Sattie hanuman

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Use case diagram showing general overview of scenario

Description:

The use case above provides a general overview of the scenario which includes all the use cases that would be expanded on in the proceeding figures.

The scenario comprises of five different use cases each of which consists of actors.

use case diagram of select electoral candidate

Description/ assumptions made:

This use case diagram shows the steps that would be taken in selecting electoral candidates.

It shows that the actors involved in this process are the party members and the full time party workers.

It also shows that the full time party workers are responsible for selecting potential candidates and adding names to a shortlist.

The party members on the other hand are the ones that are responsible for organizing and attending electoral meetings. They also select the electoral candidates.

The assumptions that have been made in this use case are:

The full time party workers select potential candidates for elections.

After the electoral candidates have been chosen, a record would have to be created and this is done by the full time party workers.

Use Case diagram for collect income

Description/ assumptions made:

The income that is being referred to is the money that is coming into the party. This would include the annual subscription fee and the donations. These payments are illustrated as include relationships in the use case above. The actors that are part of this use case include the party members and the full time party workers.

The assumptions that were made when creating this use case include:

The full time party workers may or may not be a party member. If they are a party member then they would be required to pay the subscription fee and in turn give the party a donation.

If they aren't a party member they may still like to give the party a donation.

Along with the subscription fee that the members are required to pay, the party members may like to give additional money to the party in the form of a donation.

The payments that are made needs to be collected and a record kept. This reflected one of the responsibilities that the full time party workers should undertake.

use case diagram of make payments

Description/ assumptions made:

The payments that are being referred to in the above use case are all the payments that the party has to undertake. The actors involved in this use case are the party members and the full time party workers. The payments that had to be undertaken by the full time party workers include the payment of staff and the renting of headquarters and regional offices. The party members pay for the party's electoral materials.

The various assumptions that were made when creating this use case were:

The full time party workers are the ones the pays the staff and the rent.

These payments are made with the income that was collected from the collect income use case.

The party members pay for all election material.

Description/ assumptions made:

This use case represents all the reports that are to be created as understood in the scenario. These reports are created by the paid party staff.

The records that are created are the income that is coming into the party which includes the subscription fee and the donations. The other report that is created is that of all the expenditure that the party undertakes.

The full time party workers also create a final financial report. This report is intended to compare the party's income with its expenditure to ensure that it is not over budget.

The assumptions that were made while creating this use case are:

The full time party workers are the ones that create all reports.

They would record all the moneys coming into the party that is the party's income.

The full time party workers would also record all the various expenditures that the party would have to undertake.

They would then produce a final financial report that compares the party's income with its expenditure.

Number:

UC01

Req Doc Ref:

3.9

Name:

Select electoral candidates

Status:

Working

Actors:

Party member, Full time party worker

Pre-Requisites:

Must be a party member to select electoral candidates

Goal:

To select AM's and MP's for election

Use Case Relationships:
Extend: Create records
Include: AM candidates, MP candidates
Association: Party member
Generalisation:

Description:

Index

Actor Event

1

Select potential candidates

2

Add names to shortlist
Find location
Organize meeting
Attend meeting
Select electoral candidate

Alternatives:

Index

Actor Event

A1

No potential candidates was chosen

A1.1

Return to step 1 and select potential candidates

Use Case Description

Use Case Description for select electoral candidates

Number:

UC02

Req Doc Ref:

4.0

Name:

Collect income

Status:

Working

Actors:

Party member, Full time party workers

Pre-Requisites:

Must be a full time party worker

Goal:

To collect all the money coming into the party

Use Case Relationships:
Extend: Create records
Include: Annual subscription fee, donations
Association: Party member
Generalisation:

Description:

Index

Actor Event

1

Individuals make payments

2

Collect payments made
Record all payments

Alternatives:

Index

Actor Event

A3

No individual payments made

A3.1

Go to next individual
Return to step 2

Use Case Description for collect income

Number:

UC03

Req Doc Ref:

4.2

Name:

Make payments

Status:

Working

Actors:

Party member, Full time party worker

Pre-Requisites:

Must be a party member and a full time party worker

Goal:

To pay for all the  party's expenditure

Use Case Relationships:
Extend: Create records
Include: Annual subscription fee, donations
Association: Party member, Full time party worker
Generalisation:

Description:

Index

Actor Event

1

Gather finances

2

Pay staff

3

Pay for electoral material

4

Rent headquarters and regional offices

Alternatives:

Index

Actor Event

A1

Don't have enough finances

A1.1

Return to step 1

Use Case Description for make payments

Number:

UC04

Req Doc Ref:

4.5

Name:

Create reports

Status:

Working

Actors:

Full time party worker

Pre-Requisites:

Must be a full time party worker

Goal:

To create reports on all party's finances

Use Case Relationships:
Extend:
Include: Annual subscription fee, donations, staff payments, electoral material, rent
Association: Full time party worker
Generalisation:

Description:

Index

Actor Event

1

Record annual income

2

Record annual expenditure

3

Produce final financial report

Alternatives:

Index

Actor Event

A3

Accounts don't balance

A3.1

Check annual income

A3.2

Check annual expenditure

A3.3

Create financial report

Use Case Description for create reports

Activity diagram for select electoral candidate

Activity diagram for collect income

Activity diagram for make payments

Activity diagram for create reports

Class Diagram

15: CRC card for party members

CRC card for paid party staff

CRC card for Assembly members

CRC card for Members of Parliament

CRC card for full time part worker

CRC card for paid party staff

CRC card for full time national officers

CRC card for full time party workers

Communication diagram for select electoral candidates

Communication diagram for make payments

Sequence diagram for select electoral candidates

Sequence diagram for make payments

State machine diagram for select electoral candidates

The data protection laws in Trinidad and Tobago is based on the Data protection bill. This bill is aimed to protect individuals' privacy and personal information but at the same time find the perfect balance to what information can be released to or viewed by member of the public.

It intends to accomplish this goal by protecting the citizens of the abovementioned country from the following:

The unauthorized use

The unauthorized collection

The unauthorized disclosure

Of persons personal and sensitive information.

The bill also outlined that persons personal information may be disclosed only when legitimate business is to be performed. This may include application for either goods, services or an award.

The data protection bill is concerned with the following:

  • The management of personal and sensitive information.
  • The protection of personal information that is held by organizations from unauthorized use and disclosure unless consent is given by the individual themselves.
  • The imposition of obligations on both the countries public and private sectors and not just the public sector.

That any request for personal information under the Freedom of information act will actually be a request under the data protection legislation.

Generally, the clauses contained in part three of the bill deals with the limitations of public authorities to the storage of personal information.

Clause 37 of the bill deals with how individuals personal information held by public authorities are to be disposed of.

In continuation, clauses 38 and 39 outlines the various conditions that under which individuals personal and sensitive information should be used by those in public authority.

Furthermore clause 40 of part two of the bill provides an exemption to the protection of personal information.

This information can be divulged if:

  • It is an issue concerned with affecting national security.
  • Health care emergencies.
  • For research and or statistical purposes.

Part five of the bill provides the consequences to breaching aspects of the bill. The convictions may include:

Imprisonment if found guilty.

Convicted persons being required to pay a fine of up to $50,000

Convicted corporations being required to pay a fine of up to $250,000

The bill also provides individuals protection against discrimination since sensitive information such as person's ethnicity; race etc would not be processed.

The data protection laws that were researched would fully apply to the computer system that is to be developed for the most popular party.

These laws aim to protect individual's personal and sensitive information from view by the general public.

The most popular party records information manually that is quit sensitive, and that should not be viewed by the general public. This bill aims to protect this kind of information and in turn put measures into place to deal with any breaches if any were to occur. Though, a computerized system is to be developed, the effectiveness of the bill would remain the same.

On its computerized system, this party would be recording information about the candidates that are to stand for elections. Certain information such as the candidates name and the county he/ she represents or stands for are allowed to be viewed by the public. On the other hand, information such as the candidates salary and bank account number should not under no circumstances be accessible by the general public. This is where the data protection bill plays its part. It allows only the members of the party whom are in charge of this particular activity to be able to view this information but protects the information from everyone else in the party and the general public.

The bill also protects the privacy of the names of the individuals and organizations that gives donation to the party and the amount that they donate. Again the only persons that would have access to this information are the party members since that are the ones that are collecting the funds and creating the reports. If anyone else other than the party members gains access to this information they would be punished to the full extent of the law as that outlined in the bill above.

Methods that should be implemented to ensure that data protection best practices are implemented in the new system would include:

  • The use of passwords. These should be unique and only persons whom are supposed to have access to certain information should have them.
  • Passwords should be memorized and not written down so that any unauthorized access could be avoided.
  • Computers that are being used to record sensitive information it should be locked before of if it is to be left unattended.
  • Passwords should be changed frequently before it can be figured out by some unauthorized personnel.
  • The systems that are being used to store personal, sensitive and confidential information should be placed in a secure area where it can't be accessed by anyone other than those persons that are permitted to use the system.
  • Data should be encrypted so if access by unauthorized personnel' s it would be unreadable.

Screen shot of candidates table

Screen shot of Party member's table

Screen shot of systems switchboard

Screen shot of electoral candidates for a particular county

Screen shot to edit a member's details

Screen shot to register a new member

Screen shot of all the party's M.P's

Un-normalise data structure:

Political party ({Registration #,party name ,country} {member ID, member name, member address, member contact #, member e- mail address}{member ID, candidate ID, name, administrative region, county, post }{member ID, ID#, member name, member contact #, member address, membership period, subscription fee}{ staff ID, staff name, staff address, staff contact #, staff post} {staff ID ,officer ID, officer name, officer contact #, officer address}{ staff ID, worker ID, name, address, contact #}{Candidate ID, A.M ID, candidate name, Administrative regions, Counties}{Candidate ID, M.P ID, candidate name, Administrative region, county})

First normal form:

Political party (registration #, party name, country)

Candidates (candidate ID, candidate name, administrative region, county, post)

Individual members (ID#, member ID, member name, member contact #, member address)

National officers (staff ID, officer ID, officer name, officer contact #, officer address)

Full time party workers (staff ID, worker ID, name, address, contact #)

A.M (Candidate ID, A.M ID, candidate name, Administrative region, county)

M.P (Candidate ID, M.P ID, candidate name, Administrative region, county)

First repeating group:

Party member (member ID, member name, member address, member contact #, member e- mail address, membership period, subscription fee)

Second repeating group:

Paid party staff (staff ID, staff name, staff address, staff contact #, staff post)

Second normal form:

Political party (Registration #, party name, country)

Candidates (candidate ID, candidate name, administrative region, county, post)

A.M (Candidate ID, A.M ID, candidate name, Administrative region, county)

M.P (Candidate ID, M.P ID, candidate name, Administrative region, county)

Individual members (ID#, member ID, member name, member contact #, member address)

National officers (staff ID, officer ID, officer name, officer contact #, officer address)

Full time party workers (staff ID, worker ID, name, address, contact #,)

Party member (member ID, staff ID, member name, member address, member contact #, member e- mail address, membership period, subscription fee)

Paid party staff (staff ID, staff name, staff address, staff contact #, staff post)

Third normal form:

Political party (Registration #, party name, country)
Party member (member ID, member name, member address, member contact #, member e- mail address, membership period, subscription fee)
Candidates (candidate ID, candidate name, administrative region, county, post)
A.M (A.M ID, Candidate ID*, Administrative region, county)
M.P (M.P ID, Candidate ID*, Administrative region, county)
Individual members (ID#, member ID*, member name, member contact #, member address, responsibilities)
Paid party staff (staff ID, staff name, staff address, staff contact #, staff post)
National officers (Officer ID, staff ID*, officer name, officer contact #, officer address)
Full time party workers (worker ID, staff ID*, name, address, contact #, responsibilities)

Data dictionary for members

Data dictionary for candidates

Data dictionary for individual members

Data dictionary for AM's

Data dictionary for paid party staff

Data dictionary for MP's

Data dictionary for National officers

Data dictionary for full time party worker

What is OOAD?

The object oriented approach that was adapted in carrying tasks 1- 3 was OOAD. OOAD or Object Oriented Analysis and Design can be defined as "a process used to design and build programs for an extended lifetime." (Phillips, (2009)). It involves the use of interacting objects that are uniquely characterized by its class, state and behavior. These objects are represented by the use of UML diagrams. According to tasks 1- 3 in the assignment, the UML or unified modeling language diagrams that were outlined included use case diagrams, use case specification diagrams, activity diagrams, class diagrams, collaboration communication diagrams, component diagrams and state machine diagrams.

This methodology comprises of two distinct stages.

  1. The analysis stage
  2. The design stage

According to figure 3 below, the analysis stage is concerned with understanding user's requirements and realizing the problems of the existing system.

On the other hand, the design stage focuses on how the users requirements outlined in stage 1 would be met as well as how the existing problems would be resolved.

Overview of the object oriented analysis and design process

As with any process the presence of advantages and drawbacks is prevalent. The associated advantages and drawbacks are illustrated in the table below.

ADVANTAGES

DRAWBACKS

It allows for the re- use of code when developing a system.

Focuses mainly on the use of code.

Reduces maintenance costs of a system.

Does not facilitate for the use of team work.

It is flexible since it allows changes
to be made to an existing system without having to redesign an entirely new system.

Objects are generally difficult to locate.

The advantages and drawbacks of OOAD

What is SSADM?

SSADM on the other hand is an acronym for structured system analysis and design methodology. According to Goodland and Riha (1999) this methodology divides a project into stages and creates a framework for enhanced communication between members of a project.

This well defined methodology comprises of three main components. Again, according to Goodland and Riha (1999) these components may include:-

  1. Structure
  2. Technique
  3. Documentation

Structure

This component is concerned with the provision of the various actions that needs to be undertaken during the development of a system. It also includes the inputs that would be required to make these undertakings possible and the outputs of each action.

Technique

After the various actions, inputs and outputs have been logically identified, they need to materialize. This is where technique comes into place. This deals with the way in which these actions are to be carried out with their appropriate inputs to produce their required outputs.

Documentation

This final component deals with the manner in which the outputs of the various actions that were undertaken would be presented. In addition, it deals with the sequence of activities that had to be carried out to produce those outputs.

SSADM logically follows a cascading design where each step in the design leads to another step.

According to 'Essential Notes on System Analysis and Design' (2001) paper 2.1 this cascading design comprises of eight (8) main steps. These steps can be conceptualized via the diagram below.

Structure of SSADM

In conclusion, this methodology consists of numerous benefits and detriments.

The following table aims to outline the major benefits and detriments of using this structured system analysis and design methodology.

BENEFITS

DETRIMENTS

Improves overall productivity

Difficult to use.

Reduces the amount of errors within
a system. Hence improving the overall quality of the system

Time consuming.

It consists of well- defined techniques and documentations.

Difficult to incorporate changes into the requirements.

It caters for user's involvement.

Training can be costly.

It considers three different system views.

Allows the system to be monitored while being developed.

Table 2: The benefits and detriments of SSADM

There are numerous differences associated with both of these methodologies. These differences are clearly illustrated in the table below.

O.O.A.D

S.S.A.D.M

Consists of numerous, well- defined diagrams that aid in design processes.

Does not consist of any well- designed diagrams to aid in design

Involves the use of interacting objects.

Development is not concerned with the use of objects.

Allows for the re- use of code when developing a system.

All code needs to be created as development proceeds.

Allows changes to be made to an existing system.

If changes need to be made to an existing system, an entirely new system needs to be developed.

Table 3: Differences between SSADM and OOAD

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