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In field of robotic Human robot Interaction is challenging research field as it has the intersection of psychology, cognitive science, social sciences and with modern levels of artificial intelligence, computer science, and robotics. Our main process in this paper is to investigate how fast and how clearly robots can interact with human needs, There is a widespread exposure in technological advancement in utilizing robots at various spheres. Human interactive robots are one of the best social and emotional support barriers for people who physically disable by age factor. In technical terms there are different kind of robot for varied kind of works and there are name depending upon there work and scientist who work on this. We have exoskeleton robots which enables a disable person to work on daily tasks. We can see that arm robots utilization more than leg .In this paper we will be discussing about various aspects of utilizing robotics in physiotherapy study .It gives out best methods in treatment of patient in health sphere. As we know physiotherapy application in human health care needs. It has gone through various technological advances and process in the making. Presently, in this chapter we discuss about various techniques and capabilities which we will go through for better treatment of individual suffering with disabilities. In this paper we can also discuss some aspects of robotics use in emotional or physical support for elderly person with disabilities. As robotic study is vast, we only go through aspect where robotics is making a mark of getting results where major issue in physiotherapy is addressed.
In this paper we try to address the issue of individual personal day to day activities and difficulties she faces when some of body part likes legs, hands or spinal cords or brain, jaws loose there withstanding capability, then we goes for treatment of the individual through Physiotherapy. Its an age old technique of addressing deformity in an individual using technique such as massage and exercise module to present level of complex portfolio of therapy. As we have seen deadly polio disease has been subsided, but at those time physiotherapy methods were used
after the polio epidemic subsided, physiotherapy treatments comprised mainly exercise, massage and traction. Presently orthopedics specialty within physiotherapy has emerged at the same time.
There has been widespread expansion of physiotherapy from the application of simple massage mechanism to hospitals and areas of specialist medical care. We can see person who does this take up this profession are called physiotherapist, who work in hospitals, clinics and nursing home and schools. We can clearly define this therapy called as physiotherapy as providing treatment to individuals, maintain resources and restore normalcy in movement or functions in life .we can say physiotherapy comes into place when there are circumstances where moving functions of individual body are threatened by aging, injury, disease and environmental factors. Physiotherapist follows a detailed procedure or help in identifying and maximizing quality of life and movement potential in spheres of promotion and treatment, habitation and rehabilitation. It uses individual history and physical examination which can arrive at in following the procedure
In the above paragraphs we have discussed about physiotherapy, we would now discuss about robotics which can help in performing various conditional needs for Physiotherapy. It's been known that robotics is an engineering and technology aspect of tools which works on behalf of man deformity. The word Robotics was coined by Isaac Asimov way back in 1941, Working part of a robotic mainly features mechanical motion which in other terms called as kinematic, as it functionality is similar to human skeletal .it has actuators which help in movement of robot for a fair degree of work .As there is further change in manipulative work on human skeletal and movement is restricted one, research are underway for this kind of Robots. In industrial application robotics are used as end effectors and has link which does all the work of movement. The main power source of this can be pneumatic, hydraulics, organic garbage and radioactive sources. Movement of body through a particular degree of freedom can be given as actuators which are like muscles of robot, which converts store energy into movement. We have different actuators functioning such as linear actuators, series elastic actuators, muscle wire, pies motor and elastic annotates. (anonymus, 2010)
Robotics also includes diverse machine design, control theory and microelectronics and computer programming, artificial intelligence and human factors. Recently there has been a widespread range of utilization of Robotics in field of Physiotherapy. There is a specific theory for this termed as anthropomorphism. It's a functional distinguishment of copying human physiological systems for independent issues. These issues are highly calibrated and cushioned for better process growth in future terms and offers.
The ability of new age robots are that they can guide elderly people without the assistance of the nurse .Informing a person moving into the room, alerting them and giving information of the appointment .Area in which robotic physiotherapy is being explored is recuperating an individual from stroke or neural failure, in this individual cannot lift his arm or leg due to blocking nerve functions and flowing of blood. In this we make up different robotic tools such as for example imam it is been used for full movement of arm and legs of the individual by taking instructions of the physiotherapist.
In traditional treatment of physiotherapy people are treated with physical problem with the assistance of human physiotherapist .These persons move or help patients in moving there body at different directions. The probability of success that an individual can regain movement solely depends upon the amount of physiotherapy practice and how his muscle responds to treatment. Using robotic physiotherapy the work of a human therapist is completed. It provides assistive force usually provided by a human physiotherapist. (anonymus, 2010)
2. Problem statement
In this paper we detail describe the methods to overcome disabilities of elderly people who can't work with day to day activities. The following are the issues faced by elderly persons are:
It helps elderly in taking robotics arm for eating of meals
It provide location and movement options
It gives them the time table for doctor visits
It gives assistance in walking through ground or floor.
3. Literature Review
As said by Baron-Cohen's (1997)'….Every nature of human beings can need to be social. It has been sensed there is severe consequences on people who lack genuine social understanding, which might inhibit them from being a full member of our society and culture...'
It has been mentioned as a fact by Breazeal,C(2002) '… the fact that we behave socially towards artifacts reveals a lot about ourselves, and often specific features that the artifact possesses can be used to trigger social responses…'.
To compare between an robot and human interactive set up has been given by Kortenkamp et.al,(1996)'…Robots share with many other physical devices, such as household appliances or cars, the fact that they 'inhabit' the same physical spaces as people do in which they manipulate some of the very same objects. As a result, many forms of human robot interaction involve pointers to spaces or objects that are meaningful to both robots and people…'
The main hypothesis is getting work done for the individual depending upon the individual needs. Helping the individual to overcome the possibility of not moving his body .In other words we can say making few attempts for successful operation of individual body part, which stops working due to some clinical reasons or external effects.
In keeping up with rehabilitation where person condition is improved from due physical disabilities to work out on there own day to day activities. Physical rehabilitation has helped in making out better movement in individual quality life. It helps them to regain there arm movement which can restricted due to injuries of accident .The robots which are used for this are called rehabilitation robots which work effectively on strokes. One of the major technical limitations robotic therapy is it cannot sense the response of patients to treatment. Robotic therapy has to undergo few changes as still there's a need for robots to respond to changes for patient's treatment. There have been changes such as of Electromyography (EMG) it's a biofeedback, which has further explored because we can utilize sensor where we can improve the objectivity, efficiency of rehabilitation task.
In other we need consider the safety aspect of the robotic arm use for patient treatment. So, there needs to be important technical issue in designing and building an intelligent robot, which can take decisions depending upon its requirement. In developing a robot for therapy purpose we need to look into options of what material is suitable and injury free for any patient when undergoing treatment in it. There is another bottleneck is it has no hand manipulator for the patient to check the reach of his work. He needs to work depending on the instruction of the physiotherapist. There can be different manipulators which can use for control on details of patient suffering n particular kind of disability. A lot depends on the speed, payload, size of workspace, range of motions and type of movements and man-machine interface. Present robotic therapy are industrial utilized one, they don't set to the standards of the individual theruaptic details. So, there needs to be a tailored one which can help us to make better progress in treatment and analysis. (M. Montemerlo, 2008)
These cost analysis of these tools can be ranged up to a minimum level .It should overcome all safety issues and enabled with best application methodology where patient can get relieved of pain by sitting on it, but not gaining any profit from it. The working of robotics depends mainly upon the pneumatic and hydraulic control. To derive to procedure of working, we have different working methodologies which help us in bringing better technique where we can follow degree of freedom in movement of arm. Here we consider an example of control mechanism through impedance control.
For administrator of a robot who works on physiotherapy study need to manipulate work into robot therapy system. Before every thing was manual and it was tough for the therapist to change the positions of the robotic system depending upon the requirements of the patient's ability to take up details. To check up the options we consider several strategies such as moderating force, positional control and impedance control. These are three main strategies needs to be followed in taking up with the design considerations .We can say of these hybrid force helps in controlling the force of application of robotic arm to the patient, whereas the position force helps in maintain the direction or degree of freedom by which we can concentrate the force in a particular direction. The other force we term it as parallel force mainly applies to controlling the force and position in an orthogonal direction, but it does not require predetermined knowledge of environmental constraints.
But the actual work on these forces mainly depends upon the force controller in context of physiotherapy which can be maintained by degree of freedom which lies in between the robotic therapy and human contact. The main aim in determining the control arrangement mainly depends upon the robotic manipulator end point behavior. Recently there are been usage of pneumatic system where all end positioning consideration are taken care. The major drawback for impedance control is due to change in the force application due to non proper function of motors due to friction when position and calibration are considered. Different researchers worked on making out strategy for overcoming this issue they made up a pneumatic sensor control with that of the impedance control for greater detail work force basis.
By following the above methodologies it was easy for taking pneumatic system, but force applications are underestimated which has friction and air compressibility which combine to degrade system performance. For this we take up impedance control methodology which helps in maintain a clear degree of freedom. (Gabor Fazekas, 2007)
6. Impedance Control:
In impedance control which was developed last decade, it enables robotic therapeutic system to move smoothly between phases of contact and non-contact which are in due motion. The main reason for taking this controlling mechanism is to fixate the relationship between manipulator end point and disturbance which are caused due to external factors such as misplacing of robotic equipment and application of force which are undefined when moving it through undefined degree of freedom.
When considering the methodology of impedance control we mainly discuss on the point of mass, spring and damper relationship between force and position. The transfer function of the connecting force and position are used for this position impedance control .it can be mentioned in s -domain
The equation can be mentioned as
Here in this equation we can say that xi represents the change in position due to external force (Fix)
M can be defined as the inertial component, C is the damping coefficient and K is the stiffness component.
When we arrange
When considering both the equations it can be known as impedance control .We diagrammatically represent it in the form given below.
Figure : equivalent representation of force and damping coefficient
These procedures are not robust for forces which depend on external factors. We can interchange and work on this control mechanism by taking up open or closed loop control mechanism in the process
We can also implement control mechanism for desired trajectory or positional control or by following this flow chart. In this x are the positional distance of coordinates denoted by p .the other angle or degree of freedom can be adjudged by θ having coordinates which has space demand of 1d,2d and 3d.
We can interpret three different controllers which implement desired joint space positions. The external forces can be resolved when the robot can get influence of this mechanism which is termed as torque joints t.
By following flow from above flow chart we can forward the chain of joint positions which can reveal robot end position in coordinate axis. External forces which affect this system are measured at the end point of the degree of freedom through a sensor. Hence usage of sensor give information what is the directional force and what are the different benefits we get through applications of impedance control mechanism.
Figure implementing impedance control in multiple dof (R. RICHARDSON 1, 2006)
We can analyze the stiffness and damping and further kinematic through response tracking mechanism. By checking the grip details we can able to know by increasing the stiffness in controller application will help in greater tracking of errors .the error are of position and velocity. But, mainly the effect played by the damping is dependant on the frequency of input force.
The main benefit of these Impedance control is to help in maintaining the trajectory and smooth positioning of robotic positional system .By applying maximum stiffness up to K= 400 ,we can able to enable the exercise. The other factor is damping coefficient are used to decrease the level of shaking which voluntary or involuntary. By going on following the procedure impedance value go on decreasing. (R. RICHARDSON 1, 2006)
7. Analysis and Future Upgrades:
By going through all the procedural aspects and details, we would consider benefit of doubt for the above robotic therapeutic system. As we discussed above these robotic are handled by physiotherapist who manipulate changes depending upon the patient severity case of applying movement to a particular body part. There will be change in the aspects and patient cannot sense any particular reaction to the movement provided by the robotic system. In order to overcome, researcher has tried for remote control methodology of maintaining movement and sensing of patients requirement and knowing the details what has been done till now.
We can say there should be visual mechanism where physiotherapist can know what has to done particular patient of certain leg or arm disability. Instead of physiotherapist manually taking up manipulated procedure where he has to position the robotic system on patient part for movement, it can be done by setting up steps to the robotic system through a set of control measure through software.
To justify we can take example of system which are been used as visualization method, where a patient can manipulate himself movement of arm or leg or particular part which has no sense. The mechanism knows, what work has to be done, how much force has to applied, degree of movement is to be considered. In below paragraph we would discuss some model which has been developed. (Dixit, 2004)
These robotic therapy is based on the visual canalization .It has take major in deciding the actual exercise or movement which has to be done by the patient for particular disability. It has sensor mechanism which can help patient accurately know, what the force is and position of movement of the arm to a particular degree of freedom. This visualization mechanism gives information about how Far is the target location. This visual system uses graphic mechanism, which gives us a clear and neat picture of what has to done and what ought to be done further.Here we take up an example model such as Gentles, this model project main aim is in developing machine therapies for nerve related and stroke related treatment cases. The set up involves attaching patient arm to Gentle application robot which has screen in front and with joystick enabled mover or manipulators.
This software provides visualization mechanism with targeted tasks having a degree of freedom which shows up in 3D mode. This visualization uses three level of degree of movement for various level of recovery. They can be briefed as patient passive mode, it is used by patients in initial phases of stroke and provide awareness of physical movement ,it feedback teaches correct movement .The other on is the Active assisted mode which helps patient complete determined movement, and helps in portraying 3D environment where patient see movement on the table in front of them. The third mode is the Active mode which provides correction of movement and provides feedback which imbibes motivation in doing better. (Gabor Fazekas, 2007)
Figure : visual system of robotic therapy
The main drawback for this application patient arm is replaced by 3D figure, which confuses the patient how movement has he really made. As per careful analysis the visual base technique is tough to identify as the screen has identical image and distract the patient what actually movement has been done. (Hellier, 2008)
Further there can be considerations in taking up these strategies for improvement in these strategies .The main changes can be visual aspect and sensing of body movement and muscle position and kind of force which need to exert can be given as input.
By above discussion we can conclude that robotic therapeutic system is robust one, we can see further change and up gradation which can make out better changes to the patients recovery. It also gives report or feedback to the physiotherapist calculation of actual problem which patient is suffering from and what kind of body muscle needs to be worked out. There can be further research where a mobile physiotherapist of robotic is enabled with patient body and it automatically senses the movement of arm and make necessary changes instantaneously.
9. Scope of the Study:
In this paper we have seen all the faces and possibilities where a physic therapy has gone functional changes in all aspects of treatment of an individual facing disability. Here we discuss an overview of robotics and physiotherapy and it application in those days. There is unprecedented change scenario for robotics in physiotherapy for treatment of patients. There ids further scope in this area as there maybe few advancement in technological tools. It may include walking or moving with help of them by individuals having paralysis with robotic arm by itself, it done by it self programming depending on the sensation of muscle it gets through body sensors. Further research can be that robotic therapy can judge what kind of treatment should be followed by it to an individual using artificial intelligence.