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In this paper we describe the development of a virtual dental training simulator utilizing a haptic (force feedback) device, and provide the method to automatically assess performance of dental students who performed dental surgery with the simulator by using the features data collected during the performances. The system simulated dental operations such as crown preparation and opening access to the pulp by utilizing a volumetric approach to 3D data representation and collision detection between virtual tooth and tool. Automatic performance assessment was achieved by incorporating operation data such as dental drill trajectory, proper usage of mirror, and patter of applied force during the operation. A feasibility study of our system has been conducted with dental students and experts from Thammasat University. Based on the feedback obtained, our simulator is found to be very useful and promising as supplemental training and capable of assessing surgical skill of an operator with accuracy comparable subjective scores given by dental expert.
This format is to be used for submissions that are published in the conference proceedings.Â We wish to give this volume a consistent, high-quality appearance. We therefore ask that authors follow some simple guidelines. In essence, you should format your paper exactly like this document. The easiest way to do this is simply to download a template from the conference web site, and replace the content with your own material. The template file contains specially formatted styles (e.g., Normal, Heading, Bullet, Table Text, References, Title, Author, Affiliation) that will reduce your work in formatting your submission.
PAGE SIZE and columns
On each page your material (not including the page number) should fit within a rectangle of 18 x 23.5 cm (7 x 9.25 in.), centered on a US letter page, beginning 1.9 cm (.75 in.) from the top of the page, with a .85 cm (.33 in.) space between two 8.4 cm (3.3 in.) columns. On an A4 page, use a text area of the same dimensions (18 x 23.5 cm.), again centered. Right margins should be justified, not ragged. Beware, especially when using this template on a Macintosh, Word can change these dimensions in unexpected ways.
Prepare your submissions on a word processor or typesetter. Please note that page layout may change slightly depending upon the printer you have specified. For this document, printing to Adobe Acrobat PDF Writer was specified. In the resulting page layout, Figure 1 appears at the top of the left column on page 2, and Table 1 appears at the top of the right column on page 2. You may need to reposition the figures if your page layout or PDF-generation software is different.
Title and Authors
Your paper's title, authors and affiliations should run across the full width of the page in a single column 17.8 cm (7 in.) wide. The title should be in Helvetica 18-point bold; use Arial if Helvetica is not available. Authors' names should be in Times Roman 12-point bold, and affiliations in Times Roman 12-point (note that Author and Affiliation are defined Styles in this template file).
To position names and addresses, use a single-row table with invisible borders, as in this document. Alternatively, if only one address is needed, use a centered tab stop to center all name and address text on the page; for two addresses, use two centered tab stops, and so on. For more than three authors, you may have to place some address information in a footnote, or in a named section at the end of your paper. Please use full international addresses and telephone dialing prefixes. Leave one 10-pt line of white space below the last line of affiliations.
Abstract and Keywords
Every submission should begin with an abstract of about 150 words, followed by a set of keywords. The abstract and keywords should be placed in the left column of the first page under the left half of the title. The abstract should be a concise statement of the problem, approach and conclusions of the work described. It should clearly state the paper's contribution to the field of HCI.
The first set of keywords will be used to index the paper in the proceedings. The second set are used to catalogue the paper in the ACM Digital Library. The latter are entries from the ACM Classification System . In general, it should only be necessary to pick one or more of the H5 subcategories, see http://www.acm.org/class/1998/H.5.html
Normal or Body Text
Please use a 10-point Times Roman font or, if this is unavailable, another proportional font with serifs, as close as possible in appearance to Times Roman 10-point. The Press 10-point font available to users of Script is a good substitute for Times Roman. If Times Roman is not available, try the font named Computer Modern Roman. On a Macintosh, use the font named Times and not Times New Roman. Please use sans-serif or non-proportional fonts only for special purposes, such as headings or source code text.
First Page Copyright Notice
Leave 3 cm (1.25 in.) of blank space for the copyright notice at the bottom of the left column of the first page. In this template a floating text box will automatically generate the required space. Note however that the text box is anchored to the ABSTRACT heading, so if that heading is deleted the text box will disappear as well.
On pages beyond the first, start at the top of the page and continue in double-column format. The two columns on the last page should be of equal length.
References and Citations
Use a numbered list of references at the end of the article, ordered alphabetically by first author, and referenced by numbers in brackets [2,4,5,7]. For papers from conference proceedings, include the title of the paper and an abbreviated name of the conference (e.g., for Interact 2003 proceedings, use Proc. Interact 2003). Do not include the location of the conference or the exact date; do include the page numbers if available. See the examples of citations at the end of this document. Within this template file, use the References style for the text of your citation.
Figure 1. Figure captions should be centered and placed below the figure.
Your references should be published materials accessible to the public. Internal technical reports may be cited only if they are easily accessible (i.e., you provide the address for obtaining the report within your citation) and may be obtained by any reader for a nominal fee. Proprietary information may not be cited. Private communications should be acknowledged in the main text, not referenced (e.g., "[Robertson, personal communication]").
The heading of a section should be in Helvetica 9-point bold, all in capitals (Heading 1 Style in this template file). Use Arial if Helvetica is not available. Sections should not be numbered.
Headings of subsections should be in Helvetica 9-point bold with initial letters capitalized (Heading 2). (Note: For sub-sections and sub-subsections, a word like the or of is not capitalized unless it is the first word of the heading.)
Headings for sub-subsections should be in Helvetica 9-point italic with initial letters capitalized (Heading 3).
Caption - pre-2002
Caption - 2003 and afterwards
Table 1. Table captions should be placed below the table.FIGURES/CAPTIONS
Place figures and tables at the top or bottom of the appropriate column or columns, on the same page as the relevant text (see Figure 1). A figure or table may extend across both columns to a maximum width of 17.78 cm (7 in.).
Captions should be Times New Roman 9-point bold (Caption Style in this template file). They should be numbered (e.g., "Table 1" or "Figure 2"), centered and placed beneath the figure or table. Please note that the words "Figure" and "Table" should be spelled out (e.g., "Figure" rather than "Fig.") wherever they occur.
Papers and notes may use color figures, which are included in the page limit; the figures must be usable when printed in black and white in the proceedings.
The paper may be accompanied by a short video figure up to two minutes in length. However, the paper should stand on its own without the video figure, as the video may not be available to everyone who reads the paper.
Occasionally MS Word generates larger-than-necessary PDF files when images inserted into the document are manipulated in MS Word. To minimize this problem, use an image editing tool to resize the image at the appropriate printing resolution (usually 300 dpi), and then insert the image into Word using Insert | Picture | From File...
The text of tables will format better if you use the special Table Text style (in this template file). If you do not use this style, then you may want to adjust the vertical spacing of the text in the tables. (In Word, use Format | Paragraphâ€¦ and then the Line and Page Breaks tab. Generally, text in each field of a table will look better if it has equal amounts of spacing above and below it, as in Table 1.)
LANGUAGE, STYLE AND CONTENT
The written and spoken language of SIGCHI is English. Spelling and punctuation may use any dialect of English (e.g., British, Canadian, US, etc.) provided this is done consistently. Hyphenation is optional. To ensure suitability for an international audience, please pay attention to the following: 
Write in a straightforward style.
Try to avoid long or complex sentence structures.
Briefly define or explain all technical terms that may be unfamiliar to readers.
Explain all acronyms the first time they are used in your text - e.g., "Digital Signal Processing (DSP)".
Explain local references (e.g., not everyone knows all city names in a particular country).
Explain "insider" comments. Ensure that your whole audience understands any reference whose meaning you do not describe (e.g., do not assume that everyone has used a Macintosh or a particular application).
Explain colloquial language and puns. Understanding phrases like "red herring" may require a local knowledge of English. Humor and irony are difficult to translate.
Use unambiguous forms for culturally localized concepts, such as times, dates, currencies and numbers (e.g., "1-5- 97" or "5/1/97" may mean 5 January or 1 May, and "seven o'clock" may mean 7:00 am or 19:00). For currencies, indicate equivalences - e.g., "Participants were paid 10,000 lire, or roughly $5."
Be careful with the use of gender-specific pronouns (he, she) and other gendered words (chairman, manpower, man-months). Use inclusive language that is gender-neutral (e.g., she or he, they, s/he, chair, staff, staff-hours, person-years). See  for further advice and examples regarding gender and other personal attributes.
If possible, use the full (extended) alphabetic character set for names of persons, institutions, and places (e.g., Grønbæk, Lafreniére, Sánchez, Universität, Weißenbach, Züllighoven, Århus, etc.). These characters are already included in most versions of Times, Helvetica, and Arial fonts.
Page Numbering, Headers and Footers
Please submit your anonymous version for reviewing with page numbers centered in the footer. These must be removed in the final version of accepted papers, as page numbers, headers, and footers will be added by the conference printers.
Producing and testing PDF files
We recommend that you produce a PDF version of your submission well before the final deadline. Besides making sure that you are able to produce a PDF, you will need to check that (a) the length of the file remains within the submission category's page limit, (b) the PDF file size is 4 megabytes or less, and (c) the file can be read and printed using Adobe Acrobat Reader.
Test your PDF file by viewing or printing it with the same software we will use when we receive it, Adobe Acrobat Reader Version 7. This is widely available at no cost from . Note that most reviewers will use a North American/European version of Acrobat reader, which cannot handle documents containing non-North American or non-European fonts (e.g. Asian fonts). Please therefore do not use Asian fonts, and verify this by testing with a North American/European Acrobat reader (obtainable as above). Something as minor as including a space or punctuation character in a two-byte font can render a file unreadable.
For archival submissions, CHI requires a "blind review." To prepare your submission for blind review, remove author and institutional identities in the title and header areas of the paper. You may also need to remove part or all of the Acknowledgments text. Further suppression of identity in the body of the paper and references is left to the authors' discretion. For more details, see the submission guidelines and checklist for your submission category.
It is important that you write for the SIGCHI audience. Please read previous years' Proceedings to understand the writing style and conventions that successful authors have used. It is particularly important that you state clearly what you have done, not merely what you plan to do, and explain how your work is different from previously published work, i.e., what is the unique contribution that your work makes to the field? Please consider what the reader will learn from your submission, and how they will find your work useful. If you write with these questions in mind, your work is more likely to be successful, both in being accepted into the Conference, and in influencing the work of our field.
We thank CHI, PDC and CSCW volunteers, and all publications support and staff, who wrote and provided helpful comments on previous versions of this document. Some of the references cited in this paper are included for illustrative purposes only.