Robotics in surgery and nanotechnology

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1. INTRODUCATION

This piece of document widely describes about the emerging technologies. From these emerging technologies mainly two technologies have been described here, Robotics in surgery and Nanotechnology. The first part of document depicts the history and the structure of the robots that are used in surgeries. The fields that affected by the invention of the evolution of robotics in surgery are medical, biological, economy, and social. The main applications factors are also described in the following paper. The social impacts and business impacts of robotics in surgery are precisely described. There are more advantages with some of disadvantages also illustrated. Mainly I have emphasized on the dedication of the robots in the field of the medical.

On the other hand nanotechnology has been widely used in large number of fields such as: mechanical, medical, financial etc. The nano-technology is such a key thing for any organization. With the use of this new technology we can increase comfort of peoples. Considering about Nanotechnology, we discuss about its structure at first and later main motivation for its creation. Furthermore, discussing about its technology and continue with its advantages and disadvantages. It also includes securing human lives and which helps in business expansion, and considering about impact on health.

2. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY - ROBOTICS IN SURGERY

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The initialization of robotics technology was implemented in 1985. The first use of the robot in surgery was in brain biopsy surgery to maintain accuracy to handle needle. Then ROBODOC (a system known as Integrated Surgical System) performed another surgery for use in hip replacement surgery. After success of this in Europe there were 5000 successful operation performed with such technology. [1]

The robotics surgery in the general sense means that to use of robots to do surgery on human. None surgical robots are same. They are differentiating on the usability and the accessibility. On one end of the spectrum, robots perform surgical techniques without the direct intervention of a surgeon. The main difference among each system is involvement of human to performing the surgery. In this system the robots are designed to perform some task like operations. On the other hand, doctors perform surgery with the assistance of a robot, but the doctor is doing most of the work. Robotics has been used in 10 different medical fields to perform surgeries on humans.

v ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

Advantages [2, 3]:

· Patient is the decrease in pain and scaring

· By using cameras and enhanced visual effects, doctors can make the tinniest of incisions

· Have no feelings so any major operation which needs extreme concentration can be done quicker and easier.

· Could never make any mistakes.

· Does not require any break so can work 24/7 without stopping.

· Can focus on the particular object so the operation would be perfect.

· Some operations can only done by robots e.g. bypass surgery.

· Can work more than humans.

· Could see tinniest things which humans can't see easily.

· Robotic assistants can also decrease the fatigue that doctors experience during surgeries that can last several hours.

Disadvantages [4, 5, 6]:

· High initial cost of robotic systems.

· Surgeons use the robots manually to perform operation.

· Robots can't loss of physical equipments while performing operations

· Unsuccessful in Orthopedic operation.

v Why we need robotics in surgery in present day? /Do we really need this technology?

In today's world robotics is used in the surgery for betterment of the lives of human being. In the old technology there were many people who lost their lives due to human mistakes. Now with the help of robots there are less chances of surgery to be unsuccessful. This can open door of new techniques in the field of medical. Some surgeries when human feels limitation, robots can be performed such work easily.

2.1. THE IMPACT OF ROBOTICS IN SURGERY ON BUSINESS[1,8,9,10,11,12,]

The robotics has played a golden part in the progress of the business. It open the doors of future surgery as well as the huge profit in the business by making surgeries faster and cent per cent.

Moreover more people now a day using this technology as it brings quick recovery to the patients. So, commercially the productions of such robots are lucrative for manufacturer. More and more hospitals are adopting this technology as they no need lines of doctors to perform one operation.

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Surgeons as well as patients are benefited from robotic technology. Robotics technologies increase quality of work. They can focus on delivering the product wanted by the consumer rather than the product that can be delivered easiest by the production process. Staff training will be much larger if they are required to use more complicated equipments. The best advantage is new technology has brought to business in the ability to reduce size of work force. This can replace low skilled humans, saving money long run. It also improves the overall productivity of humans, meaning businesses are getting more for the money spent on wages than they might have previously done. Moreover, it enforce training resulting from investments gives firms a better skilled, more flexibility - better equipped to deal with changes in the pattern of demand in the future.

2.2. THE IMPACT OF ROBOTICS IN SURGERY ON SOCIETY[1,6,7,8]:

Robots in the field of surgery have dramatically changed the procedures for the better. By using cameras and enhanced visual effects, doctors can make the tinniest of incisions in surgery. The da Vinci system each use "arms" to operate. In order for these arms to get inside the body and operate, they only need a few centimeters for an incision. Typically in that type of surgery the incision is about 30 centimeters in length.

The smallness of the incisions also causes many other advantages that make Robotic Surgery worth the risk. Due to the small and precise cuttings, the patents hospital stay is greatly reduced. A person needs far less recovery time when they have 3-centimeter scars then when they have a scar almost 10 times as large. Also, the risk of infection or complications decreases as the incision size does.

Besides this, Robotic Surgery is also very advantageous to the surgeon and hospital. The robotic technologies improve and become more user-friendly, more surgeons are likely to attempt minimal access operations that they otherwise would not have tried because of their lack of laparoscopic skill. In the ZEUS Surgical System, an "arm" on the machine is dedicated to the Automated Endoscope System. It is also known as AESOP. AESOP is a 3D camera used in robotic surgery. Moreover, It can be zoomed in by either voice activation or pedals located at the surgeons foot. Doctors argue that AESOP gives a better image than in real life. This is particularly true with surgeons that have poor vision or in microscopic surgery's that deal with nerves. Finally, the most important impact using robots in surgery is in long operations, particularly ones that deal with nerve or tissue reconstruction. Surgeons often tire easily after performing microscopic surgery's that last hours. However, by having the ability to be seated and have less strain on the eyes, doctors can control their natural flinching or nerves more efficiently.

3. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY NANOTECHNOLOGY

Nanotechnology is a technology which measure, manipulate and produce things at nanometer scale. It's a measurement unit of length. Generally this technology is used to work at micro level. i.e. Atom, Bacteria, Molecular etc. There are many implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology can create many new equipment and devices with an immense range of applications in medicine, electronics and energy making.

Generally, nanotechnology can be defined as 'engineering at a very tiny range', and this term can be applied to numerous areas of research and development - from medicine to computing to manufacturing, and even to cosmetics and textiles. Fundamentally, One nanometer (Also known as nm) is one billionth of a meter [1nm =10-9 meter]. To compare with other molecule, a carbon-carbon bond length is 0.12nm - 0.15 nm, and a DNA double-helix has a diameter of 2nm. On the other hand, the smallest cellular life-forms, the bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma, are around 200nm in length.

Mainly, two major approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the "bottom-up" approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components. These components assemble themselves chemically by molecular gratitude. In the "top-down" approach, objects [nano] are built from larger entities without atomic-level command. [15, 16, 17, 18]

v ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

Advantages:

* With the use of it, we can make very strong and very light materials.

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* We can make small size of memory product with high storage capacity.

* This technology is also used in preventing the hair loss and graying issues.

* The nano devices can easily enter the skin and resolve skin issues and repair skin tissues. Skin aging can also be prevented.

* This technology can be very helpful in cancer surgery as patients need not to face any side effects like hair-loss, nosier, heart trouble.

* It can be helping in solve the issues that how to reach to target organs in order to perform treatment.

* Nanotechnology is providing increased stability to fuel cells and is making its expenses viable with traditional sources of power production.- Jan 7,2010.[28]

* Small, cheap, numerous sensors, computers, and other implantable devices are used to fitness monitoring and semi-automated healing.[30]

* Solar energy would be realistic in most areas of the globe if developed were sufficiently cheap and power storage was adequately effective.[31] [20, 21, 22]

Disadvantages:

* Nanotechnology can cause a vicious risk in the ground of terrorism.

[Nanotechnology can be used as a new form of torturing the masses as it also has the potential to destruct the individual body at the molecular level.]

* In the term of privacy nanotechnology devices create more issues. Eavesdropping can be done easily.

· It makes small devices so, if there is a problem or defect in such device then it is difficult to find, raze or fix the device.

· Some kinds of carbon nanotubes can prove as harmful. Sometimes, they can cause physical problems to humans.

· It can be absorbed by macromolecules in an animal body. They can obstruct biological processes, thus intervening the execution of nature.

· The robots will perform jobs instead of people which will create a loss of jobs.

· The wastes released while making the materials for nanotechnology are released and can even effect on human and animal cells and performance

· High initial cost.

* The life duration of such devices is shorter than the expectation.- Jan 12,2010[29] [23, 24, 25, 26, 27]

v Main motivation of this deployment:

As is very well known, in any technology, no work is complete without the demonstration of the practical applications and the huge profit which can be provided. Thus, research development and engineering of various tools related to nanotechnology are vital in order that a steady commercial progress can take place alongside the present scientific research.

The study of the basic principles of Nanotechnology, its future implication and its benefits, made it enviable to put a case forward for extensive undergraduate and postgraduate programs in this field, as an necessary part in speeding up the acceptance of such technology among the general masses and, more importantly, to offer a nanotechnologist educated leaders for a range of industries and businesses. [32, 33]

3.1 THE IMPACT OF NANOTECHNOLOGY ON BUSINESS

The evolution of advanced technology has constantly provided innovation after innovation in the mapping of the Human Genome, supercomputers and the Internet. The rapid advancement of new invention has moved beyond our ability to accurately forecast with precision the impact on economics, business and society. If nanotechnology, at maturity achieves even a fraction of its pledge, it will oblige the reassessment of Economies, industries and global markets on a scale never experienced before.

The nature of nanotechnology will have applications for several industries: health care, manufacturing, and transportation to name a few. Recent developments in emerging technology and its impact on business and economics would indicate that forecasts are less than accurate in predicting the future. World is being reshaped daily by innovations. It many possible that what people called imagination today can be reality tomorrow. But with the inter-linkage of markets, industries and economies essential advanced technologies will have an extensive positive and negative impact. Nanotechnology will peep out as one of the key technologies that will shape economy of mankind. The impact of the nanotechnology on future business will be complex to ignore.

To enhanced social productivity nanotechnology will be crucial large system and strategic techniques that require coordination among different sectors of society. This technology is fast emerging. Nanotechnology may well shape the sustainability and wealth of nations, organizations, and entire industries in the future. New business models, design tools and manufacturing strategies may at price points much reduced and highly efficient. With the help of nanotechnology, more efficient & more sustainable device can be built. So, by creating bulk of such products we can decrease the production cost.

The main impact of nanotechnology cold is used in following industries: Car manufacturing, mobile phone manufacturing, food industries, aeronautical industry, agriculture industry etc.

We can work at micro level by combining small parts together and it would be more efficient. After producing such devices in high amount the total cost can be reduced. Nanotechnology is essential to increase wealth of nations, to developed large organizations and also for future of whole industry e.g. in olden days it was a dream for professional developers to create such machine which could perform bulk of calculations together in micro seconds but recent days due to large inventions in nanotechnology it is possible to perform such works. [34, 35, 36]

3.2 THE IMPACT OF NANOTECHNOLOGY ON SOCIETY

Technology and society are deeply attached with each other in the sense they are depend on each other whether the impact can be good or bad. The nanotechnology is said to play a major role in shaping the development of a new society. The term is also include nanotechnology's environmental and health implications, moreover the implication also include social and political effects of nanotechnology. The USW is using impact of new knowledge on society and industry; awareness is also being spread by the university.

Nanotechnology has wide range of effects on the society, and due to use of nano materials the toxicity can be seen in the people and the risk of infection of such materials will remain always on the current generation of human and future generation. The scientists believe that the social impacts of nanotechnology are not as simple as they are seen but it can create more crucial problems to the humans. Its not like that it always damage the human being but the most invention done by humans are dangerous for humans themselves after long period of time. The unique benefit of nanotechnology is helps reduce CO2 emission in the environment and decrease the pollution from the atmosphere, which is for the better future of the mankind.

The invention of nanotechnology plays a greater role of scientists and researchers. The next generation of sensors will be smaller, have increased sensitivity, require specific functions, and consume less power.

4. CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the robotics in surgery reduces human efforts and can perform surgeries with the fewer doctors and in less time. The recovery period of the surgery can also be reduced if robotics is used in the surgery. On the other hand nanotechnology is widely used in medical field these days. The small devices which hardly seen can be generated by this technology. The robots are used to perform the surgery. To compare with robotics, the nanotechnology has a wide range of devices that can be used in numbers of fields while in robotics in surgery has only few devices to perform surgeries. The nanotechnology is comparatively more expensive as tiny devices are created.

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