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Wireless sensor networks have developed over the decade and wireless communication has become one of the fast and secure way of communication. Sensor networks carry the responsibility of communicating large number of resources over the nodes, which involves sensing the surrounding environment and sending the collected data. Many sensor networks are placed in a remote area or an hostile environment, where security is important as the data that are communicated between nodes can be modified or changed and sent by intruders. Secure way of communicating data or signals are made possible by encryption algorithm and pre-key distribution methods. Wireless sensor networks are designed with sensor nodes which works on low power and can effectively communicate within a short range. These wireless sensor networks are widely used in military operations and health services. Security for the wireless sensor networks are complicated due to the threat that results in node failure. Thus keys are used to provide security to communicate between the sensor nodes.
wireless sensor networks can be easily attacked as they are placed in a remote location and once the sensor node has been attacked the intruder can misuse the data and send false information to the other nodes costing and which results in expensive loss. Most of the cryptographic techniques helps in detecting intrusion, but identifying the false information is complicated. The reduction of the computation with the help of optimization methods to evaluate polynomials helps in computation pair-wise keys. The researchers provide locations for key distribution, which causes failure and is hard to find out. The key deployment does not require expected location of the server. Public key and key distribution methods are used to provide security for wireless sensor networks. Authentication and encryption methods for an wireless sensor networks is provided by key management. The key management looks for low cost techniques which can survive the security issues faced by the nodes in an sensor network. Pair-wise key distribution helps in communicating securely with the neighboring nodes using cryptographic techniques, by which an intrusion which is made can be detected easily by comparing the data with the neighboring nodes. The implementation of sensor nodes in a hostile location is done by deployment of key distribution. Information and details over the location and the recently discovered sensors are not required for the deployment of the key distribution. A better performance is achieved by use of the hash key and polynomial base scheme on a wireless sensor network.
Post and pre deployments of pair-wise pre-distribution of the key helps in providing security to the sensor nodes. Closest pair-wise key and closest polynomial are the keys provided by the pre deployment. The post deployment loads large amount of pre distributed keys to the nodes on the wireless sensor networks and these keys are used priority wise.
Various sensor networks based application requires the location details of the sensors, it is very expensive to build a global positioning system with every sensor node that is used to communicate data. Thus algorithm can be created which may use the node details to discover the location of the sensor node that is specified along with it, by this procedure the location of the sensor which has been affected or damaged can be identified and replaced or fixed .
Sensor nodes can be implemented using aerial scattering. Sensor node are usually placed in a cluster, each cluster have a unique cluster id. A cluster head collects the information from all the nodes in the cluster. A cluster head can change based on the requirement, such as remaining energy. The sensor nodes are set to be bidirectional such that they can send and receive data either ways .
An application based framework is developed to identify nodes that are being compromised by creating detection mechanism on the sensor networks, this is done by monitoring the relationship between the sensors in the network. An algorithm to accurately identify compromised sensor node is proposed and the algorithm does not depend only on the assumption that has been resulted due to the node that has been compromised. The algorithm can identify large number of nodes that have been compromised and can generate notifications regarding alerts that has occurred at a particular node .
The sensor nodes are implemented in a two dimensional field called target and communication between sensors is made available within single signal range. The coordinates often sensor node can be found using coordinates in the target field . Every sensor node is said to have an location that can be predetermined. A sensor is placed at the location called deployment location which may or may not be the same as the location that is expected. A deployment error at the sensor node is said to be the difference between the location of deployment and the expected location .
Establishment of pair-wise key has the following phases: Set up, Direct and path key establishment. Set up performs more initialization. The direct key establishment helps in establishing the pair-wise key between the first two nodes. If establishment is successful then there is no need of path key establishment.
As the wireless sensor network growing in multiples it is necessary to maintain and provide efficient sensors, access nodes and all other components that can make efficient communication between sensor nodes and improve the performance of the wireless sensor networks. As the wireless sensor networks is based on wireless technologies involving communication over radio frequencies, it is easy for attackers to eavesdrop the data that is being communicated from one sensor to the other. It is necessary to provide high security to the wireless sensor network so that there is no possibility of intrusion by attackers. As the wireless sensor network is used in hostile location where it can be easily attacked and false data can be injected through the sensors. An efficient cryptographic method should be created and implemented so that the data that are communicated are encrypted using cryptographic methods before they are communicated from one sensor to other. Thus the implementation of a secure wireless sensor network which can support in network processing within the network enables the aggregate subgroup to use on way hash chains. The proposed protocol on a wireless sensor network uses the Berkeley motes  does improving the performance of the wireless sensor networks.