the user, such as having to decide to answer the phone or not. With the mobile phones there are many services provided by the different mobile service companies, one of them is the SMS, another means of communication has become equally popular, short message service (SMS). The main reason for it to be popular is that it is fast, cheap, easy and convenient. Another advantage of using sms is that it can also be used silently in public places without actually disrupting others space. It is more invisible than a voice call, making it the ideal form for communicating when you do not want to be overheard. This report is focused on (SMS) technology by defining what is (SMS), history of (SMS), the basic feature of (SMS), what it used for and from where it came.
What is SMS?
Short Message Service (SMS): is a communication service defined as part of the GSM mobile communication system, with standard protocols that allow the exchange of short text messages among mobile phone devices. (SMS) delivered through cellular provider maintains for the end devices. The SMSC (short message service center) can send SMS messages to other devices with 140 octets as a maximum load. This determines the upper limit of a short text message to 160 characters using 7-bit encoding. You can probably go for other plans, such as 8-bit or 16-bit encoding, which reduces the maximum message length to 140 characters and 70, respectively (Brown, Shipman, & Vetter, 2007). The basic features of SMS includes message sending, receiving, reporting status, requests for command execution and replying.
SMSCs Works in two ways:
Store-and-forward: the system will store the message for some period of time to make sure it is delivered, if not then the system will resends the message again until it is successfully received.
Forward-and-forget: the system sends the message to the end device without assurance of receipt or an attempt to redeliver in the case of failure.
The SMS protocol a package has four layers: according to (Le Bodic, 2005)
The application layer: employed in SMEs in the form of software applications that send, receive, and understand the content of messages such as message editor and games. It is also known as (SM-AL) for Short-Message-Application-Layer.
The transfer layer: it consist some information about message length, message sender or receiver, date when received. The transfer layer is also known as the(SM-TL) for Short-Message-Transfer-Layer.
The relay layer: OR (SM-RL) for Short-Message-Relay-Layer allows the transport of a message through a range of network parts.
Link layer: as well as (SM-LL) for Short-Message-Link-Layer, it is the physical level of transmission process.
Table 1 explain an example of a transfer protocol data unit
(Brown, J., Shipman, B. & Vetter, R. 2007, 'SMS: The Short Message Service', Computer, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 106-10)
(Le Bodic, G. 2005,
'Short Message Service', Mobile messaging technologies and services :SMS, EMS AND MMS, 2 edn, Wiley, Chichester; Hoboken, NJ, pp. 57.
The history of this technology:
From the computer on 3 December 1992 "Merry Christmas" in United Kingdom was the first SMS message sent by Neil Papworth through Vodafone GSM network using an Orbitel 901 handset. Then from GSM phone in 1993 was the first SMS sent by Nokia employee engineering student his name was Riku Pihkonen. In the first, SMS service was only offer a person-to-person text messaging service and GSM mobile phone did not support the ability to send SMS text messages, however, Nokia did. It was the only mobile phones company whoââ‚¬â„¢s total GSM phone line supply user sending of SMS text messages.
In the beginning (SMS) was not that popular the reason for that was the operators were slow to install charging systems, especially for prepaid consumer, and it was easy to access SMSC setting causing billing fraud. For instance, in 1995 the average of sending messages was only 0.4 messages per month. However, all these issues disappeared over the time by changing the system and by the end of 2000 the average increased to 35 per consumer per month.
SMS part of GSM Structure:
SMS was first discovered from promoting the GSM Network (Global System for Mobile Communications) as a part from GSM phase 2. SMS was part of series of protocols in 1985 it was defined as a method of exchanging texts, to and from GSM mobile handsets. GSM network played a great part in delivering the SMS text message because it is not only the message goes though the GSM network, but it also to guaranteed delivering the message even if the mobile switched off or out of the coverage area. Therefore GSM is the most common standard system for mobile phone used in the world. Sorting and routing the messages by one or more SMSCs have to be supported from GSM network.
Consumer use for SMS:
Person-to-Person Messaging (short text message exchange).
Information Services (weather updates).
Voice Message and Fax Notifications (notifications for voice messages and fax).
Internet Email Alerts (E-mails).
Download Services (ringtones).
The short message service has become one of the most popular wireless services. It is not just a new technology for teenage to chat, it is more than that many business men rely on SMS during meeting plus it become a good mean to arrange or cancel appointments especially among clinics and their clients. SMS nowadays become a very profitable business for mobile marketing campaigns and it increasing so fast. Finally (SMS) technology is a great invention its help many people with Practical and social life.