Services Daas Using Vmware View Computer Science Essay

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This study consists of many Optimization Techniques which can be used be Improve and Optimize, Desktops as a Managed Service over the WAN. The default configuration of VMware View 4.5 environment are not suitable for viewing desktops over WAN with Bandwidth limited scenarios.

After our test and detailed study we found out that there are many items that can be customized with VMware View 4.5 Deployment to improve service level as well as end user experience over the WAN.

Desktop as a Service Solutions is the solution for delivering desktops and services as a managed services to end users and clients. VMware View 4.5 - A desktop virtualization solution offering from VMware provides robust, reliable and durable DaaS solution for mid and Large Enterprises.

Desktop as a Service is very interesting topic these days in I.T. industry. Companies are seeing desktop virtualization as a way to control cost and use limited resources to manage large-scale desktop infrastructure while increasing security and deployment efficiency. In This study we will test VMware View 4.5 Deployment with HP t5345 Thin Clients as well as HP Probook 4510s Notebook for 10 users over LAN and 1 user over the WAN.

3 Literature Review

Reference Architecture

VMware View Manager 4.5

VMware View Manager 4.5 is a leading virtual desktop manager, and a main component of VMware's DaaS deployment. IT manages use VMware's DaaS solution as a core for providing users with flexible reliable and secure access to their virtualized desktops and apps. The management console of VMware's DaaS can do brokering and continuous monitoring of very large desktops deployment. It has a Gui based Web-based administrative console for creating and modifying desktop images, managing user data, enforcing global policies, and more.

VMware View Connection Server

The View Connection Server is the connection broker. It is the key component that redirects traffic within the deployment as whole.

VMware View Security Server

This server provides security to Virtual Desktops of remote deployments. It only support RDP connection.

VMware View Administrator

It is the GUI HTTP application that allows configuration of VMware View 4.5 Deployments.

With the help of this, administrators can deploy and manage View desktops, control user authentication, and troubleshoot user issues.

VMware View Agent

A View Agent is installed on all virtual machines

VMware View Client

This is the client for accessing user virtual desktops. It supports Windows or Mac PC or Linux.

VMware View Portal

It is a Web Based portal for accessing desktops,

Ref: The VMware Reference Architecture for Stateless Virtual Desktops with VMware View 4.5"

PCOIP Optimization

PCOIP is the leading desktop imaging protocol by Teradici. PCOIP has many great advantages over traditional Display protocol in the market today.

Some advantages are as follows,

Same experience of Display on LAN and WAN

Auto built to lossless quality

Protocol built on WAN optimization

Ref: http://www.vmware.com/files/pdf/VMware-View-45-Stateless-RA.pdf

4 Primary Research

Software Needed for Deployment

VMware View Manager 4.5 ( Primary Server )

VMware View Manager 4.5 ( Secondary Server )

VMware vSphere (ESXi 4.1 and vCenterâ„¢ Server 4.1 )

VMware View Composer 4.5

Microsoft® Windows ® 2008 Standard

DHCP

DNS

DHCP Relay Agents

Active Directory

VPN Server

Firewall Configuration

Note that we deployed all these servers as virtual machines on the hardware selected for deployment.

VPN Server Specification

We used OpenVPN virtual appliance for VPN Server which is available as a freeware.

As PCoIP is a UDP-based display protocol. In the selection of VPN Server we checked that the server is capable to tunnel UDP and perform TCP fallback without service degradation. We will discuss in detail later regarding PCOIP Protocol. Due to requirement of UDP communication for VMware View 4.5, VPN Server is required for access to View Manager Server over the WAN.

Hardware Needed for Deployment

(1) HP Storage Works EVA 4400 Fibre Chanel SAN - 2 TB SAN

(2) HP ProLiant DL385 G6 Servers - ESXi host

(2) HP Procurve 6600 Data Center Switches

(2) APC 3KVA Redundant UPS

Server Specification of HP ProLiant DL385 G6

Server Model

HP ProLiant DL385 G6

Processor(s)

( 2 ) Six Core AMD Opteron processor Model 2431 2.4 Ghz

Memory

32 GB DDR-2 800Mhz

Network Adapter

8 ports of 1 GB Ethernet

Storage Controller

Smart Array P410i RAID controller with 1 GB cache flash-backed write cache (FBWC)

Hard Drives

( 2 ) 146 GB SAS 10K 3G

Form Factor

2U Rack Mount

Firewall Configuration

The following TCP ports were allowed through the firewall on following roles.

VMware View Manager (Primary and Secondary Server)

4001 - JMS

8009 - AJP13

80 - HTTP

443 - HTTPS

VMware View Agent (Virtual Desktop)

3389 - RDP

32111 - USB Redirection

4172 - PCoIP(TCP and UDP)

42966 - HP RGS

9427 - MMR

4100 - JMSIR

Ref : "Network connectivity requirements for VMware View Manager 4.5"

5 Optimization for Wide Area Network

The Overall Target for the test was to view Virtual Desktop with acceptable Performance over WAN

with limited Bandwidth i.e. 128 Kbps Full Duplex and with a Latency of 280 ms with a Display

The WAN Link selected in this test was: 2 Mbps - Dedicated.

Resolution of 1440 * 900 at 32bit color Depth. To achieve such objectives many customization were taken, which are discussed as follows.

It is also important to keep close eyes on others components that will directly affect PCoIP performance:

Group Policy

Group Policy is an integrated feature of the Microsoft Windows Server Operating systems. Group Policy consists of rules and policies. Group Policy is a part of Active Directory and it provides a single line of management operating systems, applications and users.

Ref: Wikipedia

PCOIP Optimization

Ref: www.teradici.com

The following template was customized for PCOIP Optimization in GPO through Active Directory.

Template Name

Template File

Description

PCOIP

PCOIP.adm

Contains policy settings related to the

Configuration

 

authentication and environmental components of

 

 

 

View Agent.

 

 

There settings (PCoIP Optimizations) allow you to optimize your PCoIP display experience. These settings are optionally enabled or set via Group Policies (GPO), or they are hidden in the registry.

Note: The Following adjustments were made simultaneously in order to achieve better results over a 128 Kbps WAN connection with 280 ms Latency.

PColPMaxLinkRate GPO

Adjustments

The Default Settings leads to poor performance over WAN. So we change this value in 2 Steps.

Initially we changed the value of PColPMaxLinkRate from default 0 i.e. 1Gbps to 1024 Kbps i.e.1 Mbps.

The Result with this setting was better than before with 20 to 25 fps suitable for a 1 Mbps WAN Link. In Order to Tune to run satisfactorily over a 128 Kbps Link we dropped the value of PColPMaxLinkRate to 512 Kbps.

PColPlmagingMinimumlmageQuality GPO

Adjustments

We changed the value of PColPlmagingMinimumlmageQuality from default 50 to 30

The Result with this setting was Faster Frame rates than before and also fast response time to Input Devices.

PColPlmagingMaximumlnitiallmageQualitv GPO

Adjustments

We changed the value of PColPlmagingMaximumlnitiallmageQualitv from 90 to 30.

This resulted in a lower initial image quality, with smaller peaks in bandwidth during large screen changes.

PCoIP.maximum_frame_rate GPO

Adjustments

We changed the value of PCoIP.maximum_frame_rate from 30 to 15.

This resulted in lower network utilization.

GPO

Default

State

Comments

PColPMaxLinkRate

0

512 Kbps

0 = no bandwidth constraints. Value changed to 512 Kbps for improved performance over WAN

PColPlmagingMinimumlmageQuality

50

30

• A higher frame rate or least value) for smooth motion, with lower image quality.

• A higher image quality or highest value for sharp images, with less smooth image motion.

PCoIP.maximum_frame_rate

30

15

• A higher frame rate for smooth display imaging motion, with possible increased average network bandwidth.

• A lower frame rate for a lower average network bandwidth, with less smooth image motion.

VMware View Optimization

VMware View Client, Agent and Server customization can be done from the following Active Directory GPO's. However in our test we

didn't used any customization in the following GPO's.

Template Name

Template File

Description

 

 

 

 

VMware View Agent

vdm_agent.adm

Contains policy settings related to the

Configuration

 

authentication and environmental components of

 

 

 

View Agent.

 

 

VMware View Client

vdm_client.adm

Contains policy settings related to View Client

Configuration

 

configuration.

 

 

 

Clients that connect from outside the View

 

 

Connection Server host domain are not affected by

 

 

 

policies applied to View Client.

 

 

 

 

VMware View Server

vdm_server.adm

Contains policy settings related to View

Configuration

 

 

Connection Server.

 

 

 

 

 

 

VMware View Common

vdm_common.adm

Contains policy settings that are common to all

Configuration

 

 

View components.

 

 

Ref: "VMware View Administrator's Guide"

Windows Operating System Optimization

The Following adjustments were made to the windows services of the Virtual Desktops from improving performance of the Virtual Desktop. In our test we used Windows XP Service Pack 3 and Windows 7 as our base Operating system for Virtual Desktops. Some Services map be applicable to Windows 7 only.

Service

Default

State

Block Level Backup Engine Service

Manual

Disable

Desktop Window Manager Session Manager

Auto

Disable

Disk Defragmenter

Manual

Disable

Diagnostic Policy Service

Auto

Disable

Home Group Listener

Manual

Disable

Home Group Provider

Manual

Disable

IP Helper

Auto

Disable

Microsoft iSCSI Initiator Service

Manual

Disable

Secure Socket Tunneling Protocol Service

Manual

Disable

Superfetch

Auto

Disable

Tablet PC Input Service

Manual

Disable

Themes

Auto

Disable

UPnP Host Service

Manual

Disable

Volume Shadow Copy Service

Manual

Disable

Windows Backup

Manual

Disable

Windows Defender

Auto

Disable

 

 

 

Windows Error Reporting

Manual

Disable

Service

 

 

Windows Firewall

Auto

Disable

 

 

 

Windows Media Center Receiver Service

Manual

Disable

Windows Media Center Scheduler Service

Manual

Disable

Windows Search

Auto

Disable

 

 

 

Windows Update

Auto

Disable

WLAN AutoConfig

Manual

Disable

WWAN AutoConfig

Manual

Disable

Offline Files

Manual

Disable

SSDP Discovery

Manual

Disable

Ref: "VMware View Optimization Guide for Windows 7 OPTIMIZATION GUIDE"

6 Recommendations

After using different optimization techniques we recommend the following suggestions.

Each end user is different

3D intensive of the normal user (e.g. forms or 3D viewer)

Display quality is vital to user (e.g. admin or artist)

Amount of interactivity vs. viewing

Simple Office Employee:

PCoIP protocol will use ~150-250Kbs on average

Assume network would be <60% utilized on average

3 - 4 users per T1 line

360Kbs per session for higher bandwidth networks

For WAN based Employee

PCoIP protocol will use ~100-250Kbs on average

Assume network would be <70% utilized on average

350Kbs per user for higher bandwidth networks

Set sessions cap to 512Kb/sec with the .ADM and set a floor to 50Kbs - PCoIP will deliver the a balanced experience

7 Conclusions

Through the test performed we conclude that VMware View 4.5 can successfully work under low Bandwidth conditions with satisfactory performance and quality without the use of any WAN accelerator using PCOIP Protocol. PCOIP is an adaptive Local and Remote Desktop Protocol for using Desktops. PCOIP is a protocol designed for Desktops and not for streaming applications without Operating System.

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