Security Routing Scheme For Mobile Adhoc Networks Computer Science Essay

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Mobile adhoc network is relatively used in the field of wireless technology. The path from the source to the destination does not exist completely most of the time. So we propose one of the routing scheme algorithms for the improved delivery of packets from one node to another. Our aim is using efficient routing schemes and providing security for Mobile ad hoc network so we use spray and wait algorithm for efficient route discovery and group key management for providing security in mobile ad hoc network. Since the flooding increased the overhead, spray based routing is used. The routing schemes which spray the few message copies into the network, and then route each copy independently towards the destination with a smaller searches with more efficient. During the data transfer, a group key management is employed for authentication code in order to ensure secure transmission between source and destination.

Keywords: Adhoc, Security, Spray and wait.

1. Introduction

A Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET) is a collection of nodes capable of communicating with each other without help from a network infrastructure. MANET is self organizing groups of mobile nodes which also act as router, connected by wireless links. The advances technology in wireless communication and the increasing popularity of portable computing devices, wireless and MANET plays a leading role. The complete path from the source to the destination does not exist always. In adhoc networks connection failure between source and destination often occurs due to mobility of nodes. After every failure the connection between source and destination gets disconnected. In general it re-establishes the connection by re discovering the route. So many real networks follow several models, in that networks researcher have suggested using flooding-based routing schemes.In flooding-based scheme network, they mostly wasted a lot of energy and suffer from severe problems and have less performance.

With this in mind, we use efficient routing scheme called spray and wait which spray a few message copies to the nodes around into the network, and each node carry copy independently towards the destination. The source broadcast the route request to the intermediate nodes until it reaches the destination. Spray and wait is highly scalable and retains good performance. We use group key from source to destination to improve security between nodes. Group key management is more suitable for mobile ad hoc networks because devices do not waste energy while communicate with another device by sharing a new shared secret key.


2.1 Routing schemes in mobile adhoc network

More number of works has been done on designing routing protocols in Mobile Ad hoc Networks. In that routing protocols are all based on the assumption that the network is connected [5]. Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is designed to function without any prior infrastructure in place, making them attractive mainly used in military scenarios. However, mobile ad hoc networks are limited in performance due to their nature of distributed wireless communication and often random and rapid topology Changes. One way to increase the network performance in MANET has been by sharing and utilizing information.

The routing protocol selects a route at lowest cost, and the most widely used cost metric in ad hoc networks are more effective. With this metric, the routing protocol selects a route between a source and a destination. The advantages are effective. Use of network resources, low delay and low overhead. However, a disadvantage of routing is that the routing protocol tends to select nodes on the edge of the transmission area as relay nodes, since this normally reduces the efficiency between a source and a destination

The routing protocol prefers neighbors that are located in the safe zone as relay nodes, while neighbors in the buffer zone are used to avoid network partitioning. The routing protocols for ad hoc networks can be divided into two groups, proactive and reactive. A proactive routing protocol aims to have an updated view of MANET routing protocols can be categories as: a Proactive and Reactive routing protocol which deals with the routes information. The Proactive protocol periodically maintains fresh lists for destinations and their routing tables throughout the network. The Reactive type of protocols finds a route on demand of the route request packets. The route remains valid till the destination is reachable or until the route is no longer needed.

Routing protocols for ad hoc networks must deal with the limitations such as high power consumption, low bandwidth, high error rates and arbitrary movements of nodes. The majority of the time between the nodes connection is not established. Because the mobile nodes are always moving in the network. With this in mind, we use a routing schemes algorithm of spray and wait that “spray” copies of the message into the network, and then each copy move independently towards the destination.

2.2 Spray and Wait

An algorithm called SPRAY[6] routing is used to improve the performance of route discovery over nearly directional approaches. SPRAY achieves this performance improvement by exploiting the last encounters between nodes.Using only one copy per message for whole transaction is not deliver a message with high reliability and its takes small delays because of node moving randomly. On the other hand, routing too many copies in parallel, as in the case of flooding-based schemes can often have many disadvantages in mobile adhoc networks.

The efficient routing protocol spray and wait performs significantly fewer transmissions than flooding-based routing schemes, under all conditions. Generate the limitation in contention, especially under high traffic loads. Deliver a message faster than existing single and multi-copy schemes, and exhibit close to optimal delays. Transfer the majority of the messages generated; highly scalable, simple, and more easy to use.

Spray and Wait combines simplicity and efficiency, there are some situations were it might fall short. Since too many transmissions are determined on performance, especially as the network size increases, our algorithm, Spray and Wait, distributes only a small number of copies each to a different relay. Each copy is carried in all the direction to the destination by the designated relay. Spray and Wait reduce the number of transmissions between the source and destination in the network and then is fixed for a large range of scenarios .








Figure 1 Spray workflow

3. Proposed methodology

3.1 Group key management

We propose group key management using spray and wait which is responsible for the the data transfer employed for authentication code in order to ensure secure transmission between source and destination, and to improve the efficient routing scheme performance. Most of the time the connection between the nodes does not establish. Because the mobile nodes are always moving. Here the data can be attacked by third-party easily where the security is missing. So security performs by using the key management policy .In the first case source can spray the number of copies in the network with key. The second approach is suited with group key management in order to ensure the security between the source and destination nodes in MANET. The transmission in the network depends upon the secrecy and authentication of keys for the data. The security of our protocol is also enhanced by this key management for few numbers of nodes in MANET.

3.2 Group key management workflow

By using Group key we can stream line the route discovery by providing more security to nodes. SPRAY is compatible with various types of flooding techniques. Time required to establish the route is less and fully depends on the availability of the nodes. Route Establishment latency for SPRAY is equal to Route Establishment latency of single step routing.

When the source has a message to send, it uses the source spray and wait routing algorithm first, sprays the message copies to the first nodes it meets and keeps one copy itself. If the node is a regular one, it will carry its copy until it reaches the destination. In the end of this process, if it still fails to meet the destination, all the nodes which have the message copy will keep this message copy until one of them encounters the destination and deliver the messages using direct transmission. The messages transferred from source to destination will be provided with some key number to be more secure and trusted.

Transfer message with security

Maintain routing table

Authentication code

Discover path



figure 2.1 Group key work flow









figure 2.2 Source encounters to Destination

4. Sample matching condition

If the code gets matched, then message from source is transferred to destination using a key which is more secure and trusted.









Figure 3 Source A to Destination H using Messing copy node C

Source key

Destination key













Table 1 Matching condition

5. Result and Discussion

Figure 4 Source and Destination is shown in red(randomly)

The source and destination node is differentiated in the screen shot ,we created ten node to deliver the detail of the spray and wait algorithm when less number of the node used then transmission happen between the node is reduced.

Figure 5 Number of copies for 10 nodes.

The figure 5 shown detail about ,the node in the network are always moving .The node cannot made the path permanently or for the time .

6. Conclusion and future work

In this paper, we proposed a technique which allows a message transfer from source to destination with more security. There are number of applications like disaster recovery scenarios, remote village communications where nodes are disconnected. Existing ad hoc routing protocols unable to send messages in the absence of a network path between source and destination since they are rapidly changing network topology. For delivering packets in such scenarios, numbers of protocols were developed. To keep the message more secure and efficient we use spray and wait algorithm .This Effective security routing scheme defines last-encounter routing, here we never use the geographical location data of the mobile nodes. Unlike the flooding techniques involved in conventional routing methods here we have a directional movement of route discovery. This reduces the routing overhead enormously. The routing scheme allows the source to securely discover an authenticated route to the destination using message authentication codes .Several techniques are used to improve efficiency. But this method is more efficient and secure.

In future work our intentation is to extend this analysis to cover more geographical areas contention for the wireless channel with different topology, and more number of mobility models should be used to optimize by means of channel strength.