Security requirements of WSNs are confidentiality, integrity, authentication, availability,scalability, resilience, key establishment and trust setup. There are three major challenges of WSN, they are the limited resources, unreliable communication and unattended operation.
Limited resource includes the limited computation, memory and the battery capacity. Unreliable communication means unreliable data transfer, limited data rate and limited broadband. Unattended operation implies the untrusted nodes and the remote control.
2. The latest development of Mica family was MicaZ which was released in 2003, it was produced with a Chipcon CC2420 wideband radio module that supported 802.15.4 and ZigBee protocols, with a data rate up to 250 Kbps. The radio module also supported on-chip data encryption and authentication. The latest Teslo family member was released in 2004, which is also designed as a microcontroller from Texas Instruments with 3 mW active power and 15 _W sleep power, an internal antenna was built into the printed circuit board to reduce cost, an on-board USB for easier interface with PCs with the integrated humidity, temperature, and light sensors, also a 64-bit MAC
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address for the unique node identification. The Spec integrates the functionality of Mica onto a single 5 mm2 chip. Spec was built with a micro-radio, an analog-to-digital converter, and a temperature sensor on a single chip that leads to a 30-fold reduction in total power consumption. This single-chip integration also opened the path to low cost sensor nodes. The other brand is WeC that is also a relatively powerful processor and has a communication capability, the latest development of WeC shows it is designed as a simple radio with 8 Information processing and routing in Wireless Sensor Networks to support a data rate up to 10 Kbps, with 36 mW transmitting power and 9 mW receiving power.
3. Military application can be considered as one of the important usages in WSN because WSN design satisfies the military security requirements, for example, the sensor nodes can be dropped in a battlefield from a plane to alert military commands of the situation in hostile regions, they can monitor the movements of the troops and the vehicles of the enemy without alerting him of its presence, they can also detect threats of chemical or biological weapons and sensor nodes can select the important information and send them back to the base station. An early example of sensing with wireless devices is the Air Delivered Seismic Intrusion Detector (ADSID) system, used by US Air Force in the Vietnam war. Each ADSID node was about 48 inches in length, nine inches in diameter, and weighted 38 pounds. Equipped with a sensitive seismometer, these ADSID nodes were planted along the Ho Chi Minh Trail to detect vibrations from moving personnel to vehicles. The sensed data was transmitted from each node directly to an airplane over a channel with unique frequency.
4. TinyOS means Tiny Operating System, originally developed as a research project at the University of California Berkeley. Now TinyOS Alliance take responsibility for the development of this operating system.
It is applied to WSN as a free open-source operating system under the BSD license. The initial source model was released in 2000. Currently the system still runs with a special programming language called nesC and provides interfaces and components for the common abstractions, such as: packet communication, routing, sensing, actuation and storage. Because it has only a single stack without blocking at all, the I/O operations last longer than a few hundred microseconds are asynchronous and have a callback. All the tasks are non-preemptive and run in FIFO order. The latest version 2.1.1 is released in April, 2010.
5. The pseudo random function( PRF) Fs structure used in SPINS is just for the key encryption.
PRF function allows a master key embedded in it to create the message encryption key and MAC key for both directions of communication, such as: for AB and BA). Here is how the master key works in Pseudo Random Function Fs structure:
Let X = master key, shared between node A and node B:
1. To generate a message encryption key for communication from node A to node B, the PRF structure with a master key X is: K(AB) = Fx (1)
2. To generate message encryption key for communication from node B to node A,
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the PRF structure with a master key X is : K( BA) = Fx (3)
3. To generate MAC key for communication from node A to node B, the PRF structure with a master key X is: K' (AB) = Fx (2)
4. To generate MAC key for communication from node B to node A, the PRF structure with a master key x is: K' (BA) = Fx (4)
a. Back Orifice (BO) is a remote computer system administrative program by using AES, serpent, CAST-256, IDEA or Blowfish encryption algorithms, written by a group of hackers called the cult of the Dead Cow. Once installed, it can invisibly run your Windows Operating System from another place and do anything that the attacker wants to do in your computer without being noticed by you. BO is not a virus, but a trojan horse from backdoor.
It usually attacks the access point by creating the TCP or UDP communicating port number, installs a plugging program in your Windows system by using .exe file. When you turn on your computer, .exe file will startup automatically.
As long as it runs in your computer system, it will steal your passwords, change the screen display, change file names or contents, remove some other installed programs, and listen to your communicaiton with the other people online. To avoid it, choosing symantec's Norton software or Mcafee software is helpful, choosing other encryption algorithms for the secure communication, like:
HMAC & Sha-1 instead of CAST-256, AES, Blowfish, etc, paying attention to the network address altering notification by email and cgi or any remote Windows registry editing because back orifice usually attack these two areas, checking your on-line key-logging because back orifice will usually leave evidence there.
b. NetBus is a similar back door trojan horse program to BO, it also allows the remote user to do most of the functions BO can do at your computer. Additionally, it can open/close the CD-ROM drive, send interactive dialogues to chat with the compromised system, listen to the system's microphone (if it has one), and a few more other features, like: keystroke logging and injection, screen captures, file browsing, program launching, shutting down the system and tunneling NetBus connections through a number of systems. Once a user installs NetBus, a cracker can access files, programs, and even printers through the system because the user's computer essentially gets a zombie, also a cracker can use it to transmit DoS attacks.
NetBus always uses port number 12345 and 12346 for listening for TCP network connections. A better way to avoid it is to delete it, for example, You can telnet to the machine at port 12345 or 12346 first by typing password '1', then type RemoveServer command '1'. You will be disconnected, and netBus will be disabled and no longer run at startup. You also need delete Patch.exe installed in your Windows directory if you want to completely remove NetBus.