Requirements Specification And System Modelling Computer Science Essay

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System Description: Case Study 1, Payment Gateway System, will be used in which the online payment gateway system will be worked on. A payroll method which accepted payments from a web interface or a 3rd party software was implemented, but in time the system started to have problems concerning slow speeds & transactions never carried out. A 6 month period was given to develop a new system which fixes these issues which clerks and users where encountering.

Problem Statement: The International Central Bank requires a provisionary system which will be created to reduce the clerk's work load, with better performance because a lot of clerks and users complained due to its slow speed and problems.

What the organisation is targeting with the new system:

Existing or any new customers of ICB can accept payment into ther accounts dirrectly with fast speeds and no to minimum wait-times

Reduce the clerk's work load greatly, which would lead to more work done

Make sure that all transactions will not be missed.

Good secuirty which keeps data private, and prevent any holes in the system so secuired data will not be accessed by hackers and packet sniffers.

Impact Analysis:

Positive Effects

Faster online access

Reduction in clerk's workload, leading to less complaints from the clerks

More satisfied clients, which leads to more profit

Negative Effects

Always a chance of private data being stolen since it is hosting online

Expensive for company, since the company is mostly 'fixing' what the original payroll system should have included

Related Systems: Systems like PayPal and Visa use a similar concept about online banking:

>> PayPal is an e-commerce business allowing payments and money transfers to be made through the Internet. Online money transfers serve as electronic alternatives to traditional paper methods such as checks and money orders.

PayPal offers:

Safe and easy way to pay online

Pay without showing any personal data such as credit card no.

Fast online shopping

>>Alert Pay is an online payment system, like PayPal, which can allow you to buy online with ease and security.

Sender Makes a Payment

Payment is processed

Receiver gets paid

Like PayPal, Alert Pay offers most of the same features such as data protection, fast online payment and secure data to prevent fraud.

Section 2 : Analysis

Subsection A: Task 1- Part i

Observation investigation technique is a method used to observe human behaviour in personal, professional lives, understanding and even to come up with predictions. Very useful if the person being observed is someone hiding something or not telling the truth. It needs to be noted that aware of and, if possible, eliminate bias, it need to be systematic and open about our procedures so as to open them up for public scrutiny so that others may check the bases on which we reach conclusions.

Advantages:

Gain information which cannot be obtained by communication. Some people lie, certain body language can show that they are lying.

Body language can show mood and feelings. Looking at Someone who is staring and looks bored obviously shows that he/she is not enjoying his/her self.

Disadvantages

Predictions may be incorrect - the observation investigation technique is mostly assuming something, which might not be 100% correct, or may be completely wrong.

Time Consuming - Looking at someone and trying to guess would take more time then to just ask him what you wish to know.

Paranoid - The person which is being observed may notice the observer's presence and can act different and feel uncomfortable, and so act differently.

Part ii

Observation investigation technique is used to see both the co-workers opinion on how this will be implemented and the user feedback to see if the users are going well with the new system.

If you see more cheerful co-works would show that the system has been implemented well.

Task 2 - Part i

The questionnaire which was suggested by the co-work is not as accurate because:

The question needs to be more specific, since 'often' and 'Occasionally' are not specifying how much (weekly, daily etc...)

The question itself is specifying that the system is 'inadequate' which implies that it does not work as it should, and is also not specifying to who, since only the clerks had complained about the workload.

The Question should be:

"Is the current system adequate for performing your duties at the ICB?

Yes

No

If no, how often?

Yearly

Monthly

Weekly

Daily"

Part ii

The questionnaire is a must as it helps to get to know who you are working with better, and see if the current system has any problems and what can it improve in.

Accountant

Clerk

Network Technician

Database Admin

'How were their transections which were never carried out?'

'Any idea from where this problem occurred?'

'Might be a bug in the system?'

(It was stated that some transections were never carried out, someone may know the cause of this problem to prevent it from happening in the new system)

Sub Section B: Task 1

The main goal of the system is to have an online system so that users can be able to have online features, with minimum to no waiting times for the customers to access online.

The SCOPE is to create a provisionary system which can handle transection fast without any pending and always have transections carried out. Since a lot of major bank companies already have a very online internet feature, by time customers might change bank account and less new customers might join, which would mean less profit for the company. Money may be a constraint as it is already expensive to develop a system like this, and so the development must be made on a limited budget. The transection department will be the system boundary.

The Main Objectives:

Accept payments from a web interface or third party software.

Having a stable and secure system since it is online, it is a must to have a protected system

Fast system so it can be able to process a lot of transactions

Permissions:

Permission from the board of directors and the external international bank must be notified on a change like this

A permission must be notified to the company that is hosting the server which is giving access to the internet (ISP)

Overall System:

An online payment gateway system will be worked on. A payroll method which accepted payments from a web interface or a 3rd party software was implemented, having a decent speed while giving importance to security and stability, which are important to companys which handle money related processes,

Limitation:

Law may be also involved in such project as some tasks may be illegal or legal depending on the country

Money is somewhat a limitation, since a limed it budget is given to projects like this and not a lot of money should be used, more than the budget specified.

Task 2

Senior Database Administrator

Create Database

Fix any database problems

Makes sure that the database is running as it should

Responsible for any bugs which would lead to inconsistent data or loss of data

Requires full access to the database

Network Technician

Setup network hardware and wiring

Fix any network hardware related issues

Makes sure that the network is working to all required computers, to the server and online if required

Responsible for any faulty network hardware or wiring

Requires full access to the network

Network Admins

Setup permissions and restrictions to users and anyone who will be accessing the server

Fixes and holes or bugs found on the network

Resets passwords and other settings if the user has forgotten the password

Responsible if hackers access the database without permission

Requires full access to the network

Section 3: Non-Functional Requirements

Subsection A

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

1

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

Server Speed

Requirement Type

Performance

Description

The speed and stability of the server overall. The better the performance the fast it will be to access and process the online features. Since it is something constantly being accessed and multiple users at once accessing the online banking system,

Requirement Details and Constraints

A very strong server is required; It is what will cost most in the system's implementation.

Criticality

Must

Why it is required

It is important since it can make a lot of users frustrated with long loading times and connection timeouts.

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

2

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

Stability

Requirement Type

Reliability

Description

The system has to stable as possible so it won't crash or freeze since users need it often. This will reduce the time and money wasted on technicians trying to solve the problem while the users are frustrated as they are unable to access.

Requirement Details and Constraints

A very stable system, which needs to be almost perfect and always available

Criticality

Must

Why it is required

It is important since it can make a lot of users frustrated with the site not being able to be accessed and server crashes.

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

3

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

User Interface

Requirement Type

Robustness

Description

The Site and the 3rd party software's user interface must be designed well for easy navigation. Extra features may also be added to improve the time it takes to find what you require.

Requirement Details and Constraints

Well Designed User Interface for the 3rd party and online features.

Criticality

Must

Why it is required

Bad design can lead to users frustrated and time wasted on trying to find what they need to access.

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

4

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

Login History

Requirement Type

Security

Description

Non-functional security can always be helpful to help protect data, such as a login history for each user account to see a list of the login history.

Requirement Details and Constraints

Requires extra coding in the 3rd party software/ online website.

Criticality

Should

Why it is required

Each user will be able to see a list in which at what time was there a login in-order to see any unexpected activity.

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

5

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

Virus Scanner

Requirement Type

System Related - Security

Description

A virus scanner will be implemented in the system, as it is not a rare occasion to find someone trying to ruin the system.

Requirement Details and Constraints

Requires good virus scanning software, which will not slow down the system.

Criticality

Must

Why it is required

Prevent crashes and other unwanted activity.

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

6

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

Backup

Requirement Type

System Related - Security

Description

A backup will be made of transection and logs since the system must be reliable and data must not be required.

Requirement Details and Constraints

Requires a backup server and software, which will not affect performance speed.

Criticality

Must

Why it is required

A backup will prevent loss of data just in case data is deleted.

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

7

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

Development Cost

Requirement Type

Process Related

Description

The money it takes to complete the system must be estimated before and an average budget must be evaluated to have an idea on costs.

Requirement Details and Constraints

Requires a budget to work on, in which not more than the budget must be used.

Criticality

Must

Why it is required

Gives the organisation estimation and an idea on the project's cost.

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

8

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

Development Time

Requirement Type

Process Related

Description

The time it takes to complete the system must be estimated before and an average timeline must be evaluated to have an idea on duration since it must be complete in 6 months.

Requirement Details and Constraints

Requires a time-line to work on, in which not more than 6 months must it take to be complete.

Criticality

Must

Why it is required

Gives the organisation estimation and an idea on the project's duration.

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

9

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

Permission

Requirement Type

External Related

Description

Permission from the external international bank must be notified on big changes like this.

Requirement Details and Constraints

Requires the go-ahead of the external requirements, else the project cannot be executed unless it satisfy the external's requirements.

Criticality

Must

Why it is required

Doing changes without any permissions can lead to the project being shut down if the board of directors does not wish to implement the system

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

10

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

Law

Requirement Type

External Related

Description

The Law may be also involved in such project as some tasks may be illegal or legal depending on the country.

Requirement Details and Constraints

Requires the go-ahead of the external requirements, else the project cannot be executed unless it satisfy the law.

Criticality

Must

Why it is required

Doing changes without any permissions without rights can lead to the project being shutdown and other legal actions.

Subsection B

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

11

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

Key User 1 - Clerk

Requirement Type

Personal Related

Description

Obtain paperwork

Processes Transections

Report any bugs and makes sure that the new system fixes any of the previous mentioned bugs

Requirement Details and Constraints

Knowledge/certification in transection handling.

Good amount of experience.

Criticality

Must

Why it is required

The clerk will be working on the system transections.

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

12

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

Key User 2 - User

Requirement Type

Personal Related

Description

Accept payment from web interface/3rd party software

Login to system

Authorise and authenticate payments

Requirement Details and Constraints

Good knowledge in using the web interface/3rd party software.

Good knowledge in payment related issues.

Criticality

Must

Why it is required

The users will be using the database as it was created intentionally for the bank users.

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

13

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

Role 1 - Network Technician

Requirement Type

Personal Related

Description

Setup new network hardware (which is faster than the previous one which had complaints about being slow), wiring, and fixes any network (hardware) related issues.

Requirement Details and Constraints

Great knowledge/certification in network design.

Great amount of experience.

Criticality

Must

Why it is required

The network technician will keep the server and any wiring on the network working and fixes any problems encountered by users which are hardware related.

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

14

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

Role 2 - Project Manager

Requirement Type

Personal Related

Description

Assist the other workers in the system's development. Also sees that the project is being implemented as it should.

Requirement Details and Constraints

Great knowledge/certification in project manager.

Past experience dealing with a grand scale project such as this system.

Criticality

Must

Why it is required

Keeps the project well organized and sees its progression.

Section 4: Functional Requirements

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

15

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

Transections

Requirement Type

Functional Requirements

Description

The Transection processed is a must for the company, as without it there with there will be no meaning for the new system.

Requirement Details and Constraints

Programmer with great knowledge/certification in coding

Server

Money might be a Constraints

Criticality

Must

Why it is required

The SCOPE is to create a provisionary system which can handle transection fast without any pending and always have transections carried out.

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

16

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

Invoice

Requirement Type

Functional Requirements

Description

An invoice will be given to the client once the transaction has been processed.

Requirement Details and Constraints

Automatic Software

Money might be a Constraints

Criticality

Must

Why it is required

To give the user a transaction to see if their payment was successful

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

17

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

Stability and Security

Requirement Type

Functional Requirements

Description

Even though the system can work without it, it was required that:

'99.999%' availability is needed

Payments must contain private data, as money is involved

Must be secure

No Corrupted data

Requirement Details and Constraints

Programmer with great knowledge/certification in coding

Virus Scanner

Money might be a Constraints

Criticality

Must

Why it is required

Money is involved, and the new provisionary system is being created because the old one was unstable

Requirements

Details

Requirement Reference

18

Revision Date and Review No.

4/1/2011

Title

Login System (Registration)

Requirement Type

Functional Requirements

Description

A login system for the users to be allowed to use the online payment gateway system.

Requirement Details and Constraints

Programmer with great knowledge/certification in coding

Money might be a Constraints

Data Server to store users

Criticality

Must

Why it is required

Access the online payment features.

Section 5: Compare Different Life Cycle Models

Spiral Model (Chosen for System)

The spiral model is a software development process combining elements of both design and prototyping-in-stages, in an effort to combine advantages of top-down and bottom-up concepts.

A preliminary design is created for the new system

The system requirements are defined in as much detail as possible

A prototype of the new system is constructed from the preliminary design

Another prototype is created which improves on the 1st prototype and so on

Advantages:-

Early identification of problems

Is well understood by building it multiple times

Disadvantages:-

Time Consuming

Must be custom-made and applied in a different manner for each project

Why Chosen for system:

The system is something that takes very long to complete (within 6 months) in which creating multiple prototypes will help in identification of problems, because choosing a model like waterfall will not show problems created later on, which would be very time consuming on grand scale projects like this system. Understanding a system is something that is required to help on improve on what is already there, since the system being made is provisionary and having the same qualities as the previous system but with better performance, it needs to be improved and well developed then the previous system. So creating multiple prototypes will help in understanding what when wrong in the 1st system.

Waterfall Model

The waterfall model is a sequential design process, often used in software development processes, in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall).

6 stages including: Planning & selection, Analysis, Design, Implementation, Testing and Maintenance

Highly structured physical environments

Creates documentation in every stage

Most commonly used life cycle model

Advantages:-

Enforces disciplined, planned and manageable approach

Documentation makes development process traceable

Disadvantages:-

Problem in a stage will be identified in a later stage

Risk Management not addressed

V-Model

The V-model is a software development process which may be considered an extension of the waterfall model. Instead of moving down in a linear way, the process steps are bent upwards after the coding phase, to form the typical V shape. 

Validation phase

Similar to the Waterfall Model

Requires reviews at each stage

Emphasis the strict process flow to develop a quality product

Advantages:-

Fast progression

Easy to understand project at beginning

Disadvantages:-

Very rigid and the least flexible

If any changes happen midway, not only the requirements documents but also the test documentation needs to be updated

Rapid Application Development

Rapid Application Development uses minimal planning in favour of rapid prototyping.

The planning of software developed using Rapid Application Development is interleaved with writing the software itself

The lack of extensive pre-planning generally allows software to be written much faster, and makes it easier to change requirements

Involves techniques like repeated development and software prototyping

Structured techniques and prototyping are especially used to define users' requirements and to design the final system

Advantages:-

Very fast development

facilitates application maintenance

Disadvantages:-

Less Functionality

Reduced performance

Functional Driven Development

Functional driven development blends a number of industry-recognized best practices into a cohesive whole.

Practices are all driven from a client-valued functionality perspective

Model-driven, short-iteration process that consists of five basic activities

Able to set estimates and schedules and to report on the status of a project as a whole

Built around a core set of industry-recognized practices

Advantages:-

Deliver tangible, working software repeatedly in a timely manner

Well Organized

Disadvantages:-

Managed Manually

Sufficient code documentation simplifies understanding somebody else's coding

Section 6: Modelling Documentation

Sub Section A

Conceptual Level Data Flow Diagram

C:\Users\Kyle\Desktop\Drawing2.jpg

Level-0 Data Flow Diagram

C:\Users\Kyle\Desktop\Drawing1.jpg

Subsection B

Data Store

Data Store Description

ID: D1

Name: Transection Database

Description: This is where all the transactions will be stored for current and future reference.

Physical Implementation Information: Data will be stored using MySQL, so that it will be more secure and faster access.

Contents: Stores all the Transactions

InFlows:

Database Admin

Add Transections

Data Flows

Data Flow Description

ID: DF1

Name: Login to Access Account

Description: This data flow is the connection between the clients and there online site/3rd party software which they are using to process the transactions.

Source: Client

Data Structure:

Further Comments:

Data Flow Description

ID: DF2

Name: Add Client

Description: Adds any new clients to the database.

Source: Registration System

Data Structure:

Further Comments:

Data Flow Description

ID: DF3

Name: Get User Data

Description: Obtain Registered accounts form the database to login.

Source: User Database

Data Structure:

Further Comments:

Data Flow Description

ID: DF4

Name: Access Transection

Description: The logged in users will be able to accept payments and other features related to the transaction.

Source: Registration System

Data Structure:

Further Comments:

Process:

Process Description

Name: Registration System

Description: The clients will register their accounts, and login to be able to access their transactions.

Physical Implementation Information: Data will be accessed using the online site programmed with PHP and a 3rd party software.

InFlows:

Login to access account

Get User Data

Process Description

Name: Transection

Description: Processes Transactions, which are stored in the database, and accessed again when needed.

Physical Implementation Information: Software will be created to manage transection automatically

InFlows:

Verification

Get User Data

External Entity

Client

External Entity Description

Name: Client

Description: The users who will be using the system

Interface Constraints / Other Info: Can accesses database but can only see his/her transactions

Inputs:

Viewed Data

Obtain Invoice

Subsection C

Entity

USER

Description

Stores information about the users

Unique Identifiers

ID Card

Mandatory Attributes

Name, Surname, Town ID, Contact No, Date of Birth

Entity

USER ACCOUNT

Description

Stores details about login information

Unique Identifiers

Username

Mandatory Attributes

Password

Entity

TOWN

Description

Stores information about the Towns

Unique Identifiers

Town ID

Mandatory Attributes

Town

Entity

TRANSACTION

Description

Stores information about the transactions

Unique Identifiers

Transaction ID

Mandatory Attributes

User ID, Date, Time, Amount, Type, Managed By

Subsection D

Relationship

USER - USER ACCOUNT

Perspectives

One-to-One Relationship

One USER must own one USER ACCOUNT

One USER ACCOUNT must be owned by one USER

Relationship

USER - TRANSACTION

Perspectives

One-to-Many Relationship

One USER may own one or more TRANSACTIONs

One TRANSACTION must be owned by one USER

Relationship

USER - TOWN

Perspectives

One-to-Many Relationship

One USER must live in one TOWN

One TOWN may have one or more USERs

Subsection F

Use Case Model

C:\Users\Kyle\Desktop\Drawing3.jpg

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